Therapists in Mount Washington, MD

Photo of Gabrielle Kilgore, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mount Washington, MD
Gabrielle Kilgore
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
4 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
I believe that while no life is without some measure of pain or struggle; therapy can be a transformative, healing process which opens the door to a more fulfilling relationship with yourself and others. I provide individual and couples' counseling to young adults and adults. I am Level III certified in Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and have training in other models of trauma therapy. I believe in both somatic and non-somatice resources for healing however I encourage clients to explore how their symptoms manifest through their physical body and relationships with others.
I believe that while no life is without some measure of pain or struggle; therapy can be a transformative, healing process which opens the door to a more fulfilling relationship with yourself and others. I provide individual and couples' counseling to young adults and adults. I am Level III certified in Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and have training in other models of trauma therapy. I believe in both somatic and non-somatice resources for healing however I encourage clients to explore how their symptoms manifest through their physical body and relationships with others.
(410) 885-6482 View (410) 885-6482
Photo of Ari Blum, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mount Washington, MD
Ari Blum
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Does your child struggle with worry or sadness, has trouble concentrating and is frequently frustrated, has difficulty regulating mood and is often irritable or has tantrums, has disruptive behaviors at home and school? You are not alone. Many children struggle with anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior. There is hope. With help, your child can learn skills and strategies to overcome these concerns. As a parent, you can learn techniques and interventions to support your child to be their best.
Does your child struggle with worry or sadness, has trouble concentrating and is frequently frustrated, has difficulty regulating mood and is often irritable or has tantrums, has disruptive behaviors at home and school? You are not alone. Many children struggle with anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior. There is hope. With help, your child can learn skills and strategies to overcome these concerns. As a parent, you can learn techniques and interventions to support your child to be their best.
(443) 666-3318 View (443) 666-3318
Photo of Nancy H Michaelson, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Mount Washington, MD
Nancy H Michaelson
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, CPC
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209
As a Recovery Coach, Life Coach, and Recovery Specialist who has been in practice for many years, I am uniquely experienced working with individuals and families who have been affected by a variety of addictions. My goal is to provide a safe and compassionate environment in which individuals and their families can grow in recovery and move toward happy, joyous and free living.
As a Recovery Coach, Life Coach, and Recovery Specialist who has been in practice for many years, I am uniquely experienced working with individuals and families who have been affected by a variety of addictions. My goal is to provide a safe and compassionate environment in which individuals and their families can grow in recovery and move toward happy, joyous and free living.
(410) 489-1421 View (410) 489-1421
Photo of Janet Moos, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mount Washington, MD
Janet Moos
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
4 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Not accepting new clients
Being able to provide good therapy requires that the therapist has a strong knowledge base and a good set of skills. My education and training and 30 years of experience in the field are central to my ability to help you. I have degrees from Harvard University and University of Michigan. I also have experience with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and training in family and couples therapy through the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic. In addition, I completed a Fellowship at the Baltimore-Washington Psychoanalytic Institute.
Being able to provide good therapy requires that the therapist has a strong knowledge base and a good set of skills. My education and training and 30 years of experience in the field are central to my ability to help you. I have degrees from Harvard University and University of Michigan. I also have experience with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and training in family and couples therapy through the Philadelphia Child Guidance Clinic. In addition, I completed a Fellowship at the Baltimore-Washington Psychoanalytic Institute.
(410) 433-3129 View (410) 433-3129
Photo of Cara Jacobson, Psychologist in Mount Washington, MD
Cara Jacobson
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
4 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Therapy can be both a scary yet extremely rewarding process. Selecting the right therapist for you can prove to be a challenge. I will do my best to assist you in creating a warm, safe, and empowering environment to explore deeper issues and to create positive changes in your life.
Therapy can be both a scary yet extremely rewarding process. Selecting the right therapist for you can prove to be a challenge. I will do my best to assist you in creating a warm, safe, and empowering environment to explore deeper issues and to create positive changes in your life.
(443) 898-9808 View (443) 898-9808
Photo of Cheryl Caplan-Zalis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mount Washington, MD
Cheryl Caplan-Zalis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, LCADC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
I am a licensed, clinical social worker with an abundance of experience in working with various challenges one may face across a lifespan but a particular interest in working with adolescents and women. When working with teens, whether for addictions, adjustment problems or to ease transitioning from high school or college, family dynamics are considered and provide a valuable platform for successful intervention. Cognitive/behavioral or psychodynamic approaches are used to provide a successful outcome.
