Therapists in Dundalk, MD

Photo of Mindful Healing Works Wellness Center, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Mindful Healing Works Wellness Center
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
Many of our clients grew up experiencing secrecy, addiction, guilt, blame and shame. It doesn’t have to be this way. Even if things have gone a certain way in your family, you can do it differently. You’re the creator of your story and the CEO of your life. It’s not easy, but it’s possible to become the best version of you. If you can see it in your mind, it can become your reality. Personal responsibility is the key to creating healthy patterns. You can’t change your past, but you can change your future. ​ My name is Erin Meyer, LCPC and I was inspired to go into therapy because I wanted to completely revolutionize the world of
Many of our clients grew up experiencing secrecy, addiction, guilt, blame and shame. It doesn’t have to be this way. Even if things have gone a certain way in your family, you can do it differently. You’re the creator of your story and the CEO of your life. It’s not easy, but it’s possible to become the best version of you. If you can see it in your mind, it can become your reality. Personal responsibility is the key to creating healthy patterns. You can’t change your past, but you can change your future. ​ My name is Erin Meyer, LCPC and I was inspired to go into therapy because I wanted to completely revolutionize the world of
(443) 879-7501 View (443) 879-7501
Photo of Erin Meyer, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Erin Meyer
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
When you have hope, all things are possible. In my practice I am results oriented and I keep a positive outlook on life, and the possibilities for all of my clients. I come from a wellness perspective where I believe that every person has the ability to overcome life's challenges. I feel that inside of every person there is an intuitive sense of what is right for them. It is my passion to help you to unlock the key to your happiness. Please visit our website at www.mindfulhealingworks.com to see the vast services that we offer including PRP and drug counseling including IOP and SOP. *Many of our clients use insurance.
When you have hope, all things are possible. In my practice I am results oriented and I keep a positive outlook on life, and the possibilities for all of my clients. I come from a wellness perspective where I believe that every person has the ability to overcome life's challenges. I feel that inside of every person there is an intuitive sense of what is right for them. It is my passion to help you to unlock the key to your happiness. Please visit our website at www.mindfulhealingworks.com to see the vast services that we offer including PRP and drug counseling including IOP and SOP. *Many of our clients use insurance.
(443) 960-8077 View (443) 960-8077
Photo of Earl W Ridgell Jr, Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Earl W Ridgell Jr
Counselor, MA, MS, LCPC
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
Rapport is critical for the therapeutic setting; without a positive connection, therapy is a difficult road. Therapists should provide a meaningful experience, which includes a safe place to share. I believe I need to provide a nonjudgmental environment to help healing. My role as a therapist is working with clients to improve their insight, identify triggers, manage life’s dilemmas and help them manage their symptoms. The goal is to help clients identify what is needed, be it, love, joy, peace, self-control, self-image and/or happiness, I meet my clients "right where they are" w/o judgment, but with clinical insight & experience.
Rapport is critical for the therapeutic setting; without a positive connection, therapy is a difficult road. Therapists should provide a meaningful experience, which includes a safe place to share. I believe I need to provide a nonjudgmental environment to help healing. My role as a therapist is working with clients to improve their insight, identify triggers, manage life’s dilemmas and help them manage their symptoms. The goal is to help clients identify what is needed, be it, love, joy, peace, self-control, self-image and/or happiness, I meet my clients "right where they are" w/o judgment, but with clinical insight & experience.
(443) 399-2752 View (443) 399-2752
Photo of Addiction Treatment of Maryland in Dundalk, MD
Addiction Treatment of Maryland
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
At Addiction Treatment of Maryland, we believe addiction is a chronic disease that can be treated successfully. We believe relapse is a part of the process but is avoidable. With rapid assessment and treatment delivery, as well as client commitment to change, treatment can result in long term recovery. Treatment consists of counseling, education, alternative therapies, job readiness, housing, mental health treatment and more. Don't have insurance and can't afford treatment? No worries. It is our mission to offer quality, affordable treatment to those in need. Ask about our sliding scale fees.
