Therapists in Lawrence, KS

Photo of Lisa Potter, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Lisa Potter
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66044
Welcome! I'm Lisa, a licensed clinical social worker specializing in perinatal therapy, women's life transitions, depression, anxiety, and affirming LGBTQ+ support. With a focus on resilience and empowerment, I offer personalized therapy to navigate life's transformative moments. I provide a safe space for individuals of all identities to explore their journey, address mental health concerns, and strengthen relationships.
Welcome! I'm Lisa, a licensed clinical social worker specializing in perinatal therapy, women's life transitions, depression, anxiety, and affirming LGBTQ+ support. With a focus on resilience and empowerment, I offer personalized therapy to navigate life's transformative moments. I provide a safe space for individuals of all identities to explore their journey, address mental health concerns, and strengthen relationships.
(785) 572-4719 View (785) 572-4719
Photo of Madeline Birdashaw, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Madeline Birdashaw
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66047
Finding a therapist who is the right fit can be a daunting task. I emphasize collaboration, choice, and readiness to change in my practice at Integrated Clinical Services (ICS). I have a versatile therapeutic approach that is strengths-based, empowerment-focused, and person-centered. I strive to work with people in all stages of life, who are facing personal challenges, trauma (current, past, generational), everyday struggles, who want to know more about themselves, or those going through life transitions.
Finding a therapist who is the right fit can be a daunting task. I emphasize collaboration, choice, and readiness to change in my practice at Integrated Clinical Services (ICS). I have a versatile therapeutic approach that is strengths-based, empowerment-focused, and person-centered. I strive to work with people in all stages of life, who are facing personal challenges, trauma (current, past, generational), everyday struggles, who want to know more about themselves, or those going through life transitions.
(785) 509-7595 View (785) 509-7595
Photo of Barrie Mariner Arachtingi, Psychologist in Lawrence, KS
Barrie Mariner Arachtingi
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66044
I’m a psychologist fueled by a deep sense of compassion and a desire to bring about real healing in the lives of my clients. Cultivating greater awareness in the mind, body, soul and spirit, I can guide you towards creating a more awakened and centered life. By learning how to reduce reactivity to events, situations and people, you can learn to respond consciously to the things you encounter and begin to create the life you want to live. This process can help move you away from reacting to life towards finding peace within yourself, and connecting more powerfully to your true life purpose.
I’m a psychologist fueled by a deep sense of compassion and a desire to bring about real healing in the lives of my clients. Cultivating greater awareness in the mind, body, soul and spirit, I can guide you towards creating a more awakened and centered life. By learning how to reduce reactivity to events, situations and people, you can learn to respond consciously to the things you encounter and begin to create the life you want to live. This process can help move you away from reacting to life towards finding peace within yourself, and connecting more powerfully to your true life purpose.
(785) 282-7639 View (785) 282-7639
Photo of Jeremy High, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Jeremy High
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSCSW, LCAC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66044  (Online Only)
Hi there, I'm Jeremy, ready to accompany you on your path to self-discovery and personal growth! Based in Kansas as a Licensed Specialist Clinical Social Worker (LSCSW), I specialize in providing empathetic support for adults facing diverse life challenges. My expertise spans areas such as anger management, men's concerns, anxiety, addiction coping, LGBTQ+ matters, motivation, self-esteem, and confidence. Drawing from 12 years of experience, I employ a tailored approach to therapy, integrating elements of cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and mindfulness-based techniques.
Hi there, I'm Jeremy, ready to accompany you on your path to self-discovery and personal growth! Based in Kansas as a Licensed Specialist Clinical Social Worker (LSCSW), I specialize in providing empathetic support for adults facing diverse life challenges. My expertise spans areas such as anger management, men's concerns, anxiety, addiction coping, LGBTQ+ matters, motivation, self-esteem, and confidence. Drawing from 12 years of experience, I employ a tailored approach to therapy, integrating elements of cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and mindfulness-based techniques.
(785) 384-6574 View (785) 384-6574
Photo of Iman Williams Christians in Lawrence, KS
Iman Williams Christians
PhD
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66045  (Online Only)
Change takes courage. I understand the courage it takes to reach out and ask for support when we feel our most stuck. As your therapist, I will remain fully dedicated to strengthening the resiliency needed within to reclaim yourself through connection, self-compassion, and self-love.
Change takes courage. I understand the courage it takes to reach out and ask for support when we feel our most stuck. As your therapist, I will remain fully dedicated to strengthening the resiliency needed within to reclaim yourself through connection, self-compassion, and self-love.
(757) 703-1513 View (757) 703-1513
Photo of Bob Diehl, Psychologist in Lawrence, KS
Bob Diehl
Psychologist, PhD, LP
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66047
My approach to mental health counseling and high performance psychology does not focus simply on symptom reduction (i.e., removing difficulty), but rather aspires to honor what is good and right about you, and what makes each day worth living according to your beliefs, identities, values, and enriching relationships. My aim is to provide a space that invites exploration of challenging yet vital places of growth in the service of what is most important to you in your life. In particular, I have passions supporting people's resilience to shame, perfectionism, and anxiety.
