Chronic Pain Therapists in Chicago, IL

Photo of Cindy Recinos, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Cindy Recinos
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60640  (Online Only)
I'm a multicultural, LGBTQIA+ affirming, sex-positive therapist. I have worked with clients to address issues of desire discrepancy, lack of emotional and physical intimacy, difficulties with orgasm, erectile dysfunction, anxiety, mood dysregulation, substance use disorder, chronic pain, somatic symptoms, and trauma-related disorders.
I'm a multicultural, LGBTQIA+ affirming, sex-positive therapist. I have worked with clients to address issues of desire discrepancy, lack of emotional and physical intimacy, difficulties with orgasm, erectile dysfunction, anxiety, mood dysregulation, substance use disorder, chronic pain, somatic symptoms, and trauma-related disorders.
(773) 906-4051 View (773) 906-4051
Photo of Cheryl Hurst - Private Practice Yoga Therapy, LLC, PsyD, C-IAYT, Psychologist
Private Practice Yoga Therapy, LLC
Psychologist, PsyD, C-IAYT
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60605
I offer an integration of psychotherapy and Yoga Therapy in tandem sessions. I am both a licensed health psychologist and a certified yoga therapist. My clients tend to be high functioning adults seeking private holistic therapy and pain relief. I assist with relationships, stress, back pain, neck pain, sports injuries, physical disabilities and medical conditions. Supported yoga postures, proper alignment, and longer holds facilitate deeper feeling, fuller opening, greater release. Yoga Therapy enhances rehabilitation of injuries naturally using gravity, tensegrity and breath to improve circulation and create more space in tight joints, relieving tension and fatigue, facilitating clarity and insight.
I offer an integration of psychotherapy and Yoga Therapy in tandem sessions. I am both a licensed health psychologist and a certified yoga therapist. My clients tend to be high functioning adults seeking private holistic therapy and pain relief. I assist with relationships, stress, back pain, neck pain, sports injuries, physical disabilities and medical conditions. Supported yoga postures, proper alignment, and longer holds facilitate deeper feeling, fuller opening, greater release. Yoga Therapy enhances rehabilitation of injuries naturally using gravity, tensegrity and breath to improve circulation and create more space in tight joints, relieving tension and fatigue, facilitating clarity and insight.
(312) 248-7204 View (312) 248-7204
Photo of Madeleine Winter, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Madeleine Winter
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60654
As a therapist, I believe whole-heartedly in the potential of every client, while honoring their unique identity and experiences. I specialize in working with teens and adults, especially those who want to explore and address anxiety, depression, OCD, relationship issues, body image, sexuality, gender, and self-acceptance. Additionally, I am certified in Pain Reprocessing Therapy, which helps to alleviate and eliminate chronic pain.
As a therapist, I believe whole-heartedly in the potential of every client, while honoring their unique identity and experiences. I specialize in working with teens and adults, especially those who want to explore and address anxiety, depression, OCD, relationship issues, body image, sexuality, gender, and self-acceptance. Additionally, I am certified in Pain Reprocessing Therapy, which helps to alleviate and eliminate chronic pain.
Photo of Stacey J. Feuer, PsyD, MLD, Psychologist
Stacey J. Feuer
Psychologist, PsyD, MLD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60620
Therapeutic services may include issues such as pain management, treatment adherence, sleep difficulties, general supportive therapy, and/or exploring the deeper meaning of how illness has affected one’s life.
Dr. Feuer is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist and the Director of Health Psychology at IPD/DMG. She completed the majority of her clinical training in medical hospitals and outpatient settings. She additionally works as an adjunct faculty member for the PsyD Clinical Psychology program at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Dr. Feuer’s areas of expertise include adults (18+) living with chronic medical illnesses, and has particular experience with clients diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular, and transplant-related diagnoses. She also has experience working with caregivers of individuals living with chronic illness.
Therapeutic services may include issues such as pain management, treatment adherence, sleep difficulties, general supportive therapy, and/or exploring the deeper meaning of how illness has affected one’s life.
