Therapists in Back Bay, Boston, MA

Photo of Career Counseling, Psychologist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Career Counseling
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
Have you "fallen" into your career and wondered how you got there? I provide in-depth career counseling & assessment through my lens as a clinical psychologist, from early career professionals to seasoned professionals in transition to help you better understand yourself personally and professionally through assessment of skills, talents, interests, and emotional intelligence. The methodology and breadth of 10 evidence-based assessments distinguish my approach from traditional career coaching and counseling, leading to a deeper understanding of self, allowing clients to get rid of the "clutter" that keeps them stuck.
Have you "fallen" into your career and wondered how you got there? I provide in-depth career counseling & assessment through my lens as a clinical psychologist, from early career professionals to seasoned professionals in transition to help you better understand yourself personally and professionally through assessment of skills, talents, interests, and emotional intelligence. The methodology and breadth of 10 evidence-based assessments distinguish my approach from traditional career coaching and counseling, leading to a deeper understanding of self, allowing clients to get rid of the "clutter" that keeps them stuck.
(617) 996-7673 View (617) 996-7673
Photo of Kathy Walsh Samp, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Kathy Walsh Samp
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02115  (Online Only)
I believe psychotherapy is about self-discovery, change and empowerment. If you feel stressed or unhappy, psychotherapy can help. My goal is to create an emotionally safe place, so that together, we can find the right answers. I appreciate that life can be complicated and that solutions are unique to the person. I am warm and nonjudgmental and my approach is client-centered and collaborative. My clients see me as knowledgeable and supportive. I listen carefully with an open mind. I would feel privileged to be part of your journey of growth and healing.
I believe psychotherapy is about self-discovery, change and empowerment. If you feel stressed or unhappy, psychotherapy can help. My goal is to create an emotionally safe place, so that together, we can find the right answers. I appreciate that life can be complicated and that solutions are unique to the person. I am warm and nonjudgmental and my approach is client-centered and collaborative. My clients see me as knowledgeable and supportive. I listen carefully with an open mind. I would feel privileged to be part of your journey of growth and healing.
(508) 503-1233 View (508) 503-1233
Photo of Siobhan Lamont, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Siobhan Lamont
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116  (Online Only)
It is a courageous step to seek counseling and support in one’s journey. Whether you have been struggling with self-defeating patterns or looking for guidance with nutritional coaching, I strive to provide a safe and nurturing space to explore these areas of one’s life, moving toward harmony and healing. I'm a Therapist (MSW, LICSW) and Certified Integrative Health Coach, specializing in the intersection of mental health and nutrition. I adopt a holistic philosophy focusing on foundational pillars of health including the role of nutrition, movement, sleep, spirituality in order to gain a clear picture of your overall health.
It is a courageous step to seek counseling and support in one’s journey. Whether you have been struggling with self-defeating patterns or looking for guidance with nutritional coaching, I strive to provide a safe and nurturing space to explore these areas of one’s life, moving toward harmony and healing. I'm a Therapist (MSW, LICSW) and Certified Integrative Health Coach, specializing in the intersection of mental health and nutrition. I adopt a holistic philosophy focusing on foundational pillars of health including the role of nutrition, movement, sleep, spirituality in order to gain a clear picture of your overall health.
(617) 676-2207 View (617) 676-2207
Photo of Samantha McAllister, Marriage & Family Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Samantha McAllister
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
Are you ready to make a change in your life but want the support to do so? As a therapist I offer a space for you to pinpoint your hopes and goals, expand your understanding of your values, and ultimately take your power back from the problems that try to control you. I believe that you are the expert on your life and would love to join you on your journey to self-trust and growth. I work with individuals and couples with an integrative, individualized, and strength-based approach. Together I hope to create a curious, collaborative, and non-judgmental space to help you feel valued and supported in your journey.
Are you ready to make a change in your life but want the support to do so? As a therapist I offer a space for you to pinpoint your hopes and goals, expand your understanding of your values, and ultimately take your power back from the problems that try to control you. I believe that you are the expert on your life and would love to join you on your journey to self-trust and growth. I work with individuals and couples with an integrative, individualized, and strength-based approach. Together I hope to create a curious, collaborative, and non-judgmental space to help you feel valued and supported in your journey.
(857) 847-5192 View (857) 847-5192
Photo of March Kim, Pre-Licensed Professional in Back Bay, Boston, MA
March Kim
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116  (Online Only)
I believe that healing in relationship with one another is a critical prerequisite to our collective liberation and reimagined future. As a therapist, I hope to create a space that promotes a sense of trust and safety where we can work collaboratively to remove barriers and gain tools to thrive throughout life’s various challenges. My job is to support you in solidarity with humility and authenticity alongside an understanding of how our lived experiences shape us to be who we are.
