Therapists in Danvers, MA

Photo of Janelle Bruno, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Janelle Bruno
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923  (Online Only)
You dread the sound of your alarm clock in the morning and desperately look forward to bedtime before the day has started. You feel on edge and overwhelmed. You no longer go out with friends because you’re exhausted from caring for others. Anxiety is scary and can disrupt your life. It is exhausting. You deserve a life that is enjoyable and worth living.
You dread the sound of your alarm clock in the morning and desperately look forward to bedtime before the day has started. You feel on edge and overwhelmed. You no longer go out with friends because you’re exhausted from caring for others. Anxiety is scary and can disrupt your life. It is exhausting. You deserve a life that is enjoyable and worth living.
(351) 200-3398 View (351) 200-3398
Photo of Aviva Abeshaus, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Aviva Abeshaus
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, SAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923
Not accepting new clients
Our thoughts, feelings and behaviors create our experiences. As a psychotherapist with over 25 years of experience, I feel that therapy is a process of creating change in those repetitive and maladaptive patterns leading to a better, more satisfying life. Therapy allows a person to explore and develop skills to effectively cope with personal and growth's transitions and challenges. I work with each individual on finding the right balance of mind, body, spirit connection that gives a person the ability to better assess for personal goals and plan for a more satisfying future.
Our thoughts, feelings and behaviors create our experiences. As a psychotherapist with over 25 years of experience, I feel that therapy is a process of creating change in those repetitive and maladaptive patterns leading to a better, more satisfying life. Therapy allows a person to explore and develop skills to effectively cope with personal and growth's transitions and challenges. I work with each individual on finding the right balance of mind, body, spirit connection that gives a person the ability to better assess for personal goals and plan for a more satisfying future.
(781) 561-1510 View (781) 561-1510
Photo of Ivy Olcott, Counselor in Danvers, MA
Ivy Olcott
Counselor, LHMC
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923
Ivy uses cognitive behavioral therapy to explore the relationship between thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors. Her areas of specialty include: anxiety associated with vocational, familial, and relational stress; life changes, including aging, retirement, divorce, marriage, mixing families, and trauma; panic disorders, depression, LGBTQ+, neurodiversity, and adjustment disorders. In addition to longterm therapy, Ivy can also help clients clarify current interpersonal issues, conflicts, or situations, and assist in identifying coping strategies using solutionoriented psychotherapy.
Ivy uses cognitive behavioral therapy to explore the relationship between thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors. Her areas of specialty include: anxiety associated with vocational, familial, and relational stress; life changes, including aging, retirement, divorce, marriage, mixing families, and trauma; panic disorders, depression, LGBTQ+, neurodiversity, and adjustment disorders. In addition to longterm therapy, Ivy can also help clients clarify current interpersonal issues, conflicts, or situations, and assist in identifying coping strategies using solutionoriented psychotherapy.
(351) 200-3215 View (351) 200-3215
Photo of Alison K Leach, Counselor in Danvers, MA
Alison K Leach
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923
Waitlist for new clients
Taking the first steps toward change can be difficult, but you don't have to do it alone. I can provide a safe space for you to talk about your symptoms and challenges, work with you to identify your personal goals, and offer tools and insights to support your journey.
Taking the first steps toward change can be difficult, but you don't have to do it alone. I can provide a safe space for you to talk about your symptoms and challenges, work with you to identify your personal goals, and offer tools and insights to support your journey.
(617) 860-3372 View (617) 860-3372
Photo of Karen Marie LaBrecque, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Danvers, MA
Karen Marie LaBrecque
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, BS, M Ed, CADC, LADC1
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923
I am passionate about helping people. I spent over 14 years working in prevention as a high school and middle school health educator and most recently have 9 years helping people who struggle with alcoholism, substance misuse, and addiction. I truly believe recovery is possible for everyone. I am familiar with various screening and assessments and will work with my clients to develop treatment plan goals that are appropiate. I have knowledge of multiple pathways of recovery, CBT, DBT and use a Humanistic approach while meeting people where they are at and using motivational interviewing to helping clients with ambivalence.
I am passionate about helping people. I spent over 14 years working in prevention as a high school and middle school health educator and most recently have 9 years helping people who struggle with alcoholism, substance misuse, and addiction. I truly believe recovery is possible for everyone. I am familiar with various screening and assessments and will work with my clients to develop treatment plan goals that are appropiate. I have knowledge of multiple pathways of recovery, CBT, DBT and use a Humanistic approach while meeting people where they are at and using motivational interviewing to helping clients with ambivalence.
(351) 529-6634 View (351) 529-6634
Photo of Allyson Rogers, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Allyson Rogers
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923
Waitlist for new clients
