Therapists in Jefferson County, KY

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Photo of Dr. Karen McCurry, Psychologist in Jefferson County, KY
Dr. Karen McCurry
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
5 Endorsed
Louisville, KY 40222
Is adoption part of your family story? Do you have a child or teenager who is struggling with attachment issues or has a history of trauma? Are you a parent looking for help for your child or teen who struggles with emotional difficulties or has behavior problems? Do you and your teen have conflict related to technology. Dr. Karen can help. Dr. Karen specializes in the treatment of children, teens, women, and families. She has particular expertise in adult and child attachment, parenting, women's issues, relational trauma, pre and post adoption services, and international consultation with orphan care communities.
Is adoption part of your family story? Do you have a child or teenager who is struggling with attachment issues or has a history of trauma? Are you a parent looking for help for your child or teen who struggles with emotional difficulties or has behavior problems? Do you and your teen have conflict related to technology. Dr. Karen can help. Dr. Karen specializes in the treatment of children, teens, women, and families. She has particular expertise in adult and child attachment, parenting, women's issues, relational trauma, pre and post adoption services, and international consultation with orphan care communities.
(502) 350-9042 View (502) 350-9042
Photo of Richard N Ballard, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Jefferson County, KY
Richard N Ballard
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC, CADC
Verified
Louisville, KY 40222
Sometimes life can be hard. We can get trapped living in the problem rather than the solution. Let's work together to make the changes you want. Although I enjoy working with all client types, my specialty is in substance abuse and codependency. I particularly enjoy working with adolescent and young adult males who are struggling with "failure to launch" issues as they make the transition to becoming responsible adults. My motto is "people will not care how much you know until they know how much you care." Building a positive client/therapist relationship sets the basis for growth.
Sometimes life can be hard. We can get trapped living in the problem rather than the solution. Let's work together to make the changes you want. Although I enjoy working with all client types, my specialty is in substance abuse and codependency. I particularly enjoy working with adolescent and young adult males who are struggling with "failure to launch" issues as they make the transition to becoming responsible adults. My motto is "people will not care how much you know until they know how much you care." Building a positive client/therapist relationship sets the basis for growth.
(502) 410-4843 View (502) 410-4843
Photo of HealingBridge Therapy, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
HealingBridge Therapy
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Louisville, KY 40218
Is there growing distance or escalating conflict in your relationship? Are you or your partner beginning to lose trust in one another? Have you had a bad experience with couples therapy in the past? All of these are areas I am passionate about & skilled at helping clients work through. I am a Master Trainer in Gottman Method, informed by extensive training in Emotionally Focused Therapy. My specialization means that your therapy with me will involve the two of you interacting in profoundly new ways in an emotionally safe environment. With me serving as your guide on the side, you'll learn to relate to each other honestly & lovingly.
Is there growing distance or escalating conflict in your relationship? Are you or your partner beginning to lose trust in one another? Have you had a bad experience with couples therapy in the past? All of these are areas I am passionate about & skilled at helping clients work through. I am a Master Trainer in Gottman Method, informed by extensive training in Emotionally Focused Therapy. My specialization means that your therapy with me will involve the two of you interacting in profoundly new ways in an emotionally safe environment. With me serving as your guide on the side, you'll learn to relate to each other honestly & lovingly.
(502) 385-4045 View (502) 385-4045
Photo of Jennifer Bramlett, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Jennifer Bramlett
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Louisville, KY 40220
I have immediate in-network availability and accepting new patients. I believe that you are the expert of your own life. I can offer a safe, supportive environment to help you heal and empower you to reach your goals. I specialize in working with individuals ages 18 years and older who encounter challenges with depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and trauma. I use a multi-modal therapeutic approach to tailor treatment to meet your specific needs and goals. I am also an LGBTQ+ ally and offer a safe space for individuals identifying as LGBTQ+