I believe that healing in relationship with one another is a critical prerequisite to our collective liberation and reimagined future. As a therapist, I hope to create a space that promotes a sense of trust and safety where we can work collaboratively to remove barriers and gain tools to thrive throughout life’s various challenges. My job is to support you in solidarity with humility and authenticity alongside an understanding of how our lived experiences shape us to be who we are.
(508) 501-6078 View (508) 501-6078
Photo of Matthew Goodnow, Psychologist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Matthew Goodnow
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
I specialize in providing neuropsychological assessments for children, adolescents, and young adults. I utilize a strength-based approach in my evaluations and work collaboratively with parents, teachers, therapists, and other professionals to best understand each patient. I provide diagnostic clarity regarding ADHD, dyslexia, autism, anxiety, and other issues, and offer targeted recommendations individually-tailored to each patient's needs. My goal for every evaluation is to provide a "road map" to help each patient achieve success at school, work, and/or at home.
I specialize in providing neuropsychological assessments for children, adolescents, and young adults. I utilize a strength-based approach in my evaluations and work collaboratively with parents, teachers, therapists, and other professionals to best understand each patient. I provide diagnostic clarity regarding ADHD, dyslexia, autism, anxiety, and other issues, and offer targeted recommendations individually-tailored to each patient's needs. My goal for every evaluation is to provide a "road map" to help each patient achieve success at school, work, and/or at home.
(339) 201-5045 x6 View (339) 201-5045 x6
Photo of Stephen Brady, Psychologist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Stephen Brady
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02115
I have been a psychologist for 25+ years during which time I have provided psychotherapy primarily to gay male professionals and students. I have longstanding and ongoing clinical, research and teaching experience relevant to the many developmental issues which confront gay men across the lifespan including coming out, depression, anxiety, relationship and intimacy issues, career challenges, substance abuse, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS and successful aging .
I have been a psychologist for 25+ years during which time I have provided psychotherapy primarily to gay male professionals and students. I have longstanding and ongoing clinical, research and teaching experience relevant to the many developmental issues which confront gay men across the lifespan including coming out, depression, anxiety, relationship and intimacy issues, career challenges, substance abuse, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS and successful aging .
(617) 431-5901 View (617) 431-5901
Photo of Marissa Genduso, Counselor in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Marissa Genduso
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
Marissa is a dedicated and compassionate Licensed Mental Health Clinician (LMHC) here to help you on your journey to better mental health and well-being. Marissa holds a Master's degree in Mental Health Counseling from Suffolk University with over 5 years of experience, and is passionate about providing support to those facing a range of mental health challenges. With a background in anxiety disorders, trauma/PTSD, substance use disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders, her extensive experience has allowed her to work with diverse individuals of all ages.
Marissa is a dedicated and compassionate Licensed Mental Health Clinician (LMHC) here to help you on your journey to better mental health and well-being. Marissa holds a Master's degree in Mental Health Counseling from Suffolk University with over 5 years of experience, and is passionate about providing support to those facing a range of mental health challenges. With a background in anxiety disorders, trauma/PTSD, substance use disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders, her extensive experience has allowed her to work with diverse individuals of all ages.
(857) 309-2104 View (857) 309-2104
Photo of Christele Candelario, Pre-Licensed Professional in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Christele Candelario
Pre-Licensed Professional, MS, NCC, CTP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02199
My name is Christele Candelario, I am a board-certified Masters level therapist and a Certified Trauma Professional. I have experience working with individuals with anxiety, mood disorders, PTSD, personality disorders, and many other conditions at a variety of ages and life stages. I have focused on building expertise in trauma treatment and like to approach therapy holistically. I work from an integrative approach, believing that each client is unique and that there is no "one size fits all" approach. Everyone's therapy needs are different and I enjoy meeting clients where they are at.
My name is Christele Candelario, I am a board-certified Masters level therapist and a Certified Trauma Professional. I have experience working with individuals with anxiety, mood disorders, PTSD, personality disorders, and many other conditions at a variety of ages and life stages. I have focused on building expertise in trauma treatment and like to approach therapy holistically. I work from an integrative approach, believing that each client is unique and that there is no "one size fits all" approach. Everyone's therapy needs are different and I enjoy meeting clients where they are at.
(508) 978-1351 View (508) 978-1351
Photo of Morrigan Phillips, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Morrigan Phillips
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I am committed to helping my clients work through their challenges, worries and anxieties towards being able to navigate emotions, relationships, communication and life changes skillfully and with self compassion. I believe that each of us is the storyteller of our lives. You have authorship of the narrative of life events, defining your relationship to those things that have happened to you. My practice values the individual experiences of each person living in a complex world that places a person sometimes within systems they have little influence over but which have a great deal of influence over the person. ​
