Therapists in Shawnee, KS

Photo of Kristen Dody, LPC, LCPC, Counselor
Kristen Dody
Counselor, LPC, LCPC
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66226  (Online Only)
Are you finding it difficult to support your child in effectively managing their behaviors and emotions, or navigating a strained relationship with them? You are not alone. I understand the complexities of these challenges and offer my support. One particular area of expertise I offer is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), specifically designed for children and families encountering challenging behaviors or parent-child relationship issues. PCIT equips you, as the caregiver, with specific strategies to assist your child in managing their emotions and behaviors effectively.
Are you finding it difficult to support your child in effectively managing their behaviors and emotions, or navigating a strained relationship with them? You are not alone. I understand the complexities of these challenges and offer my support. One particular area of expertise I offer is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), specifically designed for children and families encountering challenging behaviors or parent-child relationship issues. PCIT equips you, as the caregiver, with specific strategies to assist your child in managing their emotions and behaviors effectively.
(913) 246-5715 View (913) 246-5715
Photo of Briana West, LCPC, Counselor
Briana West
Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66216
For those who've faced trauma or were left alone to grapple with complex emotions prematurely, the skills needed to cope with difficult experiences can feel out of reach. Anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem can feel like an endless spiral as you battle between a you that feels capable and you that is knocked off your feet by overwhelming emotions. While in the past you may have been alone in the face of emotional distress you do not have to be alone now. I aim to create a space where you feel seen and heard as you become more comfortable with your emotions, find healing, and move from surviving to thriving.
For those who've faced trauma or were left alone to grapple with complex emotions prematurely, the skills needed to cope with difficult experiences can feel out of reach. Anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem can feel like an endless spiral as you battle between a you that feels capable and you that is knocked off your feet by overwhelming emotions. While in the past you may have been alone in the face of emotional distress you do not have to be alone now. I aim to create a space where you feel seen and heard as you become more comfortable with your emotions, find healing, and move from surviving to thriving.
(913) 347-4286 View (913) 347-4286
Photo of Molly Hoover, LSCSW , LMAC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Molly Hoover
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSCSW , LMAC
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66226  (Online Only)
I am licensed in Kansas and Missouri with 12 plus years of professional work experience across multiple fields of social services including experience in foster care, adoption, substance use, the legal system, mental health, and healthcare. I enjoy specifically working with individuals struggling with substance abuse, life transitions, and self-esteem.
I am licensed in Kansas and Missouri with 12 plus years of professional work experience across multiple fields of social services including experience in foster care, adoption, substance use, the legal system, mental health, and healthcare. I enjoy specifically working with individuals struggling with substance abuse, life transitions, and self-esteem.
(913) 298-8965 View (913) 298-8965
Photo of undefined - Summit Ranch, LCSW, LSCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Summit Ranch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LSCSW
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66217
Hi! I am so glad you are here. Situated on approximately 100 acres, Summit Ranch offers a comprehensive, exciting take on therapy. The ranch is enhanced by the presence of two horses and two lively cats who call Summit Ranch home. Our integrative, holistic approach incorporates clinical therapy, nature, wellness, and work with animals. This approach provides a fun, supportive environment where individuals can embark on their path to healing with confidence and serenity.
Hi! I am so glad you are here. Situated on approximately 100 acres, Summit Ranch offers a comprehensive, exciting take on therapy. The ranch is enhanced by the presence of two horses and two lively cats who call Summit Ranch home. Our integrative, holistic approach incorporates clinical therapy, nature, wellness, and work with animals. This approach provides a fun, supportive environment where individuals can embark on their path to healing with confidence and serenity.
