Therapists in Dekalb, IL

Photo of Gwendolyn Marshall Who's Who In America Clinical Therapist, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Gwendolyn Marshall Who's Who In America Clinical Therapist
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, MLS, DSW, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
Sometmes life becomes challenging. At times helpful support can be helpful. I, am currently employed as a clinical therapist in the State of Illinois. In addition, I am beginning to work with the aging population. I, have, also, worked in the medical milieu as a psychiatric technician, as well as a hospital volunteer worker. My years of experience working as an advocate/counselor/social worker, in addition to my work in remote sessions with the general population supports my clinical skills.
Sometmes life becomes challenging. At times helpful support can be helpful. I, am currently employed as a clinical therapist in the State of Illinois. In addition, I am beginning to work with the aging population. I, have, also, worked in the medical milieu as a psychiatric technician, as well as a hospital volunteer worker. My years of experience working as an advocate/counselor/social worker, in addition to my work in remote sessions with the general population supports my clinical skills.
(815) 205-1275 View (815) 205-1275
Photo of Emma Youngquist, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Emma Youngquist
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115
Note: I am now not taking new clients until June 3rd. I have immediate openings! In person and online, evenings available, too! I work well with clients having depression or anxiety symptoms, but have experience with other issues as well. I like to get to know my clients as people. We are all special and unique individuals. My clients’ treatment plans are tailor-made to each individual’s needs.
Note: I am now not taking new clients until June 3rd. I have immediate openings! In person and online, evenings available, too! I work well with clients having depression or anxiety symptoms, but have experience with other issues as well. I like to get to know my clients as people. We are all special and unique individuals. My clients’ treatment plans are tailor-made to each individual’s needs.
(815) 736-0976 View (815) 736-0976
Photo of Laura Z Gillberg Counseling , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Laura Z Gillberg Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
Call or email for a free 15 minute video/phone consultation. Offering Telehealth Only.
Call or email for a free 15 minute video/phone consultation. Offering Telehealth Only.
(779) 205-0667 View (779) 205-0667
Photo of Vicki Alden, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Vicki Alden
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115
You deserve to get the most out of your life. You deserve joy in living - this joy is really a necessity not a luxury! If you are experiencing grief or loss or issues that make your daily living difficult, I have the experience, expertise and empathy to help. Besides private practice I have had the privilege to work within family and youth service agencies, an inpatient mental health center, and three teaching hospitals.
You deserve to get the most out of your life. You deserve joy in living - this joy is really a necessity not a luxury! If you are experiencing grief or loss or issues that make your daily living difficult, I have the experience, expertise and empathy to help. Besides private practice I have had the privilege to work within family and youth service agencies, an inpatient mental health center, and three teaching hospitals.
(630) 733-1605 View (630) 733-1605
Photo of Kelly Robinson, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Dekalb, IL
Kelly Robinson
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115
Whether you are going through an important transition or need extra support as you navigate everyday life, it is worth remembering that everyone needs help sometimes. Being a wife for the last 16 years and a mom for the last 20 years has given me the opportunity to experience the richness of family life including teen parenthood, marriage, parenthood, life cycle transitions, blended family dynamics, anxiety and stress related challenges. Challenges create strength and it is my passion to help others sift through the inevitable challenges of life to cultivate understanding and clarity and the ability to move forward with strength.
Whether you are going through an important transition or need extra support as you navigate everyday life, it is worth remembering that everyone needs help sometimes. Being a wife for the last 16 years and a mom for the last 20 years has given me the opportunity to experience the richness of family life including teen parenthood, marriage, parenthood, life cycle transitions, blended family dynamics, anxiety and stress related challenges. Challenges create strength and it is my passion to help others sift through the inevitable challenges of life to cultivate understanding and clarity and the ability to move forward with strength.
(815) 567-9054 View (815) 567-9054
Photo of Jordan Prebys, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Jordan Prebys
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MA, LCPC, RPT-S, RSP
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115
I am an alternative therapist who believes talk therapy alone is simply not enough. This is why I have gone to great lengths over my 20 years of experience to develop and grow as a therapist to learn more, do more, and provide more, to both my adult and child clients. In addition to talk therapy I also integrate the mind, body, and spirit into treatment through the use of sandplay therapy (for adults and children), play therapy, dream work, art, and hypnotherapy. These approaches bring the whole brain into treatment. Simply put, no one wants to simply exist, we are meant to thrive. Let's move beyond coping.