Dr. Feuer is a Licensed Clinical Psychologist and the Director of Health Psychology at IPD/DMG. She completed the majority of her clinical training in medical hospitals and outpatient settings. She additionally works as an adjunct faculty member for the PsyD Clinical Psychology program at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Dr. Feuer’s areas of expertise include adults (18+) living with chronic medical illnesses, and has particular experience with clients diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular, and transplant-related diagnoses. She also has experience working with caregivers of individuals living with chronic illness.
(773) 295-0537 View (773) 295-0537
Photo of Gregory J Harms, PsyD, LCP, Psychologist
Gregory J Harms
Psychologist, PsyD, LCP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60613
A behavioral approach is well suited to clients with chronic medical conditions, such as pain, headaches, diabetes, heart failure, and cancer, as well as episodic problems, such as insomnia.
As a health psychologist, I work with clients who have physical and emotional conditions that are getting in the way of being able to live the lives they want. I help clients identify and follow through on changes they can make to improve their well-being. I use a behavioral approach supplemented with biofeedback and hypnosis. I also work with couples who are struggling to find ways to get closer together and feel like they are truly partners in their relationship. The key to my approach is to find effective ways to get what you want from your life.
A behavioral approach is well suited to clients with chronic medical conditions, such as pain, headaches, diabetes, heart failure, and cancer, as well as episodic problems, such as insomnia.
As a health psychologist, I work with clients who have physical and emotional conditions that are getting in the way of being able to live the lives they want. I help clients identify and follow through on changes they can make to improve their well-being. I use a behavioral approach supplemented with biofeedback and hypnosis. I also work with couples who are struggling to find ways to get closer together and feel like they are truly partners in their relationship. The key to my approach is to find effective ways to get what you want from your life.
(773) 985-3895 View (773) 985-3895
Photo of Azi Ghaffari, PhD, Psychologist
Azi Ghaffari
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60614
I also have a training specialty in working with individuals adjusting to chronic medical conditions including completion of pre-surgical psychological evaluations for bariatric surgery, spinal cord stimulator, & pain pump placement.
My approach to therapy is holistic and incorporates the connection of the mind, body and emotions. Clients have described me as warm, supportive, non-judgmental and calm. My goal is to help better manage your thoughts, feelings, and to help you feel happier and healthier. I welcome the opportunity to join your journey to healing and recovery.
I also have a training specialty in working with individuals adjusting to chronic medical conditions including completion of pre-surgical psychological evaluations for bariatric surgery, spinal cord stimulator, & pain pump placement.
My approach to therapy is holistic and incorporates the connection of the mind, body and emotions. Clients have described me as warm, supportive, non-judgmental and calm. My goal is to help better manage your thoughts, feelings, and to help you feel happier and healthier. I welcome the opportunity to join your journey to healing and recovery.
(773) 831-4193 View (773) 831-4193
Photo of Carrie S Thomas, PsyD, Psychologist
Carrie S Thomas
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60613
A special area of interest is chronic pain and proactive pain management.
The therapeutic dialogue is a unique collaboration in which exploration and growth can occur while addressing difficult issues around relationships and life. I work with clients to navigate challenges and explore the parts of themselves that have held them back or limited their ability to make satisfying decisions. Each person coming to therapy is in a different place with different needs. I meet them at that place and work with them to move forward and find healing. My goal is to approach clients with compassionate understanding.
A special area of interest is chronic pain and proactive pain management.
The therapeutic dialogue is a unique collaboration in which exploration and growth can occur while addressing difficult issues around relationships and life. I work with clients to navigate challenges and explore the parts of themselves that have held them back or limited their ability to make satisfying decisions. Each person coming to therapy is in a different place with different needs. I meet them at that place and work with them to move forward and find healing. My goal is to approach clients with compassionate understanding.