I am a licensed, clinical social worker with an abundance of experience in working with various challenges one may face across a lifespan but a particular interest in working with adolescents and women. When working with teens, whether for addictions, adjustment problems or to ease transitioning from high school or college, family dynamics are considered and provide a valuable platform for successful intervention. Cognitive/behavioral or psychodynamic approaches are used to provide a successful outcome.
(410) 635-1501 View (410) 635-1501
Photo of Merrilee Peske, Marriage & Family Therapist in Mount Washington, MD
Merrilee Peske
Marriage & Family Therapist, LCMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Not accepting new clients
I believe in meeting people where they are and joining with them to create growth and change. I enjoy supporting others as they navigate life cycle transitions and work towards healthy, satisfying relationships. I am experienced in addressing issues of anger and aggression, anxiety, communication, co-parenting, defiance, depression, grief and loss, marital and family conflict, parenting skills, self esteem, and stress.
I believe in meeting people where they are and joining with them to create growth and change. I enjoy supporting others as they navigate life cycle transitions and work towards healthy, satisfying relationships. I am experienced in addressing issues of anger and aggression, anxiety, communication, co-parenting, defiance, depression, grief and loss, marital and family conflict, parenting skills, self esteem, and stress.
(410) 834-8332 View (410) 834-8332
Debbi g Jacobs
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209
I received my Master's in Social Work, from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in 1999. I then trained at Jewish Family Services where I practiced for 11 years, seeing children, adults and families. In 2009, I began work at the Center for Eating Disorders at Sheppard Pratt where I received extensive training in the Maudsley Method/ Family Based Therapy Approach to treating Anorexia in adolescent patients and working with their families. Additionally, I have training in Sand Tray Therapy, a nonverbal modality that is helpful with the treatment of trauma as well as other concerns.
I received my Master's in Social Work, from the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in 1999. I then trained at Jewish Family Services where I practiced for 11 years, seeing children, adults and families. In 2009, I began work at the Center for Eating Disorders at Sheppard Pratt where I received extensive training in the Maudsley Method/ Family Based Therapy Approach to treating Anorexia in adolescent patients and working with their families. Additionally, I have training in Sand Tray Therapy, a nonverbal modality that is helpful with the treatment of trauma as well as other concerns.
(410) 807-3844 View (410) 807-3844
Photo of Angel V Shannon in Mount Washington, MD
Angel V Shannon
MS, CRNP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Have you been told ‘you’re fine’ even though you don’t actually feel fine? I get it. That’s because medications often mask symptoms and don't cure the root of the problem. I am a board certified nurse practitioner offering functional lab tests to help you change your life, not just your symptoms. Lab testing helps you uncover hidden nutrient deficiencies, hormone imbalances, gut dysfunction and other possible factors that may be causing anxiety, depression, brain fog, and difficulty focusing. With a medically supervised plan and professional grade supplements you'll be on the road to really feeling fine. Compounding also available.
Have you been told ‘you’re fine’ even though you don’t actually feel fine? I get it. That’s because medications often mask symptoms and don't cure the root of the problem. I am a board certified nurse practitioner offering functional lab tests to help you change your life, not just your symptoms. Lab testing helps you uncover hidden nutrient deficiencies, hormone imbalances, gut dysfunction and other possible factors that may be causing anxiety, depression, brain fog, and difficulty focusing. With a medically supervised plan and professional grade supplements you'll be on the road to really feeling fine. Compounding also available.
(410) 834-8346 View (410) 834-8346
Photo of Miriam F. Godfrey, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mount Washington, MD
Miriam F. Godfrey
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, MSW, PhD
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Therapy can be a powerful tool to help people who have been struggling with anxiety, depression, and dissatisfaction. These struggles may have been recent, or they may reflect traumatic experiences or parts of our lives that have been problematic for many years. I work with adults of all ages--individuals and couples--to help them understand what has brought them to this point in their lives.
Therapy can be a powerful tool to help people who have been struggling with anxiety, depression, and dissatisfaction. These struggles may have been recent, or they may reflect traumatic experiences or parts of our lives that have been problematic for many years. I work with adults of all ages--individuals and couples--to help them understand what has brought them to this point in their lives.
(301) 684-5204 View (301) 684-5204
Photo of Barry A Bass, Psychologist in Mount Washington, MD
Barry A Bass
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Although the desire for romantic intimacy is perfectly natural, long term intimate relationships are rarely naturally perfect. For over 30 years I have dedicated my professional life to helping individuals and couples fine tune their not-always naturally perfect relationships. Although I am a clinical psychologist who continues to treat individuals suffering from the full spectrum of psychological disorders, most of my career has been devoted to working with individuals and couples experiencing marital, relationship, and/or sexual concerns; to assisting couples seeking relief from the trauma of infidelity; and to treating individuals suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder or anger control issues.
