Therapists in Buena Park, Chicago, IL

Photo of Alexandra DeWoskin, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Alexandra DeWoskin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
I am a conversational therapist. I attempt to establish a comfortable environment that allows for humor and examples to clarify concepts and patterns of thinking. I believe in empowering the client for change and am an empathic and intuitive listener which allows me to hone in on client strengths. Directly communicating these strengths and modeling behavior offers the client the opportunity to achieve milestones leading to increased self-esteem.
I am a conversational therapist. I attempt to establish a comfortable environment that allows for humor and examples to clarify concepts and patterns of thinking. I believe in empowering the client for change and am an empathic and intuitive listener which allows me to hone in on client strengths. Directly communicating these strengths and modeling behavior offers the client the opportunity to achieve milestones leading to increased self-esteem.
(773) 280-7446 View (773) 280-7446
Photo of Karen Krehbiel, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Karen Krehbiel
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
I am a therapist who works with children, adolescents, and adults. My goal is to help individuals navigate challenges in their lives in a way that is compassionate and effective. I do this through a client-centered approach to therapy, which draws on our shared human capacity for healing and growth.
I am a therapist who works with children, adolescents, and adults. My goal is to help individuals navigate challenges in their lives in a way that is compassionate and effective. I do this through a client-centered approach to therapy, which draws on our shared human capacity for healing and growth.
(312) 237-6224 View (312) 237-6224
Photo of Dr. Shelby Mailho, PsyD, Psychologist
Dr. Shelby Mailho
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613  (Online Only)
I specialize in working with queer, trans, and neurodivergent individuals. Using a relational, feminist, and humanistic approach, I help you embrace your authentic self. Together, we'll foster a warm, collaborative relationship for personal growth. I provide affirming and inclusive care, understanding the impact of societal systems on intersecting identities. With specialized training in neurodivergence, gender diversity, and consensual nonmonogamy, I support clients in navigating life's challenges. Currently accepting clients for gender surgery letters/documentation and psychological testing.
I specialize in working with queer, trans, and neurodivergent individuals. Using a relational, feminist, and humanistic approach, I help you embrace your authentic self. Together, we'll foster a warm, collaborative relationship for personal growth. I provide affirming and inclusive care, understanding the impact of societal systems on intersecting identities. With specialized training in neurodivergence, gender diversity, and consensual nonmonogamy, I support clients in navigating life's challenges. Currently accepting clients for gender surgery letters/documentation and psychological testing.
(773) 345-7584 View (773) 345-7584
Photo of Adam Ouanes, MSS, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Adam Ouanes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSS, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
Finding a new therapist can be daunting. If you’re here, then life might be getting in the way. The ways you used to cope may have stopped working. You might feel stuck and unsure where you are going. My job is to guide you towards change and help you un-believe false narratives about yourself that are holding you back. Much of my work is focused on working with LGBTQ+ people, self esteem and managing relationship issues. I also specialize in working with gay men in recovery from addiction. Additionally, I work with co-occurring mental health conditions such as trauma, anxiety, and depression.
Finding a new therapist can be daunting. If you’re here, then life might be getting in the way. The ways you used to cope may have stopped working. You might feel stuck and unsure where you are going. My job is to guide you towards change and help you un-believe false narratives about yourself that are holding you back. Much of my work is focused on working with LGBTQ+ people, self esteem and managing relationship issues. I also specialize in working with gay men in recovery from addiction. Additionally, I work with co-occurring mental health conditions such as trauma, anxiety, and depression.
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Photo of Joey A Marchese, MSW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Joey A Marchese
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
Seeking therapy can be intimidating, but taking this first step shows courage in the face of uncertainty. Therapy is an opportunity for us to explore your goals, interests, and experiences. I am a queer therapist with an approach that is conversational, warm, and humorous, while also being person centered, trauma informed, and always non-judgmental. I have worked with individuals navigating anxiety, depression, life transitions, neurodiversity/ADHD, relationships, stress, trauma, substance use, OCD, and much more. I also enjoy working with folx involved in kink and poly dynamics.