I have immediate in-network availability and accepting new patients. I believe that you are the expert of your own life. I can offer a safe, supportive environment to help you heal and empower you to reach your goals. I specialize in working with individuals ages 18 years and older who encounter challenges with depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and trauma. I use a multi-modal therapeutic approach to tailor treatment to meet your specific needs and goals. I am also an LGBTQ+ ally and offer a safe space for individuals identifying as LGBTQ+
(502) 317-1101 View (502) 317-1101
Photo of Becky Antle, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Becky Antle
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, MSSW, LMFT
Verified
Louisville, KY 40243
Providing in person and telehealth options for sessions. Special rates available for new clients and those experiencing financial hardship. I work with individuals, couples, and families with relationship and mental health issues. I have 23 years of experience in areas such as depression, anxiety, trauma, parenting issues, coping with divorce, relationship conflict/decision making, interpersonal violence, and childhood disorders. I also have extensive experience with at-risk youth, psychoeducational programs across multiple topics including mental health, relationship issues, substance use, LGBTQ needs, trauma, and others.
Providing in person and telehealth options for sessions. Special rates available for new clients and those experiencing financial hardship. I work with individuals, couples, and families with relationship and mental health issues. I have 23 years of experience in areas such as depression, anxiety, trauma, parenting issues, coping with divorce, relationship conflict/decision making, interpersonal violence, and childhood disorders. I also have extensive experience with at-risk youth, psychoeducational programs across multiple topics including mental health, relationship issues, substance use, LGBTQ needs, trauma, and others.
(866) 561-4829 View (866) 561-4829
Photo of Lisa Kimbrell, Licensed Professional Counselor Associate in Jefferson County, KY
Lisa Kimbrell
Licensed Professional Counselor Associate , LPCA
Verified
Louisville, KY 40206  (Online Only)
Do you feel alone? Like you’re the only person who doesn’t have the answers? We’ve all felt that way at one time or another. I can help you find your answers, the ones that work for you. I can help you discover your strength to get through the hard time. It’s already in you. Working together, we can build solutions that satisfy you and help you reclaim your peace. We can set goals and build plans to help you thrive and grow! Whether you’re a parent struggling with child-rearing, a couple struggling with communication, someone coming out of a bad relationship, or a woman trying to come into your own power.
Do you feel alone? Like you’re the only person who doesn’t have the answers? We’ve all felt that way at one time or another. I can help you find your answers, the ones that work for you. I can help you discover your strength to get through the hard time. It’s already in you. Working together, we can build solutions that satisfy you and help you reclaim your peace. We can set goals and build plans to help you thrive and grow! Whether you’re a parent struggling with child-rearing, a couple struggling with communication, someone coming out of a bad relationship, or a woman trying to come into your own power.
(502) 289-9150 View (502) 289-9150
Photo of Alice Elizabeth Walker in Jefferson County, KY
Alice Elizabeth Walker
EdD, LPCC
Verified
Louisville, KY 40207
Life can be stressful, but when you are confronted with major change, loss or trauma the simplest tasks can feel overwhelming. Therapy can help support, guide and heal current and past events, heal depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, abuse, as well as change patterns that continue to prevent relationship, social and professional goals from being met.
Life can be stressful, but when you are confronted with major change, loss or trauma the simplest tasks can feel overwhelming. Therapy can help support, guide and heal current and past events, heal depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, abuse, as well as change patterns that continue to prevent relationship, social and professional goals from being met.
(502) 498-4651 View (502) 498-4651
Photo of Sharon Kathleen Whitmer, Pastoral Counselor in Jefferson County, KY
Sharon Kathleen Whitmer
Pastoral Counselor, KYLPC, EdD, MEd
Verified
Louisville, KY 40241  (Online Only)
While I am trained in counseling theories and techniques, I believe using the Bible as a guide to explore the emotions that often paralyze our daily lives and relationships is fundamental to reaching healing and growth. I have earned a Doctor of Education, Master of Education, Post-Master in Marriage & Family Therapy, and a Kentucky License in Pastoral Counseling.