At Addiction Treatment of Maryland, we believe addiction is a chronic disease that can be treated successfully. We believe relapse is a part of the process but is avoidable. With rapid assessment and treatment delivery, as well as client commitment to change, treatment can result in long term recovery. Treatment consists of counseling, education, alternative therapies, job readiness, housing, mental health treatment and more. Don't have insurance and can't afford treatment? No worries. It is our mission to offer quality, affordable treatment to those in need. Ask about our sliding scale fees.
(410) 650-8549 View (410) 650-8549
Photo of Rodrique Sumpter - Clinical Psychotherapist, Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Rodrique Sumpter - Clinical Psychotherapist
Counselor, MA, LCPC, NCC, CCTP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Dundalk, MD 21222  (Online Only)
Have you felt inadequate or not good enough? Are there things from your past that still haunt you? Do you feel disconnected and/or discouraged? Let's together take a journey toward creating a sense of self-awareness and self-worth thus, finding meaning in life, and ultimately create positive change that results in healing.
Have you felt inadequate or not good enough? Are there things from your past that still haunt you? Do you feel disconnected and/or discouraged? Let's together take a journey toward creating a sense of self-awareness and self-worth thus, finding meaning in life, and ultimately create positive change that results in healing.
(443) 290-5669 View (443) 290-5669
Photo of Jessica Ferenz, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Jessica Ferenz
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, NCC, LCPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Dundalk, MD 21222
I believe that each person is unique, which means that each person’s journey in counseling should be made to fit their individual needs and personality. Life can feel overwhelming at times and seeking therapy is a great first step in discovering how to overcome obstacles and barriers that prevent us from being the best versions of ourselves.
I believe that each person is unique, which means that each person’s journey in counseling should be made to fit their individual needs and personality. Life can feel overwhelming at times and seeking therapy is a great first step in discovering how to overcome obstacles and barriers that prevent us from being the best versions of ourselves.
(443) 232-2617 View (443) 232-2617
Photo of Karen Diggs, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Karen Diggs
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC, CAMS-lI, Life, Coach
Verified
3 Endorsed
Dundalk, MD 21222
Congratulations!, on taking the first step to healing and growth. The relationships that we have with our families, friends and peers etc., vastly impact the ways that we view the world and how we cope with our difficulties. As we experience difficult times in our lives, it is easy to feel alone and feel like others cannot understand. I seek to be a source of support during those times. Working to build healthy relationships is a joint effort. If you are willing to BELIEVE, you will begin to ACHIEVE and ultimately RECEIVE all that is meant for you. You have what it takes and I will support you all the way. HOPE is on the Way!
Congratulations!, on taking the first step to healing and growth. The relationships that we have with our families, friends and peers etc., vastly impact the ways that we view the world and how we cope with our difficulties. As we experience difficult times in our lives, it is easy to feel alone and feel like others cannot understand. I seek to be a source of support during those times. Working to build healthy relationships is a joint effort. If you are willing to BELIEVE, you will begin to ACHIEVE and ultimately RECEIVE all that is meant for you. You have what it takes and I will support you all the way. HOPE is on the Way!
(443) 417-1823 View (443) 417-1823
Photo of Lynn Bass, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Lynn Bass
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MS, LGPC, NCC
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
I have been honored to serve clients suffering from a variety of mental health illness. I am passionate about helping those who suffered from abuse and trauma to find healing and begin to live their best lives. However, I have many years serving those who suffer with co-occurring disorders. Many of my clients suffered with depression, bi-polar, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders.
I have been honored to serve clients suffering from a variety of mental health illness. I am passionate about helping those who suffered from abuse and trauma to find healing and begin to live their best lives. However, I have many years serving those who suffer with co-occurring disorders. Many of my clients suffered with depression, bi-polar, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders.