I am committed to helping my clients work through their challenges, worries and anxieties towards being able to navigate emotions, relationships, communication and life changes skillfully and with self compassion. I believe that each of us is the storyteller of our lives. You have authorship of the narrative of life events, defining your relationship to those things that have happened to you. My practice values the individual experiences of each person living in a complex world that places a person sometimes within systems they have little influence over but which have a great deal of influence over the person. ​
(857) 375-8991 View (857) 375-8991
Photo of Jacqueline Alfonso Barry, Psychologist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Jacqueline Alfonso Barry
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
I am a bicultural and bilingual (English and Spanish) licensed clinical psychologist with over 17 years of experience working with adolescents, college students, adults and couples. My areas of specialization and interest include: substance abuse, anxiety, depression, health-related concerns (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking cessation), stress management, and relationship issues. My training in evidence-based practices and experience as a faculty member and active researcher inform how I tailor treatment in individual and group therapy, as well as for couples.
I am a bicultural and bilingual (English and Spanish) licensed clinical psychologist with over 17 years of experience working with adolescents, college students, adults and couples. My areas of specialization and interest include: substance abuse, anxiety, depression, health-related concerns (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking cessation), stress management, and relationship issues. My training in evidence-based practices and experience as a faculty member and active researcher inform how I tailor treatment in individual and group therapy, as well as for couples.
(617) 431-2389 View (617) 431-2389
Photo of Mary Parkinson, Counselor in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Mary Parkinson
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Most of us find our days manageable, but sometimes we need help. I have worked with people of all walks of life who are struggling to create balance in their life. I use a down-to-earth, empathic approach which quickly puts people at ease, while my experience and training in the field informs the discussion.
Most of us find our days manageable, but sometimes we need help. I have worked with people of all walks of life who are struggling to create balance in their life. I use a down-to-earth, empathic approach which quickly puts people at ease, while my experience and training in the field informs the discussion.
(857) 663-0661 View (857) 663-0661
Photo of Anastaxia Kirkpatrick, Counselor in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Anastaxia Kirkpatrick
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02199  (Online Only)
Hello! My name is Anastaxia and I am a licensed mental health counselor (LMHC) in the state of Massachusetts. I have my BA in psychology and MA in forensic mental health counseling. I have worked with several mental health organizations including emergency services, inpatient psychiatric hospital, and treatment based prison. I have worked with a variety of individuals experiencing acute mental health episodes, addiction, anxiety, depression, etc.
Hello! My name is Anastaxia and I am a licensed mental health counselor (LMHC) in the state of Massachusetts. I have my BA in psychology and MA in forensic mental health counseling. I have worked with several mental health organizations including emergency services, inpatient psychiatric hospital, and treatment based prison. I have worked with a variety of individuals experiencing acute mental health episodes, addiction, anxiety, depression, etc.
(617) 915-4479 View (617) 915-4479
Photo of Jennifer Harrison, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Jennifer Harrison
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02115  (Online Only)
I am a bicoastal therapist specializing in trauma and addiction. With over 25 years of experience in the field, I bring a winding journey of knowledge to my practice from inpatient mental health, residential, school and outpatient clinical settings and substance abuse programs. My approach is holistic, integrative and tailored to the individual. I look at the whole person, not through a lens of pathology but from a place of being in one's environment and how the body, mind and spirit are involved in growth and recovery. I often work well with clients who are not satisfied with standard or traditional talk therapy.
I am a bicoastal therapist specializing in trauma and addiction. With over 25 years of experience in the field, I bring a winding journey of knowledge to my practice from inpatient mental health, residential, school and outpatient clinical settings and substance abuse programs. My approach is holistic, integrative and tailored to the individual. I look at the whole person, not through a lens of pathology but from a place of being in one's environment and how the body, mind and spirit are involved in growth and recovery. I often work well with clients who are not satisfied with standard or traditional talk therapy.
(508) 257-7924 View (508) 257-7924
Photo of Greg Corbett, Counselor in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Greg Corbett
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02199  (Online Only)
Hello! My name is Greg Corbett and I am a LMHC in the state of Massachusetts. I have been working as a therapist on some level for the last 7 years. During my time as an undergraduate, I had the pleasure of having two separate internships; one at a rape crisis/domestic violence hotline and one at a substance use treatment center. Through these two internships, I was able to learn what it was like to be a therapist and discover that I wanted to continue to pursue my education to become a therapist myself.