(913) 318-3563 View (913) 318-3563
Photo of undefined - Prairie Girl Group, LPC , Licensed Professional Counselor
Prairie Girl Group
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66203
One of my favorite quotes is by Emily Dickinson, "I am out with the lanterns looking for myself." Over the last 46 years of wandering this earth, I don't know a lot to be true, but I strongly believe that we are all doing the best we can with what we have. Sometimes we just don't have what we need. We are all better together. We are all wandering this earth trying to find purpose. And we all need help finding our way. There is a wild and holy beast inside of all of us waiting to be loved and tamed...but kept a little wild. Our wild is our magic. It is why people love us. Please stay a little wild.
One of my favorite quotes is by Emily Dickinson, "I am out with the lanterns looking for myself." Over the last 46 years of wandering this earth, I don't know a lot to be true, but I strongly believe that we are all doing the best we can with what we have. Sometimes we just don't have what we need. We are all better together. We are all wandering this earth trying to find purpose. And we all need help finding our way. There is a wild and holy beast inside of all of us waiting to be loved and tamed...but kept a little wild. Our wild is our magic. It is why people love us. Please stay a little wild.
(913) 359-9261 View (913) 359-9261
Photo of Adhd Coach - Katie Black, MEd
Adhd Coach - Katie Black
MEd
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66217
Do you ever feel like you're constantly in a tug-of-war to maintain your child's routine throughout the day? From the rush of the morning madness to managing homework and chores in the evenings, it can feel like an endless battle. As a coach specializing in supporting children and teenagers with ADHD, I understand the unique hurdles you face in keeping your child's day on track. Let's work together to find strategies that make every part of the day smoother for both you and your child.
Do you ever feel like you're constantly in a tug-of-war to maintain your child's routine throughout the day? From the rush of the morning madness to managing homework and chores in the evenings, it can feel like an endless battle. As a coach specializing in supporting children and teenagers with ADHD, I understand the unique hurdles you face in keeping your child's day on track. Let's work together to find strategies that make every part of the day smoother for both you and your child.
(913) 251-9714 View (913) 251-9714
Photo of Nicole Shaddix-Olsen, LCPC, Counselor
Nicole Shaddix-Olsen
Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66203  (Online Only)
Relationship difficulties, intense emotions, anxiety, stress and depression -- these are issues that many face each day. If you are struggling, know that you are not alone and that you are stronger and wiser than you likely feel. Pain is inevitable in life, but we can learn from our experiences, adapt and create a life that is more peaceful and enjoyable. I want to provide a safe space for you to talk about your current and past experiences, to express the thoughts and feelings you are struggling with and to feel inspired and empowered to continue working on yourself and improving your life.
Relationship difficulties, intense emotions, anxiety, stress and depression -- these are issues that many face each day. If you are struggling, know that you are not alone and that you are stronger and wiser than you likely feel. Pain is inevitable in life, but we can learn from our experiences, adapt and create a life that is more peaceful and enjoyable. I want to provide a safe space for you to talk about your current and past experiences, to express the thoughts and feelings you are struggling with and to feel inspired and empowered to continue working on yourself and improving your life.
(913) 347-4769 View (913) 347-4769
Photo of Lori Justice, BSN, MS, LCMFT, Neurofb, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Lori Justice
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, BSN, MS, LCMFT, Neurofb
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66217
We all have challenges in our lives. I am here to listen and help you work through your challenges, whatever they may be, with compassion. I will walk your path with you as you gain strength and knowledge to put things right again in your life.
We all have challenges in our lives. I am here to listen and help you work through your challenges, whatever they may be, with compassion. I will walk your path with you as you gain strength and knowledge to put things right again in your life.
