Therapists in West Pullman, Chicago, IL

Photo of L. Nadira Muhammad, DHA (c), MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
L. Nadira Muhammad
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DHA (c), MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643
Peace & blessings! I am passionate about helping individuals navigate the complexities of the human mind and find inner peace and growth. My journey in the field has been driven by a desire to facilitate positive change. My 17-plus years of experience have allowed me to learn and work with those from many walks of life in various therapeutic settings. I recognize that in life, we are all given a chair in a forever-evolving classroom with many lessons, all of which have equipped me with a diverse range of skills and a comprehensive understanding of human behavior and mental health.
Peace & blessings! I am passionate about helping individuals navigate the complexities of the human mind and find inner peace and growth. My journey in the field has been driven by a desire to facilitate positive change. My 17-plus years of experience have allowed me to learn and work with those from many walks of life in various therapeutic settings. I recognize that in life, we are all given a chair in a forever-evolving classroom with many lessons, all of which have equipped me with a diverse range of skills and a comprehensive understanding of human behavior and mental health.
(708) 905-4896 View (708) 905-4896
Photo of Dr. Amber C Gardner, EdD, LPC, ALMFT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Dr. Amber C Gardner
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdD, LPC, ALMFT
Verified Verified
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643  (Online Only)
Deciding to come to therapy can be very scary. Sharing your most intimate thoughts with someone can be even more frightening. This is why I make sure that I create a very safe, caring, positive, and secure place where you can feel comfortable and know that you are with someone who truly cares about your well-being.
Deciding to come to therapy can be very scary. Sharing your most intimate thoughts with someone can be even more frightening. This is why I make sure that I create a very safe, caring, positive, and secure place where you can feel comfortable and know that you are with someone who truly cares about your well-being.
(708) 505-8343 View (708) 505-8343
Photo of undefined - Just InJoy Counseling, PLLC, LCSW, CAMS-II, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Just InJoy Counseling, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CAMS-II
Verified Verified
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643  (Online Only)
Women's issues, relationship issues, and pregnancy, prenatal, postpartum issues! Are you anxiously feeling like the weight of the world is on your shoulders? Experiencing sadness due to constantly taking care of others, but neglecting yourself. Are you tired of silencing your voice even when you yearn to be heard? Do you find yourself staring into the mirror, asking yourself one of life's most profound question, "Who am I?"
Women's issues, relationship issues, and pregnancy, prenatal, postpartum issues! Are you anxiously feeling like the weight of the world is on your shoulders? Experiencing sadness due to constantly taking care of others, but neglecting yourself. Are you tired of silencing your voice even when you yearn to be heard? Do you find yourself staring into the mirror, asking yourself one of life's most profound question, "Who am I?"
(773) 207-4593 View (773) 207-4593
Photo of Ana Diaz-LePage, PhD, Psychologist
Ana Diaz-LePage
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60603  (Online Only)
Hi, my name is Ana and I provide online therapy at Aguirre Center for Inclusive Psychotherapy. It takes courage to ask for help and even more so to do the hard work of being vulnerable and honest with yourself to explore parts of yourself that you may avoiding. I’m passionate about helping individuals, particularly young adults, going through emotional difficulties and issues related to identity, anxiety, depression, parenting, chronic illness and other health-related concerns. Together, we can discover the best way for you to accept and cope with your emotions in a way that’s uniquely tailored to your experiences and strengths.
Hi, my name is Ana and I provide online therapy at Aguirre Center for Inclusive Psychotherapy. It takes courage to ask for help and even more so to do the hard work of being vulnerable and honest with yourself to explore parts of yourself that you may avoiding. I’m passionate about helping individuals, particularly young adults, going through emotional difficulties and issues related to identity, anxiety, depression, parenting, chronic illness and other health-related concerns. Together, we can discover the best way for you to accept and cope with your emotions in a way that’s uniquely tailored to your experiences and strengths.
(470) 735-0604 View (470) 735-0604
Photo of Stacy Nakia Peebles, PhD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Stacy Nakia Peebles
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60601  (Online Only)
I am a Emotional Wellness Practitioner with extensive experience providing services to women seeking support in navigating through life's challenges. My goal is to empower you to make positive and informed decisions that will lead to a sense of well-being and serenity. I take a holistic approach to health care. Our emotional well-being is at the center of living a healthy and fulfilled life. I focus on promoting a sense of self-love and empowering my clients to live the meaningful life that they deserve. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Certified Empowerment Coach and Certified Reiki Master.
I am a Emotional Wellness Practitioner with extensive experience providing services to women seeking support in navigating through life's challenges. My goal is to empower you to make positive and informed decisions that will lead to a sense of well-being and serenity. I take a holistic approach to health care. Our emotional well-being is at the center of living a healthy and fulfilled life. I focus on promoting a sense of self-love and empowering my clients to live the meaningful life that they deserve. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker, Certified Empowerment Coach and Certified Reiki Master.
(314) 582-5990 View (314) 582-5990
Photo of Chelsea (Derks) Knight, LCSW, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Chelsea (Derks) Knight
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LMSW
Verified Verified
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60657  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My clients describe my approach as gentle and direct with a dab of humor. I do my best work treating individuals who have experienced interpersonal trauma, people who are navigating their role in complicated families, and those who have been emotionally abused. I tend to find success with people who struggle with depression or low self-esteem, people who work in high-stress or helping professions, and people who do not know where to start. I have experience working with people with Bipolar Disorder, PMDD, learning disabilities, ADHD, anxiety, insomnia, auto-immune conditions, depression, anxiety, panic disorders, autism, & PTSD.