Hello! My name is Greg Corbett and I am a LMHC in the state of Massachusetts. I have been working as a therapist on some level for the last 7 years. During my time as an undergraduate, I had the pleasure of having two separate internships; one at a rape crisis/domestic violence hotline and one at a substance use treatment center. Through these two internships, I was able to learn what it was like to be a therapist and discover that I wanted to continue to pursue my education to become a therapist myself.
(617) 637-4826 View (617) 637-4826
Photo of Laura Adamic, Psychologist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Laura Adamic
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
I am a licensed psychologist specialized in providing individual psychotherapy to adults. I work compassionately with my clients to create personal growth, including: Developing insight about one's characteristic ways of dealing with stress, engaging in relationships, or maintaining motivation * * Creating healthy responses to stress at work or in family life * * Navigating transitions like divorce, loss, pregnancy, job change, relocation * * Recognizing and managing anxiety and depression * * Unpacking complex family dynamics and histories * * Clarifying personal values and aligning goals accordingly.
I am a licensed psychologist specialized in providing individual psychotherapy to adults. I work compassionately with my clients to create personal growth, including: Developing insight about one's characteristic ways of dealing with stress, engaging in relationships, or maintaining motivation * * Creating healthy responses to stress at work or in family life * * Navigating transitions like divorce, loss, pregnancy, job change, relocation * * Recognizing and managing anxiety and depression * * Unpacking complex family dynamics and histories * * Clarifying personal values and aligning goals accordingly.
(617) 580-3138 View (617) 580-3138
Photo of Rachel Stanton, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Rachel Stanton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
You've experienced sexual assault (and you might find it hard to label it that way). You struggle with intimacy and are worried there might be something wrong with you. You often feel anxious and on edge. Even when things are going well at work or in relationships it feels like you are waiting for something to go wrong. Sometimes during sex you cry, dissociate, or try to just "get through it". You're worried you might never get over the bad things that have happened to you and that on some level you are broken.
You've experienced sexual assault (and you might find it hard to label it that way). You struggle with intimacy and are worried there might be something wrong with you. You often feel anxious and on edge. Even when things are going well at work or in relationships it feels like you are waiting for something to go wrong. Sometimes during sex you cry, dissociate, or try to just "get through it". You're worried you might never get over the bad things that have happened to you and that on some level you are broken.
(857) 420-4710 View (857) 420-4710
Photo of Nicholas Kolasinski, Psychologist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Nicholas Kolasinski
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
Throughout life, we all face challenges and stressors that can be too difficult to resolve alone. Oftentimes, the viewpoint of a nonjudgmental third person can provide exceptionally useful new perspectives and insights. Working together, I help my clients discover their values, learn new ways of managing distress, and live their optimal life.
Throughout life, we all face challenges and stressors that can be too difficult to resolve alone. Oftentimes, the viewpoint of a nonjudgmental third person can provide exceptionally useful new perspectives and insights. Working together, I help my clients discover their values, learn new ways of managing distress, and live their optimal life.
(857) 763-5117 View (857) 763-5117
Photo of L. Stella Loaiza, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
L. Stella Loaiza
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116
Not accepting new clients
"I am committed to help you find that feeling of empowerment within you that you may not have even known you had, and then using that empowerment to resolve real life situations."
"I am committed to help you find that feeling of empowerment within you that you may not have even known you had, and then using that empowerment to resolve real life situations."
(617) 712-0311 View (617) 712-0311
Photo of Crystal Carrington Jones, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Back Bay, Boston, MA
Crystal Carrington Jones
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Back Bay, Boston, MA 02116  (Online Only)
I am looking to work with people who are not satisfied with how things are in their life, and ready to take control in order for their lives to improve. In addition to actively listening and problem solving, I coach individuals to activate specific techniques designed to be applied throughout their daily lives. It is in the hands of the individual to apply these skills in order to reach their goals. If an individual is not quite there, we'll work together to figure out what's blocking their potential.
I am looking to work with people who are not satisfied with how things are in their life, and ready to take control in order for their lives to improve. In addition to actively listening and problem solving, I coach individuals to activate specific techniques designed to be applied throughout their daily lives. It is in the hands of the individual to apply these skills in order to reach their goals. If an individual is not quite there, we'll work together to figure out what's blocking their potential.
(857) 995-5016 View (857) 995-5016

See more therapy options for Back Bay, Boston

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Back Bay, Boston, MA

700+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in Back Bay, Boston, MA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
75% Self Esteem
74% Relationship Issues
68% Coping Skills
67% Trauma and PTSD
63% Stress

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

79% BlueCross and BlueShield
59% Optum
58% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Back Bay, Boston, MA see their clients

60% Online Only
40% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

81% Female
17% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Back Bay, Boston?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.