Therapists in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA

Photo of Jessica D. Gerson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Jessica D. Gerson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I have helped clients and families through issues including anxiety and depression, parenting challenging children, career difficulties, issues related to sexuality and gender identity, ADHD, life stress, work-life balance, relationship issues, and more. As someone who has struggled with both anxiety and depression at various points in my life, I come at the therapeutic process with both personal and professional knowledge, and always keep in mind those things that were most helpful to me when I was the one seeking a therapist.
I have helped clients and families through issues including anxiety and depression, parenting challenging children, career difficulties, issues related to sexuality and gender identity, ADHD, life stress, work-life balance, relationship issues, and more. As someone who has struggled with both anxiety and depression at various points in my life, I come at the therapeutic process with both personal and professional knowledge, and always keep in mind those things that were most helpful to me when I was the one seeking a therapist.
(857) 420-6566 View (857) 420-6566
Photo of Maury Abrams, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Maury Abrams
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LADC-I
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
Not accepting new clients
As your therapist, I look forward to hearing about your needs, collaborating with you to define your goals, and starting you on a course toward achieving them. My specialties include anxiety, trauma / PTSD, depression, grief, adjustment, relationship issues, and sexual orientation and gender identity empowerment. I offer an eclectic approach to therapy, drawing upon psychodynamic and trauma-informed methods, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, a form of psychotherapy incorporating cognitive-behavioral, dialectical, and mindfulness tools.
As your therapist, I look forward to hearing about your needs, collaborating with you to define your goals, and starting you on a course toward achieving them. My specialties include anxiety, trauma / PTSD, depression, grief, adjustment, relationship issues, and sexual orientation and gender identity empowerment. I offer an eclectic approach to therapy, drawing upon psychodynamic and trauma-informed methods, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, a form of psychotherapy incorporating cognitive-behavioral, dialectical, and mindfulness tools.
(413) 296-1944 View (413) 296-1944
Photo of Golden 3 Counseling Services, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Golden 3 Counseling Services
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
This is my life's work & I am thrilled to be a part of your journey. My experience has included outpatient, college counseling, mental health centers, residential, multiple non-profit settings, & schools, with certifications in sexual assault & domestic violence & a client base diverse in the following ways: ethnic/racial background, religion, socioeconomic status, age, cognitive & physical ability, country of origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, sex & gender presentation. All of our identities combine to create our realities.
This is my life's work & I am thrilled to be a part of your journey. My experience has included outpatient, college counseling, mental health centers, residential, multiple non-profit settings, & schools, with certifications in sexual assault & domestic violence & a client base diverse in the following ways: ethnic/racial background, religion, socioeconomic status, age, cognitive & physical ability, country of origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, sex & gender presentation. All of our identities combine to create our realities.
(413) 384-5489 View (413) 384-5489
Photo of Joanie O'Connell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Joanie O'Connell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
I have enjoyed working as a psychotherapist for 30+ years. I am a family systems oriented, psychodynamic clinician with a wide range of treatment approaches. I treat families and individuals experiencing transitions, loss and trauma, as well as depression, anxiety, behavioral or relationship problems. When I work with youth, parental involvement is requested. Treatment can be fluid to include siblings, parent/child and individual therapy. With all clients, the goals of acceptance, healing and growth occur within a positive and safe environment. I believe that feeling worthwhile and having hope are key elements to mental health.
I have enjoyed working as a psychotherapist for 30+ years. I am a family systems oriented, psychodynamic clinician with a wide range of treatment approaches. I treat families and individuals experiencing transitions, loss and trauma, as well as depression, anxiety, behavioral or relationship problems. When I work with youth, parental involvement is requested. Treatment can be fluid to include siblings, parent/child and individual therapy. With all clients, the goals of acceptance, healing and growth occur within a positive and safe environment. I believe that feeling worthwhile and having hope are key elements to mental health.
(413) 461-6197 View (413) 461-6197
Photo of Bruce Paul Pajot, Licensed Professional Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Bruce Paul Pajot
Licensed Professional Counselor, MDiv, MA, LPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
I am passionate about helping people achieve joyful and fulfilled lives. I work with adults, couples, and families regarding various mental health concerns including anxiety, depression, and relational struggles. I use an eclectic mixture of therapies including Cognitive Behavioral, Psycho-dynamic, and various relational therapies. Over many years, my work has included over 1000 clients (both individuals and couples) with a multitude of psychological issues. I have also led weekly couples relationship workshops as well as periodic communication seminars around the country. (Married with two adult daughters and five grandchildren).