I am an alternative therapist who believes talk therapy alone is simply not enough. This is why I have gone to great lengths over my 20 years of experience to develop and grow as a therapist to learn more, do more, and provide more, to both my adult and child clients. In addition to talk therapy I also integrate the mind, body, and spirit into treatment through the use of sandplay therapy (for adults and children), play therapy, dream work, art, and hypnotherapy. These approaches bring the whole brain into treatment. Simply put, no one wants to simply exist, we are meant to thrive. Let's move beyond coping.
(815) 605-5913 View (815) 605-5913
Photo of Elisa Woodruff, Licensed Professional Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Elisa Woodruff
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LCPC, CTMH-A
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115
I have counseled adolescents and adults in agency, university, and private practice settings and currently teach counseling to graduate students. My approach is to help you develop a relationship with the things that distress you, thus giving them less power, so you can turn attention to the things that make your life meaningful. I specialize in working with people who have experienced trauma, depression, anxiety, and somatization. I also frequently work with people who are affectionally and gender diverse and those wishing to explore how their cultural and social identities interact with their presenting issues.
I have counseled adolescents and adults in agency, university, and private practice settings and currently teach counseling to graduate students. My approach is to help you develop a relationship with the things that distress you, thus giving them less power, so you can turn attention to the things that make your life meaningful. I specialize in working with people who have experienced trauma, depression, anxiety, and somatization. I also frequently work with people who are affectionally and gender diverse and those wishing to explore how their cultural and social identities interact with their presenting issues.
(779) 204-4841 View (779) 204-4841
Photo of Shelley Pier, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Shelley Pier
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
Healing from trauma and grief is not just about surviving the experience, it is also about learning to LIVE again. I enjoy being part of this process and empowering people to grow, change, heal, and thrive! I am passionate about my work and I love helping people reconnect with themselves. I believe it is important to get to the root of the problem, not just manage symptoms. One of the gifts I bring to you is listening deeply and helping you feel understood as we collaborate on implementing practical solutions.
Healing from trauma and grief is not just about surviving the experience, it is also about learning to LIVE again. I enjoy being part of this process and empowering people to grow, change, heal, and thrive! I am passionate about my work and I love helping people reconnect with themselves. I believe it is important to get to the root of the problem, not just manage symptoms. One of the gifts I bring to you is listening deeply and helping you feel understood as we collaborate on implementing practical solutions.
(847) 629-0840 View (847) 629-0840
Photo of Crystal Williams, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Crystal Williams
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115
Hello, my name is Crystal Williams. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 13 years of clinical experience working with various individuals and couples suffering from Anxiety, Stress, Relationship Issues, Self Esteem, and Marital/Pre-Marital. I commonly use Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Couples Therapy, Psychodynamic, Solution Focused Brief (SFBT), and Strength-Based therapies. I believe I am committed to walking along the journey with you. Therefore, you are not alone in your next steps.
Hello, my name is Crystal Williams. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 13 years of clinical experience working with various individuals and couples suffering from Anxiety, Stress, Relationship Issues, Self Esteem, and Marital/Pre-Marital. I commonly use Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Couples Therapy, Psychodynamic, Solution Focused Brief (SFBT), and Strength-Based therapies. I believe I am committed to walking along the journey with you. Therefore, you are not alone in your next steps.
(312) 313-8615 View (312) 313-8615
Photo of Melanie Sharpe, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Melanie Sharpe
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MS, LCPC
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
I believe in facilitating a therapeutic space through the use of empathy and compassion. I rely on utilizing the tools of Person-Centered Therapy as well as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Mindfulness to aid in building a strong therapeutic bond. I believe in using a non-authoritative approach that aids in empowering clients so they may find their own strengths find meaningful solutions.
I believe in facilitating a therapeutic space through the use of empathy and compassion. I rely on utilizing the tools of Person-Centered Therapy as well as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Mindfulness to aid in building a strong therapeutic bond. I believe in using a non-authoritative approach that aids in empowering clients so they may find their own strengths find meaningful solutions.
(779) 212-7712 View (779) 212-7712
Photo of Kate M Michels, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Kate M Michels
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115
Being seen and heard is an important part of the human experience, and the therapeutic space is valuable for discovering who you are and how you interact with the world. Counseling can help with common life challenges such as anxiety, depression, overwhelm, trauma, adjustments, loss/grief, family, and relationship issues. I like to foster the therapeutic relationship using empathy and compassion from a professional vantage point. Everyone has unique needs and experiences that need to be explored and validated, while gaining skills and knowledge to elicit the personal changes you are aiming for.