(773) 295-7883 View (773) 295-7883
Photo of Dr. Kelly Hamoudah, PsyD, Psychologist
Dr. Kelly Hamoudah
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60654  (Online Only)
My specialties are anxiety, depression, daily stress, as well as the psychosocial impact and mental health management of chronic pain and medical conditions.
Hello, I’m Dr. Kelly Hamoudah! In my work, I believe that establishing a safe space and building rapport is the first step towards the healing process. If you’re looking for help from a psychologist who uses evidence based interventions, is warm and friendly, and cares about you reaching your goals, then you’re in the right spot.
My specialties are anxiety, depression, daily stress, as well as the psychosocial impact and mental health management of chronic pain and medical conditions.
Hello, I’m Dr. Kelly Hamoudah! In my work, I believe that establishing a safe space and building rapport is the first step towards the healing process. If you’re looking for help from a psychologist who uses evidence based interventions, is warm and friendly, and cares about you reaching your goals, then you’re in the right spot.
(312) 847-9858 View (312) 847-9858
Photo of Maira Iqbal, MSW, LSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Maira Iqbal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60659  (Online Only)
I am a compassionate trauma-informed therapist that primarily works with individuals struggling with trauma/PTSD, ADHD, neurodivergent issues, relationship issues, chronic pain, physical disability, partner violence, substance abuse, anxiety, stress, depression, cultural identity, cultural/intergenerational conflicts, family conflicts, and other issues. As a daughter of South Asian immigrants, I have always been interested in working with traditionally overlooked communities. I have worked with individuals with dual diagnosis, domestic violence survivors, veterans, and LGBTQIA individuals.
I am a compassionate trauma-informed therapist that primarily works with individuals struggling with trauma/PTSD, ADHD, neurodivergent issues, relationship issues, chronic pain, physical disability, partner violence, substance abuse, anxiety, stress, depression, cultural identity, cultural/intergenerational conflicts, family conflicts, and other issues. As a daughter of South Asian immigrants, I have always been interested in working with traditionally overlooked communities. I have worked with individuals with dual diagnosis, domestic violence survivors, veterans, and LGBTQIA individuals.
(224) 529-3669 View (224) 529-3669
Photo of Lindsay Sherman, MAAT, LCPC, Counselor
Lindsay Sherman
Counselor, MAAT, LCPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60661
Are you struggling with emotions, career, relationships, or chronic pain, but not sure how to move forward? As we've all experienced through the pandemic to certain degrees; life events can be unexpected, overwhelming, and traumatic. You deserve space to process what brings you to therapy with a professional who can validate your experiences and commit to working with you, at your pace, to develop solutions. I work from a culturally-aware, trauma-informed perspective to ensure that you feel seen and heard, and offer Art Therapy. Non-judgmental by nature, I collaborate with clients by building on strengths to overcome challenges.
Are you struggling with emotions, career, relationships, or chronic pain, but not sure how to move forward? As we've all experienced through the pandemic to certain degrees; life events can be unexpected, overwhelming, and traumatic. You deserve space to process what brings you to therapy with a professional who can validate your experiences and commit to working with you, at your pace, to develop solutions. I work from a culturally-aware, trauma-informed perspective to ensure that you feel seen and heard, and offer Art Therapy. Non-judgmental by nature, I collaborate with clients by building on strengths to overcome challenges.
(312) 766-6893 View (312) 766-6893
Photo of Megan Mills, PhD, Psychologist
Megan Mills
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60657
Not accepting new clients
I work primarily with adults facing chronic, life-limiting, or potentially life-threatening conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, or AIDS. I focus on helping clients find successful ways to cope with illness, and to integrate the experience of illness into their life story and world view. This often involves discussions of faith and spirituality. I work with patients where they are, so if there is underlying mental illness or intellectual disability, I may work with it instead of trying to change it, unless, of course, the client wants to change. I feel fortunate to have found this specialty.