(913) 318-4303 View (913) 318-4303
Photo of Charles West, LCPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Charles West
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66216
Accepting new clients. You may function well but feel aware of something missing, a confusing or unfulfilling part of your experience. What you know to be true may not align with what you feel or you may have limited control over your behavior in some areas. Even those who can articulate why they started therapy often find that there’s more they were searching for. I think it takes time to work through the layers and find language that fits. I see therapy more as healing and adapting than eliminating bad behaviors. Sometimes your ways of making it through stop working as well. I think our work together is finding a new way
Accepting new clients. You may function well but feel aware of something missing, a confusing or unfulfilling part of your experience. What you know to be true may not align with what you feel or you may have limited control over your behavior in some areas. Even those who can articulate why they started therapy often find that there’s more they were searching for. I think it takes time to work through the layers and find language that fits. I see therapy more as healing and adapting than eliminating bad behaviors. Sometimes your ways of making it through stop working as well. I think our work together is finding a new way
(913) 686-9342 View (913) 686-9342
Photo of Brianna Byers, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Brianna Byers
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66214
How are you healing from dealing with life's challenges? Its time reveal a healthier ways to deal with life. To maintain a healthier you it requires you to renew your thinking. Welcome to a space where you are able to safely unlock a healthy you. You don't have to do this alone and there is help when you are ready. Together we can unpack what you discovered about yourself at your pace. It's time to reveal and renew in order to heal and deal with life.
How are you healing from dealing with life's challenges? Its time reveal a healthier ways to deal with life. To maintain a healthier you it requires you to renew your thinking. Welcome to a space where you are able to safely unlock a healthy you. You don't have to do this alone and there is help when you are ready. Together we can unpack what you discovered about yourself at your pace. It's time to reveal and renew in order to heal and deal with life.
(913) 946-7879 View (913) 946-7879
Photo of Keith E Rickard, MS, MBA, LCP, Registered Psychotherapist
Keith E Rickard
Registered Psychotherapist, MS, MBA, LCP
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66226
I serve adults over the age of 18 with a variety of relational, emotional and mental health issues including anxiety, depression, and some compulsive disorders. I can help families dealing with the addiction of a loved one as I am family member of someone suffering the disease of addiction. While my profile says that I am a Registered Psychotherapist I am actually Licensed to practice independently by the State of Kansas. I trained as a Master Level Psychologist but have the advanced credentials.
I serve adults over the age of 18 with a variety of relational, emotional and mental health issues including anxiety, depression, and some compulsive disorders. I can help families dealing with the addiction of a loved one as I am family member of someone suffering the disease of addiction. While my profile says that I am a Registered Psychotherapist I am actually Licensed to practice independently by the State of Kansas. I trained as a Master Level Psychologist but have the advanced credentials.
(913) 404-9715 View (913) 404-9715
Photo of Brytani Huggins, MA, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Brytani Huggins
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66203
I believe that PLAY is for everyone and I love incorporating play therapy techniques into my sessions with clients of all ages. I specialize in children, adolescents and young adults who experience Depression, Anxiety, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Family Conflicts/Divorce, and Loss and Grief. One of the most effective ways to work with children and teens is to have them "play" out their feelings instead of asking direct questions. I provide clients with extra personalized support between sessions without added cost.
I believe that PLAY is for everyone and I love incorporating play therapy techniques into my sessions with clients of all ages. I specialize in children, adolescents and young adults who experience Depression, Anxiety, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Family Conflicts/Divorce, and Loss and Grief. One of the most effective ways to work with children and teens is to have them "play" out their feelings instead of asking direct questions. I provide clients with extra personalized support between sessions without added cost.
(913) 325-9886 View (913) 325-9886
Photo of Abby Thomason, LCSW, LSCSW, RPT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Abby Thomason
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LSCSW, RPT
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66216  (Online Only)
Are you overwhelmed with parenting and the weight that it carries? Finding yourself feeling constantly stressed, on edge, anxious, or alone? Struggling with your child's big emotions and the behaviors that go with it? Wanting to support their needs but know you need to also support your own? Parenting young children is HARD - but shouldn't feel impossible. It can be difficult to stop and focus on what you need for yourself when you feel like your needs are depleted, especially in these early parenting years.