Being seen and heard is an important part of the human experience, and the therapeutic space is valuable for discovering who you are and how you interact with the world. Counseling can help with common life challenges such as anxiety, depression, overwhelm, trauma, adjustments, loss/grief, family, and relationship issues. I like to foster the therapeutic relationship using empathy and compassion from a professional vantage point. Everyone has unique needs and experiences that need to be explored and validated, while gaining skills and knowledge to elicit the personal changes you are aiming for.
(779) 548-6390 View (779) 548-6390
Photo of Natalia Vinokur, Marriage & Family Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Natalia Vinokur
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115
Waitlist for new clients
Utilizing evidence-based practices, I strive to support, encourage, educate, and empower my clients. Together we'll work side by side to help strengthen awareness, communication, increase personal growth and healing within yourself and your relationship. We will also identify strengths, patterns, coping skills. My specialties include Acute, Chronic and Complex Traumas, Suicidality, Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, Anxiety, Depression, Life Transitions. I use many counseling modalities that are specific to individual needs and preferences, such as Systemic Theory, CBT, Person Centered and Trauma Informed Approaches.
Utilizing evidence-based practices, I strive to support, encourage, educate, and empower my clients. Together we'll work side by side to help strengthen awareness, communication, increase personal growth and healing within yourself and your relationship. We will also identify strengths, patterns, coping skills. My specialties include Acute, Chronic and Complex Traumas, Suicidality, Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, Anxiety, Depression, Life Transitions. I use many counseling modalities that are specific to individual needs and preferences, such as Systemic Theory, CBT, Person Centered and Trauma Informed Approaches.
(815) 501-5974 View (815) 501-5974
Photo of New Hope Counseling Center, Marriage & Family Therapist in Dekalb, IL
New Hope Counseling Center
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, AMFT, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115
New Office Opening in DeKalb! Is your marriage struggling to thrive? Are you worried about changes you've seen in your teenager? Have you experienced trauma that has left you unable to manage day to day life? Our therapists are here to provide a safe place for you to come ask questions, receive a listening ear, and walk with you through life's challenges.
New Office Opening in DeKalb! Is your marriage struggling to thrive? Are you worried about changes you've seen in your teenager? Have you experienced trauma that has left you unable to manage day to day life? Our therapists are here to provide a safe place for you to come ask questions, receive a listening ear, and walk with you through life's challenges.
(224) 302-6961 View (224) 302-6961
Photo of Katie Blum, Licensed Professional Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Katie Blum
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
I strive to walk alongside clients on their personal and unique journey of life, supporting each individual person while providing strategies, education, and insight into ongoing stressors. My approach to therapy focuses on meeting clients where they are at and helping them reach their self-determined goals. I help clients define their strengths while providing proven strategies to build resilience and strengthen everyday coping. My specialties include anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD/executive functioning, academic difficulties, interpersonal and relationship issues, self-esteem, and sleep troubles.
I strive to walk alongside clients on their personal and unique journey of life, supporting each individual person while providing strategies, education, and insight into ongoing stressors. My approach to therapy focuses on meeting clients where they are at and helping them reach their self-determined goals. I help clients define their strengths while providing proven strategies to build resilience and strengthen everyday coping. My specialties include anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD/executive functioning, academic difficulties, interpersonal and relationship issues, self-esteem, and sleep troubles.
(779) 246-4683 View (779) 246-4683
Photo of Maggie Milano, Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Maggie Milano
Counselor, LCPC, CFLE, NCC, CHAIS, ACS
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115
Life involves stress; it's inevitable. Everyone struggles and needs support because we're human, yet many people have not found help or resolution. It's hard to figure everything out on our own. You deserve to be listened to with unconditional support and without interruption. Sometimes family and friends don't provide help exactly the way we need. Psychotherapists like me can help provide unbiased support and interventions that research shows are pretty darn effective. Though it may not feel like it, lowering stress levels and resolving challenges is not as hard as it may seem. A little guidance could make a big difference!
Life involves stress; it's inevitable. Everyone struggles and needs support because we're human, yet many people have not found help or resolution. It's hard to figure everything out on our own. You deserve to be listened to with unconditional support and without interruption. Sometimes family and friends don't provide help exactly the way we need. Psychotherapists like me can help provide unbiased support and interventions that research shows are pretty darn effective. Though it may not feel like it, lowering stress levels and resolving challenges is not as hard as it may seem. A little guidance could make a big difference!
(815) 286-4030 View (815) 286-4030
Photo of Life Solutions: Integrative Healing, Licensed Professional Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Life Solutions: Integrative Healing
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
I believe in building connections with clients that honor the therapeutic process and facilitate change. I provide a comfortable and supportive therapeutic relationship that fosters a positive experience. I believe you are the expert in your life and I respect the your right to choose your own path and create the change you want to see. If you need guidance and researched-based services to make those changes happen, I will partner with you to get the work done.