Welcome! I offer individual psychotherapy to children ages 4+, adolescents, and emerging adults, as well as parental support and guidance. I work with clients who are experiencing a range of emotional, behavioral, academic, and relational concerns. I value working with clients of all races, ethnicities, genders, and sexual orientations. Using play, expressive, and talk therapy, I work collaboratively to help clients gain a deeper understanding of what is creating and maintaining challenges, and how attachment to self can help bring about sustainable change.
Welcome! I offer individual psychotherapy to children ages 4+, adolescents, and emerging adults, as well as parental support and guidance. I work with clients who are experiencing a range of emotional, behavioral, academic, and relational concerns. I value working with clients of all races, ethnicities, genders, and sexual orientations. Using play, expressive, and talk therapy, I work collaboratively to help clients gain a deeper understanding of what is creating and maintaining challenges, and how attachment to self can help bring about sustainable change.
(351) 200-4179 View (351) 200-4179
Photo of Raiza Felicitas, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Raiza Felicitas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923
Waitlist for new clients
February 2024 UPDATE: I have limited therapy slots (in person only) during the day on Tuesdays. I specialize in adult clients struggling with relationship issues, anxiety, depression, life transitions, and self-confidence. As a therapist, I recognize that life doesn’t always come easy. Relationships can be tricky and life changes can make us feel vulnerable and anxious. Simply put, being human is complicated. Therapy with me will give you the safe space you deserve to talk about life's challenges and navigate through them effectively.
February 2024 UPDATE: I have limited therapy slots (in person only) during the day on Tuesdays. I specialize in adult clients struggling with relationship issues, anxiety, depression, life transitions, and self-confidence. As a therapist, I recognize that life doesn’t always come easy. Relationships can be tricky and life changes can make us feel vulnerable and anxious. Simply put, being human is complicated. Therapy with me will give you the safe space you deserve to talk about life's challenges and navigate through them effectively.
(351) 777-5357 View (351) 777-5357
Photo of Diane Wray Thomas, Counselor in Danvers, MA
Diane Wray Thomas
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923
Not accepting new clients
Coming to see a therapist is often a difficult and anxiety ridden decision. My job, as your therapist, is to acknowledge this and to help you gain a better understanding of what you are feeling and experiencing. Whether you are seeking individual or couple's counseling, we will explore, perhaps challenge, and hopefully find some resolution to your presenting problem.
Coming to see a therapist is often a difficult and anxiety ridden decision. My job, as your therapist, is to acknowledge this and to help you gain a better understanding of what you are feeling and experiencing. Whether you are seeking individual or couple's counseling, we will explore, perhaps challenge, and hopefully find some resolution to your presenting problem.
(781) 780-4237 View (781) 780-4237
Photo of Amanda Wait, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Amanda Wait
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923
Not accepting new clients
**NOT ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS** Are you, your child, or family struggling with daily stressors, conflict, communication, or other challenges? Are you, your child or another family member struggling with mental health concerns, such as anxiety, depression, emotion regulation or coping? Are you having challenges with parenting strategies that work? It may be time to gain control of any (or all) of these issues in your life. Therapy can be a place for you to set goals for happiness and calmness in your life.
**NOT ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS** Are you, your child, or family struggling with daily stressors, conflict, communication, or other challenges? Are you, your child or another family member struggling with mental health concerns, such as anxiety, depression, emotion regulation or coping? Are you having challenges with parenting strategies that work? It may be time to gain control of any (or all) of these issues in your life. Therapy can be a place for you to set goals for happiness and calmness in your life.
(978) 288-1643 View (978) 288-1643
Photo of Rose Pietal, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Rose Pietal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
My motto is "If you don't like something change it; if you can't change it, change the way you think about it." - Mary Engelbreit. Rose is a Licensed Independent Certified Social Worker. She graduated with a BA degree in Psychology from UMass Amherst and a Masters in Social Work from Salem State. Rose specializes in treating issues pertaining to anxiety, depression, stress management, relationship issues, parenting, coping skills and life transitions. Rose provides a safe, non judgemental environment for her clients to comfortably engage in therapy.
My motto is "If you don't like something change it; if you can't change it, change the way you think about it." - Mary Engelbreit. Rose is a Licensed Independent Certified Social Worker. She graduated with a BA degree in Psychology from UMass Amherst and a Masters in Social Work from Salem State. Rose specializes in treating issues pertaining to anxiety, depression, stress management, relationship issues, parenting, coping skills and life transitions. Rose provides a safe, non judgemental environment for her clients to comfortably engage in therapy.
(978) 278-3886 View (978) 278-3886
Photo of Danielle Wegrzyn, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Danielle Wegrzyn
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923
I am an LICSW with decades of experience working with a variety of ages and demographics in the social work field. My main areas of focus include maternal mental health, young adults, life transitions, and the complimentary integration of faith and mental health.