I work primarily with adults facing chronic, life-limiting, or potentially life-threatening conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, or AIDS. I focus on helping clients find successful ways to cope with illness, and to integrate the experience of illness into their life story and world view. This often involves discussions of faith and spirituality. I work with patients where they are, so if there is underlying mental illness or intellectual disability, I may work with it instead of trying to change it, unless, of course, the client wants to change. I feel fortunate to have found this specialty.
(773) 993-1753 View (773) 993-1753
Photo of Julia Rubinshteyn, PhD, Psychologist
Julia Rubinshteyn
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60640  (Online Only)
I take a compassionate, warm, and collaborative approach to connect with my clients and understand their goals for improving their quality of life. If you are feeling stressed and overwhelmed, I can help you to feel empowered to face challenges in your life. I work with clients who have issues related to anxiety, stress, and depression. I also have specialized training in treating insomnia, chronic pain, coping with chronic illness, and coping with the stress of caring for a loved one with chronic illness.
I take a compassionate, warm, and collaborative approach to connect with my clients and understand their goals for improving their quality of life. If you are feeling stressed and overwhelmed, I can help you to feel empowered to face challenges in your life. I work with clients who have issues related to anxiety, stress, and depression. I also have specialized training in treating insomnia, chronic pain, coping with chronic illness, and coping with the stress of caring for a loved one with chronic illness.
(224) 302-4730 View (224) 302-4730
Photo of Dr. Benton K Johnson II - Ephphatha 'Be Opened' Consulting Services, Inc., PhD, LCPC, LMHC, CCMHC, BC-TMH, Counselor
Ephphatha 'Be Opened' Consulting Services, Inc.
Counselor, PhD, LCPC, LMHC, CCMHC, BC-TMH
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60625  (Online Only)
Clients that come to me for issues regarding their dissatisfaction with their progress on overcoming their challenges in life. Life issues range from traumatic experiences, LGBTQ issues, addictions & substance use disorders, spiritual problems, career problems, chronic illness, child & parenting issues as well as family imbalances. They want change and they want it with someone who can connect with them in real ways that help them know they are cared for, can be confident, and can overcome the challenges that confront them.
Clients that come to me for issues regarding their dissatisfaction with their progress on overcoming their challenges in life. Life issues range from traumatic experiences, LGBTQ issues, addictions & substance use disorders, spiritual problems, career problems, chronic illness, child & parenting issues as well as family imbalances. They want change and they want it with someone who can connect with them in real ways that help them know they are cared for, can be confident, and can overcome the challenges that confront them.
(312) 779-6973 View (312) 779-6973
Photo of Nitaya Chawla, PsyD, Psychologist
Nitaya Chawla
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60613  (Online Only)
I have found hypnosis to be an effective tool for a variety of issues including; chronic and acute pain, weight management, smoking cession, stress, sleep issues, anxiety, and panic attacks.
Change is never easy,but with the assistance of a therapist, you can start to learn skills to move towards your goals. Some of these skills include effective communication, mindfulness, relaxation, and changing negative thought patterns. In my work with couples, I focus on teaching communication skills and understanding underlying issues that effect the relationship.
I have found hypnosis to be an effective tool for a variety of issues including; chronic and acute pain, weight management, smoking cession, stress, sleep issues, anxiety, and panic attacks.
Change is never easy,but with the assistance of a therapist, you can start to learn skills to move towards your goals. Some of these skills include effective communication, mindfulness, relaxation, and changing negative thought patterns. In my work with couples, I focus on teaching communication skills and understanding underlying issues that effect the relationship.
(630) 796-0890 View (630) 796-0890
Photo of Meg Kelleher, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Meg Kelleher
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60645
I provide individual counseling with specializations including trauma, grief, depression, anxiety, pain management, gender identity, sexuality (from a sex-positive, kink-aware perspective), body image, and disability and chronic illness.
As Oscar Wilde once said, "One's real life is so often the life that one does not lead." But, for you, today can be a decisive step down a path of authenticity, interpersonal connection, and greater ease in your body. As a licensed clinical social worker and practicing writer and artist, I am skilled in collaborating with you to first identify and then reimagine the themes, forms and narratives of your past and your everyday. My objective is to help you rediscover your potential and lead a more satisfying, conscious, and generative existence—all while feeling at home somatically.