Although the desire for romantic intimacy is perfectly natural, long term intimate relationships are rarely naturally perfect. For over 30 years I have dedicated my professional life to helping individuals and couples fine tune their not-always naturally perfect relationships. Although I am a clinical psychologist who continues to treat individuals suffering from the full spectrum of psychological disorders, most of my career has been devoted to working with individuals and couples experiencing marital, relationship, and/or sexual concerns; to assisting couples seeking relief from the trauma of infidelity; and to treating individuals suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder or anger control issues.
(410) 305-9329 View (410) 305-9329
Photo of Jessica Diez, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Mount Washington, MD
Jessica Diez
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified
3 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209  (Online Only)
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, or lost in your life? Have you had a difficult life change that is keeping you from moving forward? Do you have hopes and dreams that you struggle to fulfill? These types of struggles can have a serious impact on your quality of life and your ability to cope. It is possible to change your life and to become the best version of you. This is my ultimate goal with my clients. I work with individuals specializing in anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and adjustment issues.
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, or lost in your life? Have you had a difficult life change that is keeping you from moving forward? Do you have hopes and dreams that you struggle to fulfill? These types of struggles can have a serious impact on your quality of life and your ability to cope. It is possible to change your life and to become the best version of you. This is my ultimate goal with my clients. I work with individuals specializing in anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and adjustment issues.
(410) 927-8857 View (410) 927-8857
Photo of Sarah Diehl, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Mount Washington, MD
Sarah Diehl
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MDiv, MS, LCPC
Verified
5 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
What matters most in our relationships to ourselves and others often lies beneath the surface. I am the most interested in considering what is held deeply within the mind, sometimes beyond awareness, maybe vaguely, at its corners, or perhaps in repeating dynamics and patterns. I love being a psychotherapist not because it’s easy, but because it’s a practice that opens my mind and heart and sense of being. I’m a thoughtful, imaginative, creative person who’s interested in the dynamics of our interior lives. People I have had the privilege to come to know intimately help me understand their experience of being human - and my own.
What matters most in our relationships to ourselves and others often lies beneath the surface. I am the most interested in considering what is held deeply within the mind, sometimes beyond awareness, maybe vaguely, at its corners, or perhaps in repeating dynamics and patterns. I love being a psychotherapist not because it’s easy, but because it’s a practice that opens my mind and heart and sense of being. I’m a thoughtful, imaginative, creative person who’s interested in the dynamics of our interior lives. People I have had the privilege to come to know intimately help me understand their experience of being human - and my own.
(410) 639-3474 View (410) 639-3474
Photo of Mona Rubenfeld, Counselor in Mount Washington, MD
Mona Rubenfeld
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Have you been living with depression and anxiety, and/or a chronic medical condition, and struggle finding relief in dealing with the symptoms? Have you tried other treatment approaches and nothing seems to help? I specialize in treating chronic, treatment resistant depression, anxiety, and chronic medical illness. For the first few sessions, we will discuss your history and the impact it has on your day to day life. We will then discuss various approaches to help you feel better, and together, we will develop a treatment plan to help you reach realistic goals.
Have you been living with depression and anxiety, and/or a chronic medical condition, and struggle finding relief in dealing with the symptoms? Have you tried other treatment approaches and nothing seems to help? I specialize in treating chronic, treatment resistant depression, anxiety, and chronic medical illness. For the first few sessions, we will discuss your history and the impact it has on your day to day life. We will then discuss various approaches to help you feel better, and together, we will develop a treatment plan to help you reach realistic goals.
(410) 960-3954 View (410) 960-3954
Photo of Dani Rooney, Psychologist in Mount Washington, MD
Dani Rooney
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Making the decision to enter therapy can be difficult. Finding a therapist who is a "good fit" can also be challenging. As a therapist, I strive to offer a nonjudgmental space that supports your growth. If you are struggling with depression, stressful life circumstances, a history of trauma, difficulty in interpersonal relationships, or finding yourself needing to make changes in your lifestyle, I may be able to assist you in creating change. Clients who are looking for an empathetic, yet challenging, space to explore their emotions, thoughts, values, and behaviors may benefit from my services.
Making the decision to enter therapy can be difficult. Finding a therapist who is a "good fit" can also be challenging. As a therapist, I strive to offer a nonjudgmental space that supports your growth. If you are struggling with depression, stressful life circumstances, a history of trauma, difficulty in interpersonal relationships, or finding yourself needing to make changes in your lifestyle, I may be able to assist you in creating change. Clients who are looking for an empathetic, yet challenging, space to explore their emotions, thoughts, values, and behaviors may benefit from my services.
(410) 324-7073 View (410) 324-7073
Photo of Isaac M Friedman, Psychologist in Mount Washington, MD
Isaac M Friedman
Psychologist, MA, PsyD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
The single most important factor in helping children and adolescents heal after experiencing potentially traumatic events is having a supportive and responsive caregiver. This crucial piece of information applies to children and families who have experiences potentially traumatic events, or are struggling with depression, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, or behavioral/relational difficulties. As a licensed psychologist, I have had the opportunity to work with children, adolescents, and their families who have experienced a wide range of traumatic events.