My approach to mental health counseling and high performance psychology does not focus simply on symptom reduction (i.e., removing difficulty), but rather aspires to honor what is good and right about you, and what makes each day worth living according to your beliefs, identities, values, and enriching relationships. My aim is to provide a space that invites exploration of challenging yet vital places of growth in the service of what is most important to you in your life. In particular, I have passions supporting people's resilience to shame, perfectionism, and anxiety.
(720) 734-7358 View (720) 734-7358
Photo of Jeremiah A Johnson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lawrence, KS
Jeremiah A Johnson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66047
Even though we might live with a mental illness, we can live a full life! Anxiety, depression, traumatic experiences, substance use, grief… we may have these experiences in our lives, but they do not need to be in control. We can live a life focused on our values, with meaning, and courageous strength. Since 2012 I've had the privilege of walking with youth, adults, couples, and families, helping them create a life worth living. What we learn to accept can transform us and help us cultivate a rich and meaningful life.
Even though we might live with a mental illness, we can live a full life! Anxiety, depression, traumatic experiences, substance use, grief… we may have these experiences in our lives, but they do not need to be in control. We can live a life focused on our values, with meaning, and courageous strength. Since 2012 I've had the privilege of walking with youth, adults, couples, and families, helping them create a life worth living. What we learn to accept can transform us and help us cultivate a rich and meaningful life.
(785) 813-1988 View (785) 813-1988
Photo of Linda Hoopes, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Linda Hoopes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSCSW
Verified
3 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66049
You may be struggling with strong emotions or wondering when your life will ever get back to normal. Or maybe you are at a crossroads in your life and needing to make a major decision. Perhaps you have a pre-teen or adolescent who is struggling and needing ways to express and work through their pain. Perhaps you want to work through life issues with a therapist who is LGBTQ friendly and aware of the struggles of this community. I provide a safe space for you to share your story when you are dealing with difficult situations and feelings.
You may be struggling with strong emotions or wondering when your life will ever get back to normal. Or maybe you are at a crossroads in your life and needing to make a major decision. Perhaps you have a pre-teen or adolescent who is struggling and needing ways to express and work through their pain. Perhaps you want to work through life issues with a therapist who is LGBTQ friendly and aware of the struggles of this community. I provide a safe space for you to share your story when you are dealing with difficult situations and feelings.
(785) 218-5747 View (785) 218-5747
Photo of Family Psychological Services, LLC, Psychologist in Lawrence, KS
Family Psychological Services, LLC
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP, CST
Verified
1 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66049
We're proud to be the largest private mental health clinic in Douglas County and the surrounding area. This affords us a broad array of services, client types, and approaches to treatment.
We're proud to be the largest private mental health clinic in Douglas County and the surrounding area. This affords us a broad array of services, client types, and approaches to treatment.
(785) 829-4532 View (785) 829-4532
Photo of Angela Lamb, Licensed Professional Counselor in Lawrence, KS
Angela Lamb
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCPC, CCTP, CIMHP
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66044  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Angela approaches therapy with warmth and acceptance providing the space for her clients to grow and evolve. She focuses strongly on the connection that our body, minds and our environments play on our mental health. She helps guide clients in connecting the pieces that can be causing the disruption leading to anxiety, depression, trauma, etc. through a person-centered approach. She utilizes several different approaches because everyone’s journey is different and her primary focus is meeting clients in the “now” part of their journey.
Angela approaches therapy with warmth and acceptance providing the space for her clients to grow and evolve. She focuses strongly on the connection that our body, minds and our environments play on our mental health. She helps guide clients in connecting the pieces that can be causing the disruption leading to anxiety, depression, trauma, etc. through a person-centered approach. She utilizes several different approaches because everyone’s journey is different and her primary focus is meeting clients in the “now” part of their journey.
(785) 620-9580 View (785) 620-9580
Photo of William Spencer Payne, Psychologist in Lawrence, KS
William Spencer Payne
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
2 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66049
I am a clinical psychologist with post doctoral training from Stanford/UCSF and the Menninger Clinic. I have been licensed as a psychologist for 23 years and my training prior to being licensed spanned 10 years. As a therapist I offer an increased sense of safety and structure in reflecting on feelings. In this environment one relaxes and new perspectives emerge -as well as an increased ability to trust and find solutions within one's self. I am both a patient listener as well as an active and engaged clinician who offers personal insights and feedback.