My clients describe my approach as gentle and direct with a dab of humor. I do my best work treating individuals who have experienced interpersonal trauma, people who are navigating their role in complicated families, and those who have been emotionally abused. I tend to find success with people who struggle with depression or low self-esteem, people who work in high-stress or helping professions, and people who do not know where to start. I have experience working with people with Bipolar Disorder, PMDD, learning disabilities, ADHD, anxiety, insomnia, auto-immune conditions, depression, anxiety, panic disorders, autism, & PTSD.
(248) 609-4698 View (248) 609-4698
Photo of Emma Donovan, MA, LPC, LCPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Emma Donovan
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LCPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60605
Hi! My name is Emma. I offer an alternative, holistic, and spiritual approach to therapy for people in their 20s and 30s. I help you get to the root of your problems and heal past wounds so you can feel more conscious, integrated, and whole. I use IFS therapy, Depth Hypnosis, Shamanic Counseling, Buddhist Psychology, nutrition, Psychedelic Integration, and TRE, all of which I am trained and/or certified in. One fun fact about me is that I have studied, lived, and worked in many countries, and I've been to 32 countries total! Ask me about working at a mindfulness center in Thailand or getting yoga teacher trained in India.
Hi! My name is Emma. I offer an alternative, holistic, and spiritual approach to therapy for people in their 20s and 30s. I help you get to the root of your problems and heal past wounds so you can feel more conscious, integrated, and whole. I use IFS therapy, Depth Hypnosis, Shamanic Counseling, Buddhist Psychology, nutrition, Psychedelic Integration, and TRE, all of which I am trained and/or certified in. One fun fact about me is that I have studied, lived, and worked in many countries, and I've been to 32 countries total! Ask me about working at a mindfulness center in Thailand or getting yoga teacher trained in India.
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Photo of undefined - Family First Domestic & Family Counseling Clinic, PsyD, MA, CAMS-II
Family First Domestic & Family Counseling Clinic
PsyD, MA, CAMS-II
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643
Family First Domestic & Family Counseling Clinic (FFCC) have advanced training in forensic psychology which provides them with the skills needed to work with and within the legal system. FFCC staff also works with clients with family of origin issues, depression, anxiety, grief, domestic violence, codependency, stress, life transitions, career changes, and more. We offer services in English and Spanish.
Family First Domestic & Family Counseling Clinic (FFCC) have advanced training in forensic psychology which provides them with the skills needed to work with and within the legal system. FFCC staff also works with clients with family of origin issues, depression, anxiety, grief, domestic violence, codependency, stress, life transitions, career changes, and more. We offer services in English and Spanish.
(773) 451-8634 View (773) 451-8634
Photo of Ozella Barnes, PsyD, Psychologist
Ozella Barnes
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643
Greetings Beautiful People... I am a Licensed Clinical Psychologist with over 25 years of direct service experience helping people who have experienced significant pain and trauma in their lives. I describe myself as a straight talk, no chaser kind of clinician who uses compassion with honesty to help confront the difficult things that keep us stuck in unhealthy patterns in our lives.
Greetings Beautiful People... I am a Licensed Clinical Psychologist with over 25 years of direct service experience helping people who have experienced significant pain and trauma in their lives. I describe myself as a straight talk, no chaser kind of clinician who uses compassion with honesty to help confront the difficult things that keep us stuck in unhealthy patterns in our lives.
(872) 266-1376 View (872) 266-1376
Photo of Melissa Randle El, MA, NCC, Pre-Licensed Professional
Melissa Randle El
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, NCC
Verified Verified
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643
Staying centered while balancing the many demands and expectations that our lives place on us may become overwhelming at times. Finding our balance between meeting those demands and creating mind space to explore, grow, replenish, and assert ourselves authentically can be challenging. These imbalances can compromise our psychological and emotional well-being while having a negative impact on our physical and spiritual health. They can also affect our relationships with others, personally and professionally, by influencing the way we perceive our circumstances, communicate with others, and assert our needs.
Staying centered while balancing the many demands and expectations that our lives place on us may become overwhelming at times. Finding our balance between meeting those demands and creating mind space to explore, grow, replenish, and assert ourselves authentically can be challenging. These imbalances can compromise our psychological and emotional well-being while having a negative impact on our physical and spiritual health. They can also affect our relationships with others, personally and professionally, by influencing the way we perceive our circumstances, communicate with others, and assert our needs.
(312) 626-0573 View (312) 626-0573
Photo of Sara Allen, MS, LCPC, Counselor
Sara Allen
Counselor, MS, LCPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643
I believe therapy is a collaborative space for folks to explore their biographies and learn to hold deeper relationships with their own self and others. Change happens when we feel safe to be curious and understanding of our patterns and choices. I invite clients to explore the intersections of their identities with me as we create a space that is brave and trusting. I see the connection between the external world and our internal experience as central to the therapy process. I'm mindful to social identities, dynamics in family systems, and the larger cultural landscape that impact a person's sense of self.
I believe therapy is a collaborative space for folks to explore their biographies and learn to hold deeper relationships with their own self and others. Change happens when we feel safe to be curious and understanding of our patterns and choices. I invite clients to explore the intersections of their identities with me as we create a space that is brave and trusting. I see the connection between the external world and our internal experience as central to the therapy process. I'm mindful to social identities, dynamics in family systems, and the larger cultural landscape that impact a person's sense of self.
(708) 480-7709 View (708) 480-7709
Photo of Christina Marie Sprayberry, AM, LCSW, RYT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Christina Marie Sprayberry
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, AM, LCSW, RYT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
West Pullman, Chicago, IL 60643  (Online Only)
Trauma, loss, struggles with identity and belonging, overwhelming emotions, sensitivities, and not feeling confident may interfere with feeling fully alive. Longing to feel more belonging, ease, and being and becoming fully you? Its possible. Youre not alone. All of you is welcome - seen and unseen.
Trauma, loss, struggles with identity and belonging, overwhelming emotions, sensitivities, and not feeling confident may interfere with feeling fully alive. Longing to feel more belonging, ease, and being and becoming fully you? Its possible. Youre not alone. All of you is welcome - seen and unseen.
(312) 626-9889 View (312) 626-9889