I provide individual counseling with specializations including trauma, grief, depression, anxiety, pain management, gender identity, sexuality (from a sex-positive, kink-aware perspective), body image, and disability and chronic illness.
As Oscar Wilde once said, "One's real life is so often the life that one does not lead." But, for you, today can be a decisive step down a path of authenticity, interpersonal connection, and greater ease in your body. As a licensed clinical social worker and practicing writer and artist, I am skilled in collaborating with you to first identify and then reimagine the themes, forms and narratives of your past and your everyday. My objective is to help you rediscover your potential and lead a more satisfying, conscious, and generative existence—all while feeling at home somatically.
(773) 530-3754 View (773) 530-3754
Photo of Kristina Fyrwald, LSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kristina Fyrwald
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60602  (Online Only)
I enjoy working with adults facing a wide range of challenges including substance abuse, trauma, anxiety, depression, chronic pain/illness and relationship issues. I enjoy helping clients move through and heal whatever it is that's keeping them stuck and from moving forward in the areas of their life they desire more from (relationships, career, health, purpose). My goal is to help my clients connect to their most authentic self to live their happiest and most connected lives.
I enjoy working with adults facing a wide range of challenges including substance abuse, trauma, anxiety, depression, chronic pain/illness and relationship issues. I enjoy helping clients move through and heal whatever it is that's keeping them stuck and from moving forward in the areas of their life they desire more from (relationships, career, health, purpose). My goal is to help my clients connect to their most authentic self to live their happiest and most connected lives.
(312) 487-4386 View (312) 487-4386
Photo of Ren Grabert, MEd, Pre-Licensed Professional
Ren Grabert
Pre-Licensed Professional, MEd
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60618
I am gender-affirming, sex positive, and believe in body liberation/health at every size (HAES). I am especially passionate about working with LGBTQIA+, non-monogamous, kinky, and neurodivergent folks. As a chronically ill person myself, I love helping folks to manage chronic illness/pain and self-advocate within healthcare systems. My areas of focus include helping people to build self-esteem and self-efficacy, to build tools to navigate neurodivergence in adulthood, and to identify core beliefs and needs so that they can live life more authentically.
I am gender-affirming, sex positive, and believe in body liberation/health at every size (HAES). I am especially passionate about working with LGBTQIA+, non-monogamous, kinky, and neurodivergent folks. As a chronically ill person myself, I love helping folks to manage chronic illness/pain and self-advocate within healthcare systems. My areas of focus include helping people to build self-esteem and self-efficacy, to build tools to navigate neurodivergence in adulthood, and to identify core beliefs and needs so that they can live life more authentically.
(773) 754-4965 View (773) 754-4965
Photo of Lynn Kleinberger, LSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lynn Kleinberger
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60604
Are you experiencing issues with sexual desire, functioning, or orgasm that are related to your disability, injury, or chronic illness? I understand the significance of past experiences and how they make an impact on the present. I'm committed to creating a flexible and inclusive environment where you feel empowered to explore new concepts and challenge yourself. I have experience working with individuals in atypical relationship structures such as open or polyam. I work with individuals struggling with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression, and past trauma.
Are you experiencing issues with sexual desire, functioning, or orgasm that are related to your disability, injury, or chronic illness? I understand the significance of past experiences and how they make an impact on the present. I'm committed to creating a flexible and inclusive environment where you feel empowered to explore new concepts and challenge yourself. I have experience working with individuals in atypical relationship structures such as open or polyam. I work with individuals struggling with a range of difficulties including anxiety, depression, and past trauma.