I am a clinical psychologist with post doctoral training from Stanford/UCSF and the Menninger Clinic. I have been licensed as a psychologist for 23 years and my training prior to being licensed spanned 10 years. As a therapist I offer an increased sense of safety and structure in reflecting on feelings. In this environment one relaxes and new perspectives emerge -as well as an increased ability to trust and find solutions within one's self. I am both a patient listener as well as an active and engaged clinician who offers personal insights and feedback.
(785) 312-0474 View (785) 312-0474
Photo of Jacob Manfred Bigus, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Jacob Manfred Bigus
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66046
Being accepted for who we are is one of our most basic needs as humans. With many pieces adding up to create a whole being, it is hard to find someone who can understand without having to explain every time we see them. Repeated explaining and misunderstanding can lead to a feeling of shame and uncertainty that can damage the therapeutic relationship before it starts. I work from a baseline of understanding to help create a safe space for my clients to learn and grow. Therapy should be a laboratory where you can experiment with how you interact with others and present yourself. You are the expert on you. I'm just here to guide.
Being accepted for who we are is one of our most basic needs as humans. With many pieces adding up to create a whole being, it is hard to find someone who can understand without having to explain every time we see them. Repeated explaining and misunderstanding can lead to a feeling of shame and uncertainty that can damage the therapeutic relationship before it starts. I work from a baseline of understanding to help create a safe space for my clients to learn and grow. Therapy should be a laboratory where you can experiment with how you interact with others and present yourself. You are the expert on you. I'm just here to guide.
(785) 377-6658 View (785) 377-6658
Photo of Leigh Jordan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Leigh Jordan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66049
Leigh Jordan is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Kansas who has been practicing since 2011. She has an MSW and LSCSW. Leigh offers counseling services to adolescents and adults using a strengths-based cognitive behavioral approach. Leigh believes everyone has the ability to learn, change, and grow to reach their full potential. Outside of work, Leigh enjoys plants, gardening, cooking, arts and crafts, hiking, camping, and yoga.
Leigh Jordan is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in Kansas who has been practicing since 2011. She has an MSW and LSCSW. Leigh offers counseling services to adolescents and adults using a strengths-based cognitive behavioral approach. Leigh believes everyone has the ability to learn, change, and grow to reach their full potential. Outside of work, Leigh enjoys plants, gardening, cooking, arts and crafts, hiking, camping, and yoga.
(785) 491-7282 View (785) 491-7282
Photo of Rachelle Kelley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Rachelle Kelley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66044  (Online Only)
I find great meaning in working with clients who are struggling with past trauma, mood disorders, and anxiety. I enjoy working with people of all ages and from all different backgrounds. I believe the professional relationship between therapist and client should be collaborative, strengths-based, and genuine. I like to utilize different types of interventions, such as Guided Imagery, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, solution-focused therapy, meditation, and mindfulness. I am always working on learning new modalities and activities to develop my therapeutic skills.
I find great meaning in working with clients who are struggling with past trauma, mood disorders, and anxiety. I enjoy working with people of all ages and from all different backgrounds. I believe the professional relationship between therapist and client should be collaborative, strengths-based, and genuine. I like to utilize different types of interventions, such as Guided Imagery, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, solution-focused therapy, meditation, and mindfulness. I am always working on learning new modalities and activities to develop my therapeutic skills.
(785) 367-3748 View (785) 367-3748
Photo of DaKie Washington, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
DaKie Washington
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, CCATP
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66044
DaKie is a Licensed Master Social Worker and has experience working with children, adolescents, families, and adults. DaKie utilizes interventions and techniques from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Play Therapy, Narrative Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). DaKie is currently pursing his Clinical Licensure and Play Therapy Certificate from Heartland Play Therapy Insitute. DaKie received his bachelor’s degree in Social Work with a Psychology minor and his Masters in Clinical Social Work from the University of Kansas.
DaKie is a Licensed Master Social Worker and has experience working with children, adolescents, families, and adults. DaKie utilizes interventions and techniques from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Play Therapy, Narrative Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT). DaKie is currently pursing his Clinical Licensure and Play Therapy Certificate from Heartland Play Therapy Insitute. DaKie received his bachelor’s degree in Social Work with a Psychology minor and his Masters in Clinical Social Work from the University of Kansas.
(785) 302-9049 View (785) 302-9049
Photo of Kelly Hughes, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Kelly Hughes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSCSW
Verified
3 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66049
Change can be difficult, whether it's a change you choose or not. Therapy provides support as you adapt to life's countless changes. As a clinical social worker, I have spent time working alongside of teens, young adults, and adults as they work through issues varying from typical developmental struggles to having to adjust following major life traumas. I am grounded in a strengths-based approach, and incorporate Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, and Internal Family Systems to address issues surrounding anxiety, depression, mood disorders, trauma, eating disorders, grief and loss, sexuality, and anger.