I am an LICSW with decades of experience working with a variety of ages and demographics in the social work field. My main areas of focus include maternal mental health, young adults, life transitions, and the complimentary integration of faith and mental health.
(978) 644-5871 x1037 View (978) 644-5871 x1037
Photo of Jill McVane, Counselor in Danvers, MA
Jill McVane
Counselor, LMHC, MEd, SAC
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Do you need help managing a difficult life situation, a life transition, a crisis, phase of life change or other issue that is causing you to feel unsettled? People go to therapy because something is causing them to feel "off" and that feeling may be affecting their life in some way. My focus is to meet clients where they are at and come up with a plan together to help manage whatever it is that is causing the issue. I offer a judgement free environment where clients can open their hearts and minds to a better life.
Do you need help managing a difficult life situation, a life transition, a crisis, phase of life change or other issue that is causing you to feel unsettled? People go to therapy because something is causing them to feel "off" and that feeling may be affecting their life in some way. My focus is to meet clients where they are at and come up with a plan together to help manage whatever it is that is causing the issue. I offer a judgement free environment where clients can open their hearts and minds to a better life.
(351) 200-3425 View (351) 200-3425
Photo of Alycia Thornton, Counselor in Danvers, MA
Alycia Thornton
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923
I am passionate about helping people to overcome the challenges of trauma and PTSD symptoms and to understand the influence of these on relationships. An important part of the work I do is assisting loved ones of people with addiction who often find themselves dealing with significant anxiety, depressive symptoms, and relationship difficulties. I also work with couples to help them recover from affairs, improve communication, and increase or restore trust in each other.vI come from a Christian perspective and integrate this into my work with clients with similar beliefs.
I am passionate about helping people to overcome the challenges of trauma and PTSD symptoms and to understand the influence of these on relationships. An important part of the work I do is assisting loved ones of people with addiction who often find themselves dealing with significant anxiety, depressive symptoms, and relationship difficulties. I also work with couples to help them recover from affairs, improve communication, and increase or restore trust in each other.vI come from a Christian perspective and integrate this into my work with clients with similar beliefs.
(978) 928-0454 View (978) 928-0454
Photo of Haley Norrgard, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Haley Norrgard
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923
Haley Norrgard is a Licensed Certified Social Worker in Massachusetts. She earned her MSW from Salem State University. Haley uses a client-centered approach to therapy where she joins with you to help you to be the person you want to be. She believes that you can be the architect of your own life and will meet you wherever you choose to begin the journey. Haley offers tools and insight to aid you in uncovering the root of your issues and supports you while you find the solutions that best fit you. Haley's area of focus is working with young children to young adults.
Haley Norrgard is a Licensed Certified Social Worker in Massachusetts. She earned her MSW from Salem State University. Haley uses a client-centered approach to therapy where she joins with you to help you to be the person you want to be. She believes that you can be the architect of your own life and will meet you wherever you choose to begin the journey. Haley offers tools and insight to aid you in uncovering the root of your issues and supports you while you find the solutions that best fit you. Haley's area of focus is working with young children to young adults.
(351) 529-6733 View (351) 529-6733
Photo of Leslie Toner: Anxiety Specialist, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Leslie Toner: Anxiety Specialist
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, BHS, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923  (Online Only)
As a therapist, for 28 years, I go beyond talk therapy & help my clients heal the root of their anxiety. You may be feeling anxious, overwhelmed, stressed, disconnected, lonely or stuck living on auto pilot. You may spend lots of time in your head regretting yesterday or worried about tomorrow. You want to quiet the inner critic but you don't know how. I will walk along side you to help you learn, understand & implement new tools & strategies that will help you transform your relationship with anxiety. I have personally walked this healing journey & have helped over 1,000 clients do the same.
As a therapist, for 28 years, I go beyond talk therapy & help my clients heal the root of their anxiety. You may be feeling anxious, overwhelmed, stressed, disconnected, lonely or stuck living on auto pilot. You may spend lots of time in your head regretting yesterday or worried about tomorrow. You want to quiet the inner critic but you don't know how. I will walk along side you to help you learn, understand & implement new tools & strategies that will help you transform your relationship with anxiety. I have personally walked this healing journey & have helped over 1,000 clients do the same.
(978) 912-7602 View (978) 912-7602
Photo of Renbrook Center for Mental Health LLC in Danvers, MA
Renbrook Center for Mental Health LLC
PMHNP, BC
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Appointments available as early as this week and next week! 100% Telehealth Practice. I provide care to clients located anywhere in Massachusetts via telehealth. I am licensed to provide the following services: 1. Psychotherapy (talk therapy); 2. Psychiatric medication prescribing for depression, anxiety, or other mental health conditions; 3. Both talk therapy and psychiatric medication prescribing. I founded Renbrook Center for Mental Health LLC to provide high-quality, individualized mental healthcare to every person I come to know in my practice.