I am passionate about helping people achieve joyful and fulfilled lives. I work with adults, couples, and families regarding various mental health concerns including anxiety, depression, and relational struggles. I use an eclectic mixture of therapies including Cognitive Behavioral, Psycho-dynamic, and various relational therapies. Over many years, my work has included over 1000 clients (both individuals and couples) with a multitude of psychological issues. I have also led weekly couples relationship workshops as well as periodic communication seminars around the country. (Married with two adult daughters and five grandchildren).
(860) 390-4723 View (860) 390-4723
Photo of Caitlin Beth Grossi, Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Caitlin Beth Grossi
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
Do you need help, for yourself and/or loved ones? I work with children, adolescence and adults in an individual, family, or group setting. I strive to develop a safe therapeutic relationship with my clients. My goal is to develop a treatment plan that is individualized and specific to the areas of your distress. We will focus on strengths as well as implementing positive coping skills and exploration of stressors that hinder success and happiness in one's life. My practice is fully functioning and has transitioned into our “new normal”. Together I will provide the safest place possible through the many measures we have useful to us.
Do you need help, for yourself and/or loved ones? I work with children, adolescence and adults in an individual, family, or group setting. I strive to develop a safe therapeutic relationship with my clients. My goal is to develop a treatment plan that is individualized and specific to the areas of your distress. We will focus on strengths as well as implementing positive coping skills and exploration of stressors that hinder success and happiness in one's life. My practice is fully functioning and has transitioned into our “new normal”. Together I will provide the safest place possible through the many measures we have useful to us.
(413) 931-1935 View (413) 931-1935
Photo of C.j. Van Wright, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
C.j. Van Wright
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DSW, LCSW
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
I believe that connection and safety matter above all else. I specialize in working with individuals who have a trauma history, substance use, depression, or anxiety. In a mindful and collaborative process, we work toward being your best self.
I believe that connection and safety matter above all else. I specialize in working with individuals who have a trauma history, substance use, depression, or anxiety. In a mindful and collaborative process, we work toward being your best self.
(413) 287-7059 View (413) 287-7059
Photo of The Men of Honor Youth Mentorship Program Inc in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
The Men of Honor Youth Mentorship Program Inc
MEd
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
We will assist patients in building positive life skills, such as techniques to manage life pressures, self-reflection, and improving self esteem. We will offer support and guidance to the induvial/families, as it is necessary to have support at home in order to achieve lasting success. We will assist youths/adults in developing strategies to strengthen and empower them to achieve their goals, such as self esteem exercises, techniques to handle peer pressure, role playing to address anger management issues, activities that allow them to share their experiences and discuss strategies for making good decisions for in there lives.
We will assist patients in building positive life skills, such as techniques to manage life pressures, self-reflection, and improving self esteem. We will offer support and guidance to the induvial/families, as it is necessary to have support at home in order to achieve lasting success. We will assist youths/adults in developing strategies to strengthen and empower them to achieve their goals, such as self esteem exercises, techniques to handle peer pressure, role playing to address anger management issues, activities that allow them to share their experiences and discuss strategies for making good decisions for in there lives.
(413) 287-1580 View (413) 287-1580
Photo of Ruhami J Valentin, Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Ruhami J Valentin
Counselor, MS, LMHC, NCC, CCATP
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I am a Mental Health Counselor in Springfield, MA with special training and skills in working with individuals, groups and communities to improve mental health dysfunctions by discussing emotions and experiences, then prescribing custom holistic solutions. As a Mental Health Counselor, I perform assessments, diagnostics and psychotherapy as well as treatment planning.
I am a Mental Health Counselor in Springfield, MA with special training and skills in working with individuals, groups and communities to improve mental health dysfunctions by discussing emotions and experiences, then prescribing custom holistic solutions. As a Mental Health Counselor, I perform assessments, diagnostics and psychotherapy as well as treatment planning.
(413) 213-3405 View (413) 213-3405
Photo of Maria Ortiz-Aponte, Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Maria Ortiz-Aponte
Counselor, LMHC, MFT, ADC
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
Waitlist for new clients
I am passionate about working with families, groups and individuals with a holistic approach. I enjoy seeing how the restorative power of the Gospel, in conjunction with evidence-based theories can have a transformation effect in the lives I have been privileged to serve. I have worked with families struggling with relationship problems, as well as individuals dealing with depression, trauma, addictions and anxiety. I consider myself Spiritual, Compassionate and eager to help others manage their life in a more holistic manner.