(667) 401-9020 View (667) 401-9020
Photo of Jamie Laning, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dundalk, MD
Jamie Laning
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, MSW
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
When I think about my potential clients, I'm excited to connect with each of you. Your distinct needs and challenges inspire me to offer personalized solutions. What truly sets me apart is my unwavering commitment to your well-being. I'm assertive in tailoring my approach to your unique goals, ensuring a fulfilling and effective journey. Let's embark on this journey together with enthusiasm and confidence! I genuinely can't wait to work with you, understanding your needs and aspirations. My friendly yet assertive approach ensures we'll tackle your challenges head-on. Together, we'll create a transformative journey.
When I think about my potential clients, I'm excited to connect with each of you. Your distinct needs and challenges inspire me to offer personalized solutions. What truly sets me apart is my unwavering commitment to your well-being. I'm assertive in tailoring my approach to your unique goals, ensuring a fulfilling and effective journey. Let's embark on this journey together with enthusiasm and confidence! I genuinely can't wait to work with you, understanding your needs and aspirations. My friendly yet assertive approach ensures we'll tackle your challenges head-on. Together, we'll create a transformative journey.
(410) 941-6815 View (410) 941-6815
Photo of LaShaun Annette Williams, Psychologist in Dundalk, MD
LaShaun Annette Williams
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
Dr. Williams provides services to individuals looking to reduce and manage symptoms of anxiety and depression, improve overall functioning, and receive support in facing life challenges. Her therapeutic approach is a collaborative one, involving a process of identifying each client’s specific needs and goals and developing a treatment plan to address these. Dr. Williams’ treatment style has been described as calm, warm, empathic and non judgmental. Within an atmosphere of respect and collaboration, Dr. Williams assists clients in discovering and making effective use of inner and outer resources, so that they may engage in meaningful life experiences.
Dr. Williams provides services to individuals looking to reduce and manage symptoms of anxiety and depression, improve overall functioning, and receive support in facing life challenges. Her therapeutic approach is a collaborative one, involving a process of identifying each client’s specific needs and goals and developing a treatment plan to address these. Dr. Williams’ treatment style has been described as calm, warm, empathic and non judgmental. Within an atmosphere of respect and collaboration, Dr. Williams assists clients in discovering and making effective use of inner and outer resources, so that they may engage in meaningful life experiences.
(202) 640-4597 View (202) 640-4597
Photo of Living On Purpose, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dundalk, MD
Living On Purpose
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
If you are struggling with anxiety, depression, relationship issues or finding your purpose in life then, I am the therapist for you. If you are LGBTQI and need a listening ear, then I am the Therapist for you. If you are willing and ready to work on your challenges in life one step at a time then, I am the Therapist for you. If you are experiencing grief and loss then I am the Therapist for you. Grief Group sessions are available also.
If you are struggling with anxiety, depression, relationship issues or finding your purpose in life then, I am the therapist for you. If you are LGBTQI and need a listening ear, then I am the Therapist for you. If you are willing and ready to work on your challenges in life one step at a time then, I am the Therapist for you. If you are experiencing grief and loss then I am the Therapist for you. Grief Group sessions are available also.
(410) 449-1479 View (410) 449-1479
Photo of Mari Pat McGuire, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dundalk, MD
Mari Pat McGuire
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, TEP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Dundalk, MD 21222
Clients often come to Harmony Counseling at a point in their lives when they need assistance or guidance in resolving an issue, sorting through feelings, or learning to cope. We provide a safe and accepting atmosphere in which to discuss concerns and receive support.
Clients often come to Harmony Counseling at a point in their lives when they need assistance or guidance in resolving an issue, sorting through feelings, or learning to cope. We provide a safe and accepting atmosphere in which to discuss concerns and receive support.