Are you overwhelmed with parenting and the weight that it carries? Finding yourself feeling constantly stressed, on edge, anxious, or alone? Struggling with your child's big emotions and the behaviors that go with it? Wanting to support their needs but know you need to also support your own? Parenting young children is HARD - but shouldn't feel impossible. It can be difficult to stop and focus on what you need for yourself when you feel like your needs are depleted, especially in these early parenting years.
(913) 423-3337 View (913) 423-3337
Photo of Candace Holloman, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Candace Holloman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66218  (Online Only)
We often see the wonderful side of motherhood, but the reality of being a mom in today's world is also overwhelming, scary, and lonely at times. Along with joy and love, you may feel sadness, anxiety, anger, fear, shame, burnout, or isolation. I've been there too during my own journey as a mother, and I've put myself on the back burner until I could no longer handle the burden of being responsible for everyone and everything! Sometimes it can seem nearly impossible to find balance during motherhood, and that can leave us in a mentally and physically unhealthy place, with feelings of stress, frustration, and hopelessness taking over.
We often see the wonderful side of motherhood, but the reality of being a mom in today's world is also overwhelming, scary, and lonely at times. Along with joy and love, you may feel sadness, anxiety, anger, fear, shame, burnout, or isolation. I've been there too during my own journey as a mother, and I've put myself on the back burner until I could no longer handle the burden of being responsible for everyone and everything! Sometimes it can seem nearly impossible to find balance during motherhood, and that can leave us in a mentally and physically unhealthy place, with feelings of stress, frustration, and hopelessness taking over.
(913) 285-8538 View (913) 285-8538
Photo of Emily D Warnes, PhD, ABPP, Psychologist
Emily D Warnes
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66226
I love my work with children, adolescents, and families. It is a privlege to provide a supportive and caring environment for families to share the challenges they are facing. I provide psychological assessment and evaluations for diagnostic questions (e.g., ADHD, learning, cognitive), as well as individual cognitive behavioral therapy and parental coaching for emotional and behavioral concerns. I work with children and families to help develop effective and practical tools they can take home and use to manage the concerns they are dealing with in their lives.
I love my work with children, adolescents, and families. It is a privlege to provide a supportive and caring environment for families to share the challenges they are facing. I provide psychological assessment and evaluations for diagnostic questions (e.g., ADHD, learning, cognitive), as well as individual cognitive behavioral therapy and parental coaching for emotional and behavioral concerns. I work with children and families to help develop effective and practical tools they can take home and use to manage the concerns they are dealing with in their lives.
(913) 440-4369 View (913) 440-4369
Photo of undefined - BlueHawk Creative Learning Center, Inc, MA, BCBA, LBA
BlueHawk Creative Learning Center, Inc
MA, BCBA, LBA
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66226
An ideal client for applied behavioral analysis may have issues such as difficulty communicating, socializing, or managing their emotions. Their needs would include support in developing these skills, along with strategies to cope with any challenging behaviors. Their goals may involve improving their overall quality of life, increasing independence, and forming meaningful relationships. Ultimately, they likely want to feel understood, included, and empowered to navigate the world more effectively.
An ideal client for applied behavioral analysis may have issues such as difficulty communicating, socializing, or managing their emotions. Their needs would include support in developing these skills, along with strategies to cope with any challenging behaviors. Their goals may involve improving their overall quality of life, increasing independence, and forming meaningful relationships. Ultimately, they likely want to feel understood, included, and empowered to navigate the world more effectively.
(913) 430-4910 View (913) 430-4910
Photo of Jennifer Agee, MA, LCPC, LCPC-S, EMDR, Hypno, Counselor
Jennifer Agee
Counselor, MA, LCPC, LCPC-S, EMDR, Hypno
Verified Verified
9 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66218
You have lived life by everyone else's set of rules and it's taking a toll. You are ready to finally start asking yourself, "What do I want and need?". It's okay to take up space. It's okay to pivot and take your life in a new direction or "right size" your life, career and relationships. It can be scary, but you don't have to do it alone. Give me a call/text/email. I'd be honored to help.