I believe in building connections with clients that honor the therapeutic process and facilitate change. I provide a comfortable and supportive therapeutic relationship that fosters a positive experience. I believe you are the expert in your life and I respect the your right to choose your own path and create the change you want to see. If you need guidance and researched-based services to make those changes happen, I will partner with you to get the work done.
(779) 223-5443 View (779) 223-5443
Photo of Jennifer Salmon, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Jennifer Salmon
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
Hello, I'm Jennifer. Do you often feel weighed down by feelings of anxiety or sadness? Do you feel like no matter what you do you cannot change your unhealthy thinking? It is time for a change. I have been practicing for 15 years in multiple settings including colleges and mental health centers. I have a Master's Degree in Counseling Psychology from a religious institution where I learned to integrate my counseling philosophy with my faith.
Hello, I'm Jennifer. Do you often feel weighed down by feelings of anxiety or sadness? Do you feel like no matter what you do you cannot change your unhealthy thinking? It is time for a change. I have been practicing for 15 years in multiple settings including colleges and mental health centers. I have a Master's Degree in Counseling Psychology from a religious institution where I learned to integrate my counseling philosophy with my faith.
(779) 345-3003 View (779) 345-3003
Photo of Jamie Lynn Henrikson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Jamie Lynn Henrikson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LCPC, CADC
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115
In life, when we deal with difficult relationships or toxic situations, it causes negative symptoms and stress in ourselves. Carrying this burden is stressful and unnecessary. Often, these symptoms can become permanent habits that are difficult to change. My role is to help you unload stress and replace this with helpful and healing tools, permanently. My approach involves helping you understand ways of maintaining life balance and living a fulfilling life.
In life, when we deal with difficult relationships or toxic situations, it causes negative symptoms and stress in ourselves. Carrying this burden is stressful and unnecessary. Often, these symptoms can become permanent habits that are difficult to change. My role is to help you unload stress and replace this with helpful and healing tools, permanently. My approach involves helping you understand ways of maintaining life balance and living a fulfilling life.
(815) 427-4819 View (815) 427-4819
Photo of Leslie Albion, Counselor in Dekalb, IL
Leslie Albion
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115  (Online Only)
Life can be tough sometimes, and I am here to tell you that you do not need to walk that journey alone. We often get distracted by the daily activities in our lives, the mindless routines, and the various roles we play, without noticing we are struggling. You seek to find peace, empowerment, and/or to be seen and heard in your own life. You may be experiencing stressful experiences, anxiety, family conflict, infertility, life transitions, or depression, that can make you feel alone. I am thankful to work alongside you, as you reexamine your life path, to live the best you that you can be.
Life can be tough sometimes, and I am here to tell you that you do not need to walk that journey alone. We often get distracted by the daily activities in our lives, the mindless routines, and the various roles we play, without noticing we are struggling. You seek to find peace, empowerment, and/or to be seen and heard in your own life. You may be experiencing stressful experiences, anxiety, family conflict, infertility, life transitions, or depression, that can make you feel alone. I am thankful to work alongside you, as you reexamine your life path, to live the best you that you can be.
(815) 627-1543 View (815) 627-1543
Photo of Katherine Elizabeth Siembab, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Dekalb, IL
Katherine Elizabeth Siembab
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Dekalb, IL 60115
Most people are surviving life instead of learning how to live it with fulfillment and satisfaction. Stressful experiences accumulate over time and steal our sense of control and hope, which is not fair and not necessary. If you want to regain balance and clarity, we can do that. We will identify themes, triggers, and learn to cope and conquer. If you are willing to work hard and be authentic, you can really make some vast changes. Together we can create more compassion, acceptance, and space for yourself to feel grounded and make meaningful growth.
Most people are surviving life instead of learning how to live it with fulfillment and satisfaction. Stressful experiences accumulate over time and steal our sense of control and hope, which is not fair and not necessary. If you want to regain balance and clarity, we can do that. We will identify themes, triggers, and learn to cope and conquer. If you are willing to work hard and be authentic, you can really make some vast changes. Together we can create more compassion, acceptance, and space for yourself to feel grounded and make meaningful growth.
(779) 209-1875 View (779) 209-1875

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Dekalb, IL

80+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Dekalb, IL who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
91% Depression
83% Self Esteem
80% Trauma and PTSD
76% Relationship Issues
75% Coping Skills
70% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

95% BlueCross and BlueShield
63% Aetna
49% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Dekalb, IL see their clients

65% In Person and Online
35% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
14% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Dekalb?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.