(443) 399-2288 View (443) 399-2288
Photo of Neuropsychology Center of Maryland, Psychologist in Dundalk, MD
Neuropsychology Center of Maryland
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
Are you struggling with changes in thinking abilities, personality or behavior secondary to brain injury or medical condition? Are you seeking educational or vocational accommodations? Are you concerned about changes in yourself or loved one that may be suggestive of a neurodegenerative condition or dementia? As a formally trained clinical neuropsychologist, I have specialized expertise in understanding brain-behavior relationships. After initial interview, neuropsychological evaluation or psychological testing is often conducted to identify current strengths and weakness and contributing etiologies. Then I work together with you to develop and implement a treatment plan to maximize functional recovery and adjustment.
Are you struggling with changes in thinking abilities, personality or behavior secondary to brain injury or medical condition? Are you seeking educational or vocational accommodations? Are you concerned about changes in yourself or loved one that may be suggestive of a neurodegenerative condition or dementia? As a formally trained clinical neuropsychologist, I have specialized expertise in understanding brain-behavior relationships. After initial interview, neuropsychological evaluation or psychological testing is often conducted to identify current strengths and weakness and contributing etiologies. Then I work together with you to develop and implement a treatment plan to maximize functional recovery and adjustment.
(443) 345-5377 View (443) 345-5377
Photo of Ariel Leigh Sklar, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dundalk, MD
Ariel Leigh Sklar
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW-C
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
Waitlist for new clients
Counseling is a collaborative process. In my private practice I work with adolescents, young adults and adults. I believe in an empathetic, non judgmental approach to helping clients understand their behaviors and patterns. I specialize in working with clients using a somatic approach to heal from past traumas and feel present and restored.
Counseling is a collaborative process. In my private practice I work with adolescents, young adults and adults. I believe in an empathetic, non judgmental approach to helping clients understand their behaviors and patterns. I specialize in working with clients using a somatic approach to heal from past traumas and feel present and restored.
(410) 469-6086 View (410) 469-6086
Photo of Falisha Redenbaugh, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dundalk, MD
Falisha Redenbaugh
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
I am meeting with clients both in person and online whichever works best for you! Therapy is hard work and I am here to help. We all need support and what that means is different for each person; therapy is not cookie-cutter. Together we will figure out what you need in order to reach your goals.
I am meeting with clients both in person and online whichever works best for you! Therapy is hard work and I am here to help. We all need support and what that means is different for each person; therapy is not cookie-cutter. Together we will figure out what you need in order to reach your goals.
(410) 835-9202 View (410) 835-9202
Photo of Joseph Kim, Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Joseph Kim
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
Life can present us with dark days and many different challenges, and at times it may seem like there is no way out. Perhaps you are trying to manage anxiety or mood swings, coping with a loss, or struggling with relationship issues. At Sure Anchor, we provide you with a safe and supportive environment to identify problems, explore their root cause, and move towards healing and wholeness, all through the lens of the Gospel. I practice from a Biblical perspective, utilizing clinically sound interventions such as CBT and psychodynamic theory.
Life can present us with dark days and many different challenges, and at times it may seem like there is no way out. Perhaps you are trying to manage anxiety or mood swings, coping with a loss, or struggling with relationship issues. At Sure Anchor, we provide you with a safe and supportive environment to identify problems, explore their root cause, and move towards healing and wholeness, all through the lens of the Gospel. I practice from a Biblical perspective, utilizing clinically sound interventions such as CBT and psychodynamic theory.
(410) 204-2386 View (410) 204-2386
Photo of Karen Ortman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dundalk, MD
Karen Ortman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222  (Online Only)
Karen Ortman is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with over 5 years of experience in the mental health field. She has worked with children to assist them in improving their emotional and behavioral challenges, and she has worked with adults to learn and improve their daily living and social skills. Karen specializes in ADHD, anger, behavioral issues, coping skills, family therapy, and adjustment disorders.
Karen Ortman is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with over 5 years of experience in the mental health field. She has worked with children to assist them in improving their emotional and behavioral challenges, and she has worked with adults to learn and improve their daily living and social skills. Karen specializes in ADHD, anger, behavioral issues, coping skills, family therapy, and adjustment disorders.