You have lived life by everyone else's set of rules and it's taking a toll. You are ready to finally start asking yourself, "What do I want and need?". It's okay to take up space. It's okay to pivot and take your life in a new direction or "right size" your life, career and relationships. It can be scary, but you don't have to do it alone. Give me a call/text/email. I'd be honored to help.
(913) 800-8628 View (913) 800-8628
Photo of Denise Stutey, LSCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Denise Stutey
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66203  (Online Only)
Denise brings over two decades of expertise in the mental health field, specializing in guiding teens and adults through the challenges of grief, anxiety, depression, mood disorders, ADHD, life transitions, self-esteem issues, trauma, self-harm, suicidal ideation, and more. As an LGBTQ+ affirming therapist, Denise creates a supportive and inclusive space for individuals of all identities. Denise’s passion for social work and therapy ignited during her high school years, leading her to pursue a degree dedicated to helping others.
Denise brings over two decades of expertise in the mental health field, specializing in guiding teens and adults through the challenges of grief, anxiety, depression, mood disorders, ADHD, life transitions, self-esteem issues, trauma, self-harm, suicidal ideation, and more. As an LGBTQ+ affirming therapist, Denise creates a supportive and inclusive space for individuals of all identities. Denise’s passion for social work and therapy ignited during her high school years, leading her to pursue a degree dedicated to helping others.
(316) 751-5970 View (316) 751-5970
Photo of Dr. Shari Grady, PhD, LCPC, LPC, NCC, CISM, Counselor
Dr. Shari Grady
Counselor, PhD, LCPC, LPC, NCC, CISM
Verified Verified
Shawnee, KS 66218
Most of my patients describe sessions with me as "effective." Yes, I'll sit and listen, empathize, and you'll know I genuinely care about you and your life. But you'll also probably hear things from me that others may not be willing to tell you. Why? Because I want to see you live the life you are capable of and unlocking many of those interactions helps with that process! I generally use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy along with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. They are both great types of therapy that focus on behavioral strategies for change after examination of your thinking.
Most of my patients describe sessions with me as "effective." Yes, I'll sit and listen, empathize, and you'll know I genuinely care about you and your life. But you'll also probably hear things from me that others may not be willing to tell you. Why? Because I want to see you live the life you are capable of and unlocking many of those interactions helps with that process! I generally use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy along with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. They are both great types of therapy that focus on behavioral strategies for change after examination of your thinking.
(913) 386-6785 View (913) 386-6785
Photo of Catherine Morelix, LCSW, LSCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Catherine Morelix
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LSCSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Shawnee, KS 66216  (Online Only)
Do you struggle to feel safe and secure in relationships? Do shame, guilt, and anxiety cause you to avoid talking about your own needs? Trauma from our past can affect how we relate to others. My approach is to build a warm, peaceful, shame free space for people to share their story and discover in creative ways to heal the hurt that they carry. I support people as they open doors of their hearts with compassion and care. Whether you are coming to therapy as an individual or a couple, I work to build up your inner resources and hope for your future.
Do you struggle to feel safe and secure in relationships? Do shame, guilt, and anxiety cause you to avoid talking about your own needs? Trauma from our past can affect how we relate to others. My approach is to build a warm, peaceful, shame free space for people to share their story and discover in creative ways to heal the hurt that they carry. I support people as they open doors of their hearts with compassion and care. Whether you are coming to therapy as an individual or a couple, I work to build up your inner resources and hope for your future.
(415) 329-7865 View (415) 329-7865

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Shawnee, KS

80+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Shawnee, KS who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
78% Self Esteem
76% Stress
73% Relationship Issues
64% Coping Skills
63% Grief

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% Aetna
60% BlueCross and BlueShield
57% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Shawnee, KS see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

77% Female
21% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Shawnee?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.