Online Therapists

Photo of Carllie Meeks, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carllie Meeks
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60657
Envisioning my ideal client involves understanding the complexities of their experiences and recognizing their unique voyage towards healing and growth. Therapy is a journey and I am here on this road with you. My goal is for you to feel confident using the skills you inherently have to cultivate resilience, enhance self-awareness, and develop coping strategies to cope with adversity effectively. So come start your healing!
Envisioning my ideal client involves understanding the complexities of their experiences and recognizing their unique voyage towards healing and growth. Therapy is a journey and I am here on this road with you. My goal is for you to feel confident using the skills you inherently have to cultivate resilience, enhance self-awareness, and develop coping strategies to cope with adversity effectively. So come start your healing!
(872) 267-9832 View (872) 267-9832
Photo of Devon Spencer, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Devon Spencer
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60602
Life, though beautiful, is also marked by all sorts of suffering, and my job is to help you heal and grow from that. I am an attachment and trauma-informed Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT), who works with individuals, families, and couples, to address communication; couple and family conflict; relational and attachment trauma; infidelity; family of origin issues; self-development and identity; PTSD; depression; anxiety; and a host of other problems that arise in life.
Life, though beautiful, is also marked by all sorts of suffering, and my job is to help you heal and grow from that. I am an attachment and trauma-informed Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT), who works with individuals, families, and couples, to address communication; couple and family conflict; relational and attachment trauma; infidelity; family of origin issues; self-development and identity; PTSD; depression; anxiety; and a host of other problems that arise in life.
(312) 663-8905 View (312) 663-8905
Photo of Kelly Pastori, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Kelly Pastori
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60622
At the heart of my work, I approach therapy from a relational, psychodynamic therapy model, which means I believe the relationship between the client and therapist can be a transformative component in the growth process. I am a LPC combining modern neurobiology with holistic somatic healing, the psychodynamic therapeutic relationship, and body-based practices to create an experiential awakening on a bodily, psychological and emotional level. I work from a somatic-centered therapeutic approach, meaning that I believe that the body tells the stories and narratives. For more information, my website is: www.kellypastori.com
At the heart of my work, I approach therapy from a relational, psychodynamic therapy model, which means I believe the relationship between the client and therapist can be a transformative component in the growth process. I am a LPC combining modern neurobiology with holistic somatic healing, the psychodynamic therapeutic relationship, and body-based practices to create an experiential awakening on a bodily, psychological and emotional level. I work from a somatic-centered therapeutic approach, meaning that I believe that the body tells the stories and narratives. For more information, my website is: www.kellypastori.com
(512) 598-5003 View (512) 598-5003
Photo of Kiley Moore, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Kiley Moore
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60625
Some of my favorite groups to work with are children, adolescents, gender and sexual minorities, artists, young adults, and clients navigating life transitions. I work with all ages in an individual setting as well as relationship and partner counseling. I am especially interested in topics such as open relationships, identity exploration, relationship issues, and finding alignment with personal values. I also have experience working with mood disorders, anxiety, grief, infidelity, and employment issues. I want my clients to use our sessions together for exploration and curiosity, free from judgement.
Some of my favorite groups to work with are children, adolescents, gender and sexual minorities, artists, young adults, and clients navigating life transitions. I work with all ages in an individual setting as well as relationship and partner counseling. I am especially interested in topics such as open relationships, identity exploration, relationship issues, and finding alignment with personal values. I also have experience working with mood disorders, anxiety, grief, infidelity, and employment issues. I want my clients to use our sessions together for exploration and curiosity, free from judgement.
(872) 276-8865 View (872) 276-8865