(410) 457-3695 View (410) 457-3695
Photo of Martha D. Chica, Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Martha D. Chica
Counselor, LCPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Dundalk, MD 21222  (Online Only)
I work with people whose inner critic, insecurities, and low self-esteem has taken over their life and impacted relationships with the people around them. I will help you understand your emotions and why you might feel overwhelmed, fear reject, people-please and hide away from your true self. Together we will work on managing anxiety and depression, and build skills to aid in prioritizing yourself. I will provide a safe environment where you will be able to heal past wounds to be able to work on self-doubt, self- compassion, self-expression and self-love.
I work with people whose inner critic, insecurities, and low self-esteem has taken over their life and impacted relationships with the people around them. I will help you understand your emotions and why you might feel overwhelmed, fear reject, people-please and hide away from your true self. Together we will work on managing anxiety and depression, and build skills to aid in prioritizing yourself. I will provide a safe environment where you will be able to heal past wounds to be able to work on self-doubt, self- compassion, self-expression and self-love.
(443) 436-2421 View (443) 436-2421
Photo of William Nation, Psychologist in Dundalk, MD
William Nation
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Dundalk, MD 21222  (Online Only)
My ideal client seeks a unique path to recovery, traditional but new. They grapple with the weight of mental health challenges and desire not just relief but a journey towards self-discovery. Their issues are nuanced, requiring a therapist who understands the complexities of mental health but also recognizes the healing potential in unconventional avenues. They aim to intertwine their passions with therapy, using the familiar landscapes of virtual realms and beloved narratives to fuel meaningful change. In this fusion, they see not only a therapeutic process but a transformative adventure tailored to their needs and aspirations.
My ideal client seeks a unique path to recovery, traditional but new. They grapple with the weight of mental health challenges and desire not just relief but a journey towards self-discovery. Their issues are nuanced, requiring a therapist who understands the complexities of mental health but also recognizes the healing potential in unconventional avenues. They aim to intertwine their passions with therapy, using the familiar landscapes of virtual realms and beloved narratives to fuel meaningful change. In this fusion, they see not only a therapeutic process but a transformative adventure tailored to their needs and aspirations.
(410) 888-0798 View (410) 888-0798
Photo of Soni Fitzhugh, Licensed Professional Counselor in Dundalk, MD
Soni Fitzhugh
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Dundalk, MD 21222
My name is Soni Fitzhugh. My family shaped my most profound relationships, values, and experiences. As a child, my father was a lawyer and an officer in the Air Force. As a family, we were stationed in many places around the world. It gave me the opportunity to graduate from High School in Wiesbaden Germany. When we returned home to Washington, DC. I attended Bowie State University and received my Bachelor, of science is in Social Work. In 2008, I was introduced to the Maryland University of Integrative Health in Laurel, Maryland where I received a Master of Arts in Applied Healing Arts.
My name is Soni Fitzhugh. My family shaped my most profound relationships, values, and experiences. As a child, my father was a lawyer and an officer in the Air Force. As a family, we were stationed in many places around the world. It gave me the opportunity to graduate from High School in Wiesbaden Germany. When we returned home to Washington, DC. I attended Bowie State University and received my Bachelor, of science is in Social Work. In 2008, I was introduced to the Maryland University of Integrative Health in Laurel, Maryland where I received a Master of Arts in Applied Healing Arts.
(410) 873-9147 View (410) 873-9147

See more therapy options for Dundalk

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Dundalk, MD

20+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in Dundalk, MD who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
83% Trauma and PTSD
79% Depression
69% Relationship Issues
69% Coping Skills
69% Women's Issues
66% Stress

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% Cigna and Evernorth
68% BlueCross and BlueShield
56% Aetna

How Therapists in Dundalk, MD see their clients

63% In Person and Online
37% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
18% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Dundalk?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.