Seeking therapy can be intimidating, but taking this first step shows courage in the face of uncertainty. Therapy is an opportunity for us to explore your goals, interests, and experiences. I am a queer therapist with an approach that is conversational, warm, and humorous, while also being person centered, trauma informed, and always non-judgmental. I have worked with individuals navigating anxiety, depression, life transitions, neurodiversity/ADHD, relationships, stress, trauma, substance use, OCD, and much more. I also enjoy working with folx involved in kink and poly dynamics.
(872) 216-8414 View (872) 216-8414
Photo of Rachel Pallmeyer, MSW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Rachel Pallmeyer
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified Verified
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
As the expert of your own experience, you deserve to be listened to and understood. I intend to hold space for all aspects of your unique identities. Everyone faces challenges and obstacles in the world. In therapy, we can explore your thoughts, feelings, and motivations, and how you can navigate the world authentically, while centering your inherent capacity and resilience.
As the expert of your own experience, you deserve to be listened to and understood. I intend to hold space for all aspects of your unique identities. Everyone faces challenges and obstacles in the world. In therapy, we can explore your thoughts, feelings, and motivations, and how you can navigate the world authentically, while centering your inherent capacity and resilience.
(872) 246-8182 View (872) 246-8182
Photo of Laura Grimes - Inclusive Insight Psychotherapy & Consulting , LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Inclusive Insight Psychotherapy & Consulting
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
IIPC is a place that is as healing for our healers as it is for our clients. We believe humans thrive in connection and community, feeling seen and heard for who they are and what they have experienced. We are a diverse group of clinicians and inspiration-makers who know that to hold others in their process, we must also feel held. Staff are experts in their own identities, lives and careers. We are better clinicians by bringing our whole selves to our work.
IIPC is a place that is as healing for our healers as it is for our clients. We believe humans thrive in connection and community, feeling seen and heard for who they are and what they have experienced. We are a diverse group of clinicians and inspiration-makers who know that to hold others in their process, we must also feel held. Staff are experts in their own identities, lives and careers. We are better clinicians by bringing our whole selves to our work.
(773) 659-9207 View (773) 659-9207
Photo of Karla A Rennhofer, PhD, ABPP, BCETS, PSYPACT, Psychologist
Karla A Rennhofer
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP, BCETS, PSYPACT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613  (Online Only)
Hello, and welcome to my page! I work with people who have a wide variety of conditions stemming from relational and environmental stress. I believe that we are naturally programmed to heal, but often we rely on past coping skills that are no longer functional, and this blocks the path to healing. I think every symptom once served a purpose and that change can occur by looking at how and why these symptoms developed, while at the same time trying new behaviors.
Hello, and welcome to my page! I work with people who have a wide variety of conditions stemming from relational and environmental stress. I believe that we are naturally programmed to heal, but often we rely on past coping skills that are no longer functional, and this blocks the path to healing. I think every symptom once served a purpose and that change can occur by looking at how and why these symptoms developed, while at the same time trying new behaviors.
(847) 796-8438 View (847) 796-8438
Photo of Jodi Randle, LCPC, Counselor
Jodi Randle
Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613  (Online Only)
As far as everyone knows, you have a great life. Others view you as a hard worker, strong, and reliable. But deep down, you feel stuck, disconnected, and running on autopilot. You may feel like you are failing yourself and everyone around you. After years of prioritizing everyone else’s needs above your own, things have gotten to a point where pleasing anyone (including yourself) feels impossible. Disconnection is getting in the way of the life you want in so many ways. You aren’t the kind of friend you want to be. You feel like they are failing at love. Your confidence at work is tanking.
As far as everyone knows, you have a great life. Others view you as a hard worker, strong, and reliable. But deep down, you feel stuck, disconnected, and running on autopilot. You may feel like you are failing yourself and everyone around you. After years of prioritizing everyone else’s needs above your own, things have gotten to a point where pleasing anyone (including yourself) feels impossible. Disconnection is getting in the way of the life you want in so many ways. You aren’t the kind of friend you want to be. You feel like they are failing at love. Your confidence at work is tanking.
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Photo of Afsha Merchant, LPC, Pre-Licensed Professional
Afsha Merchant
Pre-Licensed Professional, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60640
Navigating relationships can feel tricky and confusing. Do you find yourself giving to others and not getting the same in return? Maybe you feel like there is no room