Photo of Meagan Marsh, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Meagan Marsh
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60607  (Online Only)
My approach is compassionate, collaborative and direct. I believe developing an honest, authentic therapeutic relationship is key to making changes, so providing a non-judgmental, trauma informed space is my priority. We’ll laugh in sessions (yes, therapy can be fun!) and work together to identify your goals, highlight and build upon your strengths and insights, and explore concepts like vulnerability, intimacy, and self-compassion.
My approach is compassionate, collaborative and direct. I believe developing an honest, authentic therapeutic relationship is key to making changes, so providing a non-judgmental, trauma informed space is my priority. We’ll laugh in sessions (yes, therapy can be fun!) and work together to identify your goals, highlight and build upon your strengths and insights, and explore concepts like vulnerability, intimacy, and self-compassion.
(708) 809-3188 View (708) 809-3188
Photo of Belicia King, LPC, Counselor
Belicia King
Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60643
Do you feel like becoming an adult is harder than you thought? From the decision making, to finding yourself, to even learning to manage anxiety and depression that feel like they are taking a front row seat to your life. You are not alone, and you do not need to be “fixed”. Transitioning between different stages of your life means that there may be some things you have to heal from and unlearn. With the right support and patience, you can learn how to navigate the world as your best self. With an emphasis on who you are, and not who you should be.
Do you feel like becoming an adult is harder than you thought? From the decision making, to finding yourself, to even learning to manage anxiety and depression that feel like they are taking a front row seat to your life. You are not alone, and you do not need to be “fixed”. Transitioning between different stages of your life means that there may be some things you have to heal from and unlearn. With the right support and patience, you can learn how to navigate the world as your best self. With an emphasis on who you are, and not who you should be.
(708) 934-9884 View (708) 934-9884
Photo of Jacquelyn Singer, MA, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jacquelyn Singer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60660
Considering therapy? Taking those first steps can often be difficult, but finding the right therapist can help you work through the concerns that have continually affected you and your relationships. We will work together to address current problems and long-standing patterns so that you can experience the satisfaction with yourself and the level of fulfillment in your relationships that you've been looking for.
Considering therapy? Taking those first steps can often be difficult, but finding the right therapist can help you work through the concerns that have continually affected you and your relationships. We will work together to address current problems and long-standing patterns so that you can experience the satisfaction with yourself and the level of fulfillment in your relationships that you've been looking for.
(773) 649-4481 View (773) 649-4481
Photo of Patricia Lutz, MA, LPC, E-RYT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Patricia Lutz
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, E-RYT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60607
Patricia is passionate about holding space for you to find peace, and move through life's challenges. Change, growth, and healing can be incredibly daunting. It takes bravery to seek help. She holds safe, empathetic, and non-judgmental space for clients to move toward their therapeutic goals. Patricia is thrilled to be a licensed professional counselor at Pure Health Center.
Patricia is passionate about holding space for you to find peace, and move through life's challenges. Change, growth, and healing can be incredibly daunting. It takes bravery to seek help. She holds safe, empathetic, and non-judgmental space for clients to move toward their therapeutic goals. Patricia is thrilled to be a licensed professional counselor at Pure Health Center.
(224) 243-4137 View (224) 243-4137

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in West Pullman, Chicago, IL

10+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in West Pullman, Chicago, IL who prioritize treating:

92% Stress
83% Relationship Issues
83% Depression
83% Anxiety
83% Self Esteem
75% Life Transitions
67% Grief

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

90% BlueCross and BlueShield
70% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
60% Aetna

How Therapists in West Pullman, Chicago, IL see their clients

50% In Person and Online
50% Online Only

Gender breakdown

92% Female
8% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in West Pullman, Chicago?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.