While I am trained in counseling theories and techniques, I believe using the Bible as a guide to explore the emotions that often paralyze our daily lives and relationships is fundamental to reaching healing and growth. I have earned a Doctor of Education, Master of Education, Post-Master in Marriage & Family Therapy, and a Kentucky License in Pastoral Counseling.
(502) 215-3555 View (502) 215-3555
Photo of Dr. Pamela B. Stein, Psychologist in Jefferson County, KY
Dr. Pamela B. Stein
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Louisville, KY 40207
Hello, my name is Dr. Pam Stein. I am a licensed clinical psychologist with 25 years of private practice experience. My hope for you in therapy is to achieve (or return to) your highest level of functioning and happiness. To this end, we will work hard together to alleviate, as needed: anxiety/fears, depression/sadness, self-doubt, stress, emotional/mood instability, and relationship patterns which are not working for you (e.g., difficulty with trust). I additionally have had great success helping people better manage their Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) to stay/become as healthy as possible.
Hello, my name is Dr. Pam Stein. I am a licensed clinical psychologist with 25 years of private practice experience. My hope for you in therapy is to achieve (or return to) your highest level of functioning and happiness. To this end, we will work hard together to alleviate, as needed: anxiety/fears, depression/sadness, self-doubt, stress, emotional/mood instability, and relationship patterns which are not working for you (e.g., difficulty with trust). I additionally have had great success helping people better manage their Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) to stay/become as healthy as possible.
(502) 595-7669 View (502) 595-7669
Photo of Cheyenne Hubbard, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Jefferson County, KY
Cheyenne Hubbard
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, LCADC, LPCA
Verified
1 Endorsed
Louisville, KY 40243
With a compassionate and client-centered approach, I aim to create a safe and non-judgmental space where you can explore your thoughts, feelings, and experiences. My goal is to support you in gaining insight, finding solutions, and developing the tools to navigate life's challenges. I have a deep passion for helping individuals heal and grow, drawing from my experience and training in CBT, mindfulness, and EMDR. Whether you're dealing with anxiety, depression, relationship issues, or simply seeking personal growth, I'm dedicated to working with you to achieve your goals.
With a compassionate and client-centered approach, I aim to create a safe and non-judgmental space where you can explore your thoughts, feelings, and experiences. My goal is to support you in gaining insight, finding solutions, and developing the tools to navigate life's challenges. I have a deep passion for helping individuals heal and grow, drawing from my experience and training in CBT, mindfulness, and EMDR. Whether you're dealing with anxiety, depression, relationship issues, or simply seeking personal growth, I'm dedicated to working with you to achieve your goals.
(502) 586-2589 View (502) 586-2589
Photo of Child & Adolescent Psychological Evaluations, LLC in Jefferson County, KY
Child & Adolescent Psychological Evaluations, LLC
MS, EdS, LPP
Verified
Have you tried medications without success? While we can test for a number of issues, we specialize in autism and asperger's. We can also test adults for autism and have resources for helping autistic adults and autistic children navigate the world around them. We do NOT use ABA, and do not refer to ABA providers. We prefer a strengths-based approach to help autistic people in ways best suited for their individual needs. We have an autism-positive approach that is beneficial to autistic clients and their families.
Have you tried medications without success? While we can test for a number of issues, we specialize in autism and asperger's. We can also test adults for autism and have resources for helping autistic adults and autistic children navigate the world around them. We do NOT use ABA, and do not refer to ABA providers. We prefer a strengths-based approach to help autistic people in ways best suited for their individual needs. We have an autism-positive approach that is beneficial to autistic clients and their families.
(502) 373-6174 View (502) 373-6174
Photo of Tiffany Farmer, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Tiffany Farmer
Marriage & Family Therapist, MSSW, LMFT
Verified
Though you may be reluctant, you’ve noticed a pattern in your life of a lack of fulfillment in your relationships. You have wondered about why this might be, you have tried to look inward, to get advice... for some reason, it seems that you've not been able to get at the root of the issue. You find that this has led to feelings of unrest in your life. During the best times, you're able to focus on your other accomplishments, but have a nagging insecurity about not being able to conquer intimacy. At the worst of times, you feel despair, fear abandonment and have anxious thoughts that feel uncontrollable.