Change can be difficult, whether it's a change you choose or not. Therapy provides support as you adapt to life's countless changes. As a clinical social worker, I have spent time working alongside of teens, young adults, and adults as they work through issues varying from typical developmental struggles to having to adjust following major life traumas. I am grounded in a strengths-based approach, and incorporate Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, and Internal Family Systems to address issues surrounding anxiety, depression, mood disorders, trauma, eating disorders, grief and loss, sexuality, and anger.
(785) 336-5026 View (785) 336-5026
Photo of Mandi Shrock, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Mandi Shrock
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCPC, LCAC
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66046  (Online Only)
To the person who is tired of feeling stuck- I see you. You've given therapy your best and nothing seems to help. "That thing that happened to you" continues to haunt you with overpowering force. You want to find freedom and get on with your life, but you're skeptical if that is even possible. What you have experienced doesn't need to steal from your present any longer.
To the person who is tired of feeling stuck- I see you. You've given therapy your best and nothing seems to help. "That thing that happened to you" continues to haunt you with overpowering force. You want to find freedom and get on with your life, but you're skeptical if that is even possible. What you have experienced doesn't need to steal from your present any longer.
(785) 264-4402 View (785) 264-4402
Photo of Laurie Limpitlaw Krambeer, Psychologist in Lawrence, KS
Laurie Limpitlaw Krambeer
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66044  (Online Only)
One of the purposes in life is to be happy and live a good life. However, daily living involves struggles and there are some difficulties and aspects of life that are inherently painful and hard to cope with. Psychotherapy is a useful way for many people to address and work on personal problems and, in so doing, create a better quality of living for themselves. I have great respect for clients who have the courage to face problems and I welcome you to call me to schedule an appointment.
One of the purposes in life is to be happy and live a good life. However, daily living involves struggles and there are some difficulties and aspects of life that are inherently painful and hard to cope with. Psychotherapy is a useful way for many people to address and work on personal problems and, in so doing, create a better quality of living for themselves. I have great respect for clients who have the courage to face problems and I welcome you to call me to schedule an appointment.
(785) 527-9275 View (785) 527-9275
Photo of Kristina White, Counselor in Lawrence, KS
Kristina White
Counselor, LCPC, RPT
Verified
2 Endorsed
Lawrence, KS 66044
I treat children, adolescents, college students, and adults. My goal with all of my clients is to provide a safe and supportive environment in which we work together to create lasting change. My therapeutic style is versatile and I use a variety of approaches to explore patterns of thoughts and behaviors, provide insights without judgment, and assist you or your child in developing strategies to replace unhelpful patterns with new ones that help you thrive.
I treat children, adolescents, college students, and adults. My goal with all of my clients is to provide a safe and supportive environment in which we work together to create lasting change. My therapeutic style is versatile and I use a variety of approaches to explore patterns of thoughts and behaviors, provide insights without judgment, and assist you or your child in developing strategies to replace unhelpful patterns with new ones that help you thrive.
(785) 347-6637 View (785) 347-6637
Photo of Raven Rajani, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lawrence, KS
Raven Rajani
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSCSW, MSW, MLA, AHH
Verified
Lawrence, KS 66044
"You're braver than you believe, stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think." I believe that life is about change, growth, expansion and evolution. My passion is to support, encourage and empower my clients to make necessary changes to improve their lives, and to cultivate a strong therapeutic relationship providing the necessary support to make those changes happen. I utilize psycho-education, Animal Assisted Interventions, Art/Expressive therapy, Narrative Therapy, Brief, Solution-Focused, Strengths Based & ecotherapy as primary modalities in my practice, but always customize treatment based on personal preferences.
"You're braver than you believe, stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think." I believe that life is about change, growth, expansion and evolution. My passion is to support, encourage and empower my clients to make necessary changes to improve their lives, and to cultivate a strong therapeutic relationship providing the necessary support to make those changes happen. I utilize psycho-education, Animal Assisted Interventions, Art/Expressive therapy, Narrative Therapy, Brief, Solution-Focused, Strengths Based & ecotherapy as primary modalities in my practice, but always customize treatment based on personal preferences.
(785) 655-6205 View (785) 655-6205

See more therapy options for Lawrence

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Lawrence, KS

200+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Lawrence, KS who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
91% Depression
75% Self Esteem
72% Relationship Issues
72% Stress
71% Trauma and PTSD
68% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

92% BlueCross and BlueShield
42% Medicaid
41% Aetna

How Therapists in Lawrence, KS see their clients

81% In Person and Online
19% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
23% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Lawrence?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.