(708) 773-5488 View (708) 773-5488
Photo of Catherine Boyce - Evanston Counseling, PLLC, PhD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Evanston Counseling, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60657
You’ve been carrying the anxiety and pain for far too long. No one really knows what it's like to be you. It feels utterly lonely. But you are at the point, where you want to find hope again and see if there is a chance that it doesn’t have to be this way. You are navigating relationships with your intimate partner and friends, and experiencing difficult lonely feelings about your life, family, health, and career. Whether you have a relationship or are starting a new one, planning a family or maintaining one, struggling at college, battling chronic pain or IBS, or moving into the empty nest syndrome, there is so much to worry about.
You’ve been carrying the anxiety and pain for far too long. No one really knows what it's like to be you. It feels utterly lonely. But you are at the point, where you want to find hope again and see if there is a chance that it doesn’t have to be this way. You are navigating relationships with your intimate partner and friends, and experiencing difficult lonely feelings about your life, family, health, and career. Whether you have a relationship or are starting a new one, planning a family or maintaining one, struggling at college, battling chronic pain or IBS, or moving into the empty nest syndrome, there is so much to worry about.
(847) 440-1345 View (847) 440-1345
Photo of Felix Laevsky
Felix Laevsky
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60604
I have been specializing in Biofeedback since 2004, with a primary focus on chronic pain, anxiety and stress management. Through the use of Biofeedback techniques and technology, relaxation, breathing, and other mind-body techniques, I have helped many people struggling with stress, pain and pain-related symptoms such as sleep problems, anxiety, muscle tension and breathing difficulties. Biofeedback principles and technology are amazing! If you would like to know how stress affects your body you can see it in your own " biofeedback physiological mirror" which works similar to your bathroom mirror.
I have been specializing in Biofeedback since 2004, with a primary focus on chronic pain, anxiety and stress management. Through the use of Biofeedback techniques and technology, relaxation, breathing, and other mind-body techniques, I have helped many people struggling with stress, pain and pain-related symptoms such as sleep problems, anxiety, muscle tension and breathing difficulties. Biofeedback principles and technology are amazing! If you would like to know how stress affects your body you can see it in your own " biofeedback physiological mirror" which works similar to your bathroom mirror.
(847) 960-3313 View (847) 960-3313
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Chronic Pain Therapists

How does chronic pain therapy work?

Engaging with a psychotherapist to help treat chronic pain does not mean that one’s pain is all in their head. Therapy for chronic-pain patients has been shown to benefit both the mind and the body, targeting physical symptoms and increasing daily functioning. In other words, for many, addressing their emotional health through therapy affects their physical health. A therapist can help a client challenge unhelpful thoughts about pain and develop new ways to respond to it, such as distraction or calming breathing techniques. Studies have found that therapy can be as effective as surgery for certain cases of chronic pain and many doctors recommend trying psychotherapy in advance of considering invasive surgery.

What are the most effective treatment options for chronic pain?

Stress, anxiety, depression, catastrophizing, ruminating, lack of activity, and social withdrawal all make chronic pain worse. Addressing these issues, research shows, can help people gain control over their pain symptoms. Therapeutic approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, and mindfulness-based stress reduction, along with greater pain-management education, have been found to help people reduce fear and disability.

Are there new treatments for chronic pain?

Many cases of chronic pain, particularly those involving back pain, remain medically unexplained. But there is evidence that changes in the brain or nervous system are caused by previous physical ailments such as tissue damage; in such cases, the brain may continue to send out pain signals despite the physical cause having healed. To aid patients under these circumstances, a recently developed treatment known as pain reprocessing therapy (PRT) is designed to help the brain “unlearn” this response. A PRT practitioner helps individuals to reduce the “threat value” of their ongoing pain signals until they can reappraise them as less threatening and fear-inducing. They also help an individual to develop new emotional regulation skills.

How long does therapy for chronic pain take?

There is no set timeline for recovery from chronic pain, especially as there may be a range of physical and psychological causes for any individual’s discomfort, but most patients should expect to see a therapist for a number of weeks or months, typically spanning at least 12 sessions. Studies of pain reprocessing therapy found that many individuals’ experience of pain lessened in eight sessions over four weeks.