Though you may be reluctant, you’ve noticed a pattern in your life of a lack of fulfillment in your relationships. You have wondered about why this might be, you have tried to look inward, to get advice... for some reason, it seems that you've not been able to get at the root of the issue. You find that this has led to feelings of unrest in your life. During the best times, you're able to focus on your other accomplishments, but have a nagging insecurity about not being able to conquer intimacy. At the worst of times, you feel despair, fear abandonment and have anxious thoughts that feel uncontrollable.
(502) 443-9947 View (502) 443-9947
Photo of Barbara E Motley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Barbara E Motley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Louisville, KY 40205
Feeling adrift, like you are treading water? Let me provide a safe harbor. I am a therapist who takes a holistic approach to assist each person in identifying solutions to their issues. I have a wide scope experience: I’ve spent much of my therapy career with adults in crisis, serious mental illness, depression, anxiety, grief, life transitions and substance/alcohol abuse.
Feeling adrift, like you are treading water? Let me provide a safe harbor. I am a therapist who takes a holistic approach to assist each person in identifying solutions to their issues. I have a wide scope experience: I’ve spent much of my therapy career with adults in crisis, serious mental illness, depression, anxiety, grief, life transitions and substance/alcohol abuse.
(502) 532-2718 View (502) 532-2718
Photo of Dr. Whitley Paden, Psychologist in Jefferson County, KY
Dr. Whitley Paden
Psychologist, PsyD, HSPP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Louisville, KY 40243
I specialize in providing research-based treatment to adults with a range of struggles, including trauma/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), substance use disorders, and anxiety disorders. In order to help individuals reach their treatment goals, I use evidence-based interventions and measure progress using short assessments. Furthermore, I recognize the importance of providing genuine warmth and caring to all clients to promote their own self-compassion, acceptance, and growth. “The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change” – Carl Rogers.
I specialize in providing research-based treatment to adults with a range of struggles, including trauma/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), substance use disorders, and anxiety disorders. In order to help individuals reach their treatment goals, I use evidence-based interventions and measure progress using short assessments. Furthermore, I recognize the importance of providing genuine warmth and caring to all clients to promote their own self-compassion, acceptance, and growth. “The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change” – Carl Rogers.
(502) 230-5422 x104 View (502) 230-5422 x104
Photo of Alyssa Clary-Sanchez, Counselor in Jefferson County, KY
Alyssa Clary-Sanchez
Counselor, LPCA
Verified
2 Endorsed
Louisville, KY 40243
Finding hope when facing difficult life circumstances can be challenging, which is why taking the step to seek therapy is a courageous beginning. If you are dealing with difficulty in life circumstances, depression, anxiety, trauma, or any issue that leaves you feeling hopeless or stuck this may be the space to rediscover hope and purpose from a holistic therapeutic approach. I'm currently working with Creative Spirits Behavioral Health via telehealth and would love to connect with you if you reside anywhere in Kentucky. To begin, please contact our office. I look forward to connecting with you soon.
Finding hope when facing difficult life circumstances can be challenging, which is why taking the step to seek therapy is a courageous beginning. If you are dealing with difficulty in life circumstances, depression, anxiety, trauma, or any issue that leaves you feeling hopeless or stuck this may be the space to rediscover hope and purpose from a holistic therapeutic approach. I'm currently working with Creative Spirits Behavioral Health via telehealth and would love to connect with you if you reside anywhere in Kentucky. To begin, please contact our office. I look forward to connecting with you soon.
(502) 837-7685 View (502) 837-7685
Photo of Tiffany Mitchell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Tiffany Mitchell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Louisville, KY 40205
Are you looking for a way to heal emotional pain? If so, I would love to help you on your journey.
Are you looking for a way to heal emotional pain? If so, I would love to help you on your journey.
(502) 237-0460 View (502) 237-0460
Photo of Glenda Alea, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Glenda Alea
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
3 Endorsed
Louisville, KY 40207