I am passionate about working with families, groups and individuals with a holistic approach. I enjoy seeing how the restorative power of the Gospel, in conjunction with evidence-based theories can have a transformation effect in the lives I have been privileged to serve. I have worked with families struggling with relationship problems, as well as individuals dealing with depression, trauma, addictions and anxiety. I consider myself Spiritual, Compassionate and eager to help others manage their life in a more holistic manner.
(413) 327-9761 View (413) 327-9761
Photo of Dorimar A. Diaz, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Dorimar A. Diaz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, LICSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
Representation matters and I am part of the LGBT community, latinx and have an invisible disability. I have been doing this work for about 10 years (MSW Boston College 2015). I am ready when you are! Genuine compassion and trust is at the root of any solid relationship and necessary for success to manifest! We have to be willing and ready to do the messy work. As your therapist, I also have to be ready. I have to be ready and capable of containing all of what comes up in therapy.
Representation matters and I am part of the LGBT community, latinx and have an invisible disability. I have been doing this work for about 10 years (MSW Boston College 2015). I am ready when you are! Genuine compassion and trust is at the root of any solid relationship and necessary for success to manifest! We have to be willing and ready to do the messy work. As your therapist, I also have to be ready. I have to be ready and capable of containing all of what comes up in therapy.
(413) 213-3982 View (413) 213-3982
Photo of Pam Boone, Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Pam Boone
Counselor, MS, CAGS, LMHC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
Are you fearful, anxious, stressed, sad or not able to complete your goals and life seems to be moving while you are feeling stuck? Prioritize yourself and your well-being, call me and let's talk. I am a passionate and empathic mental health professional who believes that everyone deserves the chance to be the best person they can be and to live the best life possible. I am committed to empowering individuals to recognize and utilize their strengths to change their circumstance.
Are you fearful, anxious, stressed, sad or not able to complete your goals and life seems to be moving while you are feeling stuck? Prioritize yourself and your well-being, call me and let's talk. I am a passionate and empathic mental health professional who believes that everyone deserves the chance to be the best person they can be and to live the best life possible. I am committed to empowering individuals to recognize and utilize their strengths to change their circumstance.
(413) 225-4892 View (413) 225-4892
Photo of Diana Marte, Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Diana Marte
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
Counseling is a process that helps individuals with emotional and mental health issues by building their self awareness, improving their relationships, and developing new behaviors. For children and adults suffering with mental health related issues, I will work closely with you to help you and your family overcome the difficulties presented and find a better quality of life.
Counseling is a process that helps individuals with emotional and mental health issues by building their self awareness, improving their relationships, and developing new behaviors. For children and adults suffering with mental health related issues, I will work closely with you to help you and your family overcome the difficulties presented and find a better quality of life.
(413) 207-0840 View (413) 207-0840
Photo of Ruth Trujillo-Acosta, Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Ruth Trujillo-Acosta
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109
My ideal clients are those individuals who are seeking the support of a therapist who is actively involved in creative approaches, and with a focus on solution seeking style. I work with children, adolescents and adults, and engage those supports the client identifies, as playing an important role in their healing process. My approach is strength-base where I include all the elements of the client's life to address the challenges with a focus on a holistic approach. I have seven years of experience working with children 3 and up, adolescents and young adults and their parents and caregivers.
My ideal clients are those individuals who are seeking the support of a therapist who is actively involved in creative approaches, and with a focus on solution seeking style. I work with children, adolescents and adults, and engage those supports the client identifies, as playing an important role in their healing process. My approach is strength-base where I include all the elements of the client's life to address the challenges with a focus on a holistic approach. I have seven years of experience working with children 3 and up, adolescents and young adults and their parents and caregivers.
(413) 887-3383 View (413) 887-3383
Photo of Rachel Vadney, Pre-Licensed Professional in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Rachel Vadney
Pre-Licensed Professional, PsyD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
I’m a firm believer that you don’t need to wait until things get really bad to start therapy. If you're a college/graduate student, young adult, or professional dealing with anxiety, depression, trauma, life transitions, or relationship issues, you're not alone! I take a warm, collaborative, and tailored approach that positions you as the expert of your own experience.
I’m a firm believer that you don’t need to wait until things get really bad to start therapy. If you're a college/graduate student, young adult, or professional dealing with anxiety, depression, trauma, life transitions, or relationship issues, you're not alone! I take a warm, collaborative, and tailored approach that positions you as the expert of your own experience.
(508) 501-6683 View (508) 501-6683
Photo of John Granger II, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
John Granger II
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, SAP, CCTP
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
Life can sometimes be challenging; it is filled with ups and downs. It takes a strong person to ask for help when faced with the challenges life may bring. It is important for you to know that you do not have to go through these challenges alone. As a therapist, I believe that you are the expert on your life. Through guided discovery, my goal is to collaboratively work with you to help you process and work through the issues that are present in your life.
Life can sometimes be challenging; it is filled with ups and downs. It takes a strong person to ask for help when faced with the challenges life may bring. It is important for you to know that you do not have to go through these challenges alone. As a therapist, I believe that you are the expert on your life. Through guided discovery, my goal is to collaboratively work with you to help you process and work through the issues that are present in your life.
(508) 690-8007 View (508) 690-8007
Photo of Arielle Speer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Arielle Speer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
I have been working with the autistic and neurodivergent community for over 10 years. I have found that my own personal identification of being autistic and having a 20 year old child with autism has made working with other autistic individuals successful and rewarding. I pride myself on my creativity and ability to meet a client where they are at and find new ways to help clients reach their goals.
I have been working with the autistic and neurodivergent community for over 10 years. I have found that my own personal identification of being autistic and having a 20 year old child with autism has made working with other autistic individuals successful and rewarding. I pride myself on my creativity and ability to meet a client where they are at and find new ways to help clients reach their goals.
(857) 228-3517 View (857) 228-3517
Photo of Kate Schiffman, LMHC, proxima b counseling, inc., Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Kate Schiffman, LMHC, proxima b counseling, inc.
Counselor, LMHC, TMHC
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
I'm so excited to help you launch your journey to happiness! We will work together to make a customized treatment plan to help you work towards achieving your goals. With over a decade of experience I am confident that I will be able to help you live a more meaningful and fulfilling life. We will focus on what matters most to you through an organized and simple integrated approach. My specialty is in treating OCD, anxiety and phobias using Exposure Therapy, CBT, ACT, DBT and coping skills. I also enjoy incorporating my passion of art through Expressive Therapy. Start your journey today!
I'm so excited to help you launch your journey to happiness! We will work together to make a customized treatment plan to help you work towards achieving your goals. With over a decade of experience I am confident that I will be able to help you live a more meaningful and fulfilling life. We will focus on what matters most to you through an organized and simple integrated approach. My specialty is in treating OCD, anxiety and phobias using Exposure Therapy, CBT, ACT, DBT and coping skills. I also enjoy incorporating my passion of art through Expressive Therapy. Start your journey today!
View
Photo of India Kyles, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
India Kyles
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I dedicate my work to helping hardworking men and women like yourself, obtain the tools they need to better manage high stress situations that often feel overpowering. As we work together to identify the issues that bring about symptoms of anxiety, stress and often depression, you will acquire the confidence you need to make those positive, meaningful changes. We will focus on empowering and lifting your spirit, before identifying areas of the mind that have a negative impact on the physical.
I dedicate my work to helping hardworking men and women like yourself, obtain the tools they need to better manage high stress situations that often feel overpowering. As we work together to identify the issues that bring about symptoms of anxiety, stress and often depression, you will acquire the confidence you need to make those positive, meaningful changes. We will focus on empowering and lifting your spirit, before identifying areas of the mind that have a negative impact on the physical.
(617) 682-7590 View (617) 682-7590
Photo of Sean Bourgeoise (At 413 Therapy Group Inc.), Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA
Sean Bourgeoise (At 413 Therapy Group Inc.)
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, LADC1
Verified
1 Endorsed
Upper Hill, Springfield, MA 01109  (Online Only)
Going to therapy for the first time, or starting over again with a new therapist can be intimidating. 413Therapy Group wants to make that easier for you we have immediate openings as of 02/15/2024. Sean Bourgeoise is a warm and welcoming therapist that specializes in treatment for individuals who are experiencing anxiety, depression, stress, difficulties with anger/rage, and personal impacts associated with behavioral addictions and substance use disorders.
Going to therapy for the first time, or starting over again with a new therapist can be intimidating. 413Therapy Group wants to make that easier for you we have immediate openings as of 02/15/2024. Sean Bourgeoise is a warm and welcoming therapist that specializes in treatment for individuals who are experiencing anxiety, depression, stress, difficulties with anger/rage, and personal impacts associated with behavioral addictions and substance use disorders.
(413) 252-8004 View (413) 252-8004

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA

20+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
80% Self Esteem
75% Coping Skills
70% Trauma and PTSD
55% Anger Management
50% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% BlueCross and BlueShield
72% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
61% Aetna

How Therapists in Upper Hill, Springfield, MA see their clients

60% Online Only
40% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

69% Female
26% Male
5% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Upper Hill, Springfield?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.