Appointments available as early as this week and next week! 100% Telehealth Practice. I provide care to clients located anywhere in Massachusetts via telehealth. I am licensed to provide the following services: 1. Psychotherapy (talk therapy); 2. Psychiatric medication prescribing for depression, anxiety, or other mental health conditions; 3. Both talk therapy and psychiatric medication prescribing. I founded Renbrook Center for Mental Health LLC to provide high-quality, individualized mental healthcare to every person I come to know in my practice.
(339) 230-2086 View (339) 230-2086
Photo of Kathryn P Clark, Counselor in Danvers, MA
Kathryn P Clark
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923
Not accepting new clients
I assist young adults in identifying their needs to increase their confidence in entering into the world. I also work with new mothers to assist them in adjusting to motherhood and managing new responsibilities. I am a firm believer in the power of the therapy relationship. A combination of support and challenge can help cultivate trust, confidence, and assertiveness. My clients have confirmed that their new knowledge and confidence is then carried over into their daily lives.
I assist young adults in identifying their needs to increase their confidence in entering into the world. I also work with new mothers to assist them in adjusting to motherhood and managing new responsibilities. I am a firm believer in the power of the therapy relationship. A combination of support and challenge can help cultivate trust, confidence, and assertiveness. My clients have confirmed that their new knowledge and confidence is then carried over into their daily lives.
(617) 936-7044 View (617) 936-7044
Photo of R Scott Carpenter, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Danvers, MA
R Scott Carpenter
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, LADC
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923
I offer expertise for those seeking relief and ways to cope with difficult relationships & life circumstances challenged by symptoms of anxiety, depression, trauma & PTSD, and addiction. Research is showing that many are mis-diagnosed with various disorders when the core issues reside in untreated PTSD symptoms. As a Licensed Addiction Counselor I educate those seeking substance abuse treatment and support. I specialize in couples counseling. I'm a trauma informed psychotherapist. My training focuses on improving our self-concept to free us from faulty beliefs & unhealthy behaviors learned as a child or as a result of trauma.
I offer expertise for those seeking relief and ways to cope with difficult relationships & life circumstances challenged by symptoms of anxiety, depression, trauma & PTSD, and addiction. Research is showing that many are mis-diagnosed with various disorders when the core issues reside in untreated PTSD symptoms. As a Licensed Addiction Counselor I educate those seeking substance abuse treatment and support. I specialize in couples counseling. I'm a trauma informed psychotherapist. My training focuses on improving our self-concept to free us from faulty beliefs & unhealthy behaviors learned as a child or as a result of trauma.
(978) 451-6050 View (978) 451-6050
Photo of Holistic Recovery LLC, Counselor in Danvers, MA
Holistic Recovery LLC
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Danvers, MA 01923  (Online Only)
Hi there, Holistic Recovery LLC is a group practice focused on high quality, eclectic care with seasoned clinicians. We all have extensive experience in treating a wide range of problems including (but not limited to) - mood disorders, substance abuse, personality disorders & perinatal health. In addition, we all have community mental health experience which allows us to be connected to the larger community. Please reach out and we will match you with a clinician who is the best fit for you!
Hi there, Holistic Recovery LLC is a group practice focused on high quality, eclectic care with seasoned clinicians. We all have extensive experience in treating a wide range of problems including (but not limited to) - mood disorders, substance abuse, personality disorders & perinatal health. In addition, we all have community mental health experience which allows us to be connected to the larger community. Please reach out and we will match you with a clinician who is the best fit for you!
(339) 217-3951 View (339) 217-3951
Photo of Courtney M Waldron, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Danvers, MA
Courtney M Waldron
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Danvers, MA 01923  (Online Only)
Currently accepting new clients. My work aims to help individuals experiencing a variety of life stressors feel empowered to make meaningful change. I treat young adults/adults and have experience working with a wide range of interpersonal, behavioral and substance abuse challenges. My approach is affirming and compassionate while centered around exploring your strengths in a non-judgmental and trauma-informed setting.
Currently accepting new clients. My work aims to help individuals experiencing a variety of life stressors feel empowered to make meaningful change. I treat young adults/adults and have experience working with a wide range of interpersonal, behavioral and substance abuse challenges. My approach is affirming and compassionate while centered around exploring your strengths in a non-judgmental and trauma-informed setting.
(351) 222-3562 View (351) 222-3562

See more therapy options for Danvers

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Danvers, MA

100+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Danvers, MA who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
94% Depression
83% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
71% Coping Skills
68% Trauma and PTSD
60% Grief

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

92% BlueCross and BlueShield
68% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
64% Harvard Pilgrim

How Therapists in Danvers, MA see their clients

71% In Person and Online
29% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
17% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Danvers?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.