The single most important factor in helping children and adolescents heal after experiencing potentially traumatic events is having a supportive and responsive caregiver. This crucial piece of information applies to children and families who have experiences potentially traumatic events, or are struggling with depression, anxiety, emotional dysregulation, or behavioral/relational difficulties. As a licensed psychologist, I have had the opportunity to work with children, adolescents, and their families who have experienced a wide range of traumatic events.
(410) 983-3366 View (410) 983-3366
Photo of Chana Bruckenstein, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Mount Washington, MD
Chana Bruckenstein
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MS, LCPC
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209  (Online Only)
You have been feeling down and overwhelmed, maybe even stuck. You may feel like you have tried everything or this may be your first attempt to reach out. We all go through times in our lives when therapy can help us to cope with the difficulties that arise. You are not alone.
You have been feeling down and overwhelmed, maybe even stuck. You may feel like you have tried everything or this may be your first attempt to reach out. We all go through times in our lives when therapy can help us to cope with the difficulties that arise. You are not alone.
(443) 464-2694 View (443) 464-2694
Photo of James E Finkelstein, Psychologist in Mount Washington, MD
James E Finkelstein
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Mount Washington, MD 21209
If you're here, part of you knows it's time for a change. What if I told you that there is a way to stop struggling with the parts of yourself that feel so uncomfortable? That is the heart of the work that I do: in a safe and confidential space, identify where you are stuck and what is holding you back from living the life that you want. As a Clinical Psychologist, I have extensive training and experience treating a wide range of difficulties, specializing in the treatment of anxiety, addictions, chronic health issues, grief/bereavement, and shame-based symptoms. I see clients in-person or via telehealth (all Psypact.org states)
If you're here, part of you knows it's time for a change. What if I told you that there is a way to stop struggling with the parts of yourself that feel so uncomfortable? That is the heart of the work that I do: in a safe and confidential space, identify where you are stuck and what is holding you back from living the life that you want. As a Clinical Psychologist, I have extensive training and experience treating a wide range of difficulties, specializing in the treatment of anxiety, addictions, chronic health issues, grief/bereavement, and shame-based symptoms. I see clients in-person or via telehealth (all Psypact.org states)
(410) 504-1580 View (410) 504-1580
Photo of Julie Altman Wolff, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Mount Washington, MD
Julie Altman Wolff
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MS, LCPC
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209
As a Director of MindWell Consulting, LLC, I provide therapy and coaching to individuals, couples, and families. The goal of my work is to meet clients where they’re at and help them develop wellness strategies based on self-awareness, resilience, communication, mindfulness, and acceptance of themselves and the world around them. Our work together will provide you with a tool kit that best prepares you for the challenges of today’s world. Together, we will identify strengths and areas where those strengths can best be applied to help improve your overall well-being.
As a Director of MindWell Consulting, LLC, I provide therapy and coaching to individuals, couples, and families. The goal of my work is to meet clients where they’re at and help them develop wellness strategies based on self-awareness, resilience, communication, mindfulness, and acceptance of themselves and the world around them. Our work together will provide you with a tool kit that best prepares you for the challenges of today’s world. Together, we will identify strengths and areas where those strengths can best be applied to help improve your overall well-being.
(410) 784-4838 View (410) 784-4838
Photo of Francesca Musengo, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mount Washington, MD
Francesca Musengo
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
Mount Washington, MD 21209
Waitlist for new clients
Hello and welcome to the first step in improving your quality of life. Mental health continues to be stigmatized in our society, but what if therapy is the key to relief and acceptance? I am a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW-C) and I provide outpatient individual, couples, and family therapy. I obtained my master's degree from University of Maryland School of Social Work and I have 10 years experience working with diverse populations in the Baltimore area. I've worked in clinics, homes, and schools.
Hello and welcome to the first step in improving your quality of life. Mental health continues to be stigmatized in our society, but what if therapy is the key to relief and acceptance? I am a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW-C) and I provide outpatient individual, couples, and family therapy. I obtained my master's degree from University of Maryland School of Social Work and I have 10 years experience working with diverse populations in the Baltimore area. I've worked in clinics, homes, and schools.
(410) 740-8066 View (410) 740-8066

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Mount Washington, MD

30+

Average cost per session

$155

Therapists in Mount Washington, MD who prioritize treating:

91% Depression
86% Anxiety
83% Self Esteem
74% Relationship Issues
71% Trauma and PTSD
63% Grief
63% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

67% Cigna and Evernorth
62% BlueCross and BlueShield
57% CareFirst

How Therapists in Mount Washington, MD see their clients

83% In Person and Online
17% Online Only

Gender breakdown

71% Female
29% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Mount Washington?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.