You can become the person you want to be. All your difficult decisions, life changes, fears and struggles can be explored in a safe and compassionate manner. My job is to support you in your journey using evidence based practices to promote self-awareness, positive lifestyle choices and to strengthen your relationship with your loved ones. As a Licensed Clinical social worker and certified Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) therapist, I have experience working with a multicultural population. I provide therapeutic services to English, Spanish and Portuguese speaking clients dealing with behavioral and emotional issues.
You can become the person you want to be. All your difficult decisions, life changes, fears and struggles can be explored in a safe and compassionate manner. My job is to support you in your journey using evidence based practices to promote self-awareness, positive lifestyle choices and to strengthen your relationship with your loved ones. As a Licensed Clinical social worker and certified Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) therapist, I have experience working with a multicultural population. I provide therapeutic services to English, Spanish and Portuguese speaking clients dealing with behavioral and emotional issues.
(502) 215-8970 View (502) 215-8970
Photo of Jim Walker, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Jim Walker
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Louisville, KY 40207
Do resentment and fear poison your relationships ? Feel like loneliness is a life sentence? Struggle with truly expressing yourself even with those closest to you? I can help. I work well with individuals and families that are struggling with anxiety, shyness,and isolation including children who are being bullied or who suffer with Aspergers Syndrome. Clients can expect friendly, specific, and practical information and encouragement to express the thoughts and feelings they have been too afraid to communicate before.
Do resentment and fear poison your relationships ? Feel like loneliness is a life sentence? Struggle with truly expressing yourself even with those closest to you? I can help. I work well with individuals and families that are struggling with anxiety, shyness,and isolation including children who are being bullied or who suffer with Aspergers Syndrome. Clients can expect friendly, specific, and practical information and encouragement to express the thoughts and feelings they have been too afraid to communicate before.
(502) 494-6631 View (502) 494-6631
Photo of Anne Pennington Stewart Mssw, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Anne Pennington Stewart Mssw
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Louisville, KY 40207
My clinical focus is improving interpersonal relationships for individuals, couples and families. I work collaboratively, in a private practice setting, valuing safety and the therapeutic relationship to create change together. In addition, I have experience with trauma related, behavioral, and anxiety disorders in early childhood and adolescence. I use a variety of evidence-based practices, including EMDR, to address behavioral, cognitive, and emotional issues, while working eclectically to best meet the needs identified by my clients.
My clinical focus is improving interpersonal relationships for individuals, couples and families. I work collaboratively, in a private practice setting, valuing safety and the therapeutic relationship to create change together. In addition, I have experience with trauma related, behavioral, and anxiety disorders in early childhood and adolescence. I use a variety of evidence-based practices, including EMDR, to address behavioral, cognitive, and emotional issues, while working eclectically to best meet the needs identified by my clients.
(502) 443-1016 View (502) 443-1016
Photo of Jennifer Hofelich, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, KY
Jennifer Hofelich, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Louisville, KY 40207
Hello! "You are so easy to talk to." I've heard this most of my life. I consider it a privilege that people feel comfortable enough with me to open up and authentically express themselves. To me, this is the most sacred part of the experience.
Hello! "You are so easy to talk to." I've heard this most of my life. I consider it a privilege that people feel comfortable enough with me to open up and authentically express themselves. To me, this is the most sacred part of the experience.
(502) 316-9125 View (502) 316-9125

See more therapy options for Jefferson County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Jefferson County, KY

1,000+

Average cost per session

$120

Therapists in Jefferson County, KY who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
86% Depression
72% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
69% Coping Skills
61% Relationship Issues
58% Grief

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

72% Humana
69% Aetna
69% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Jefferson County, KY see their clients

73% In Person and Online
27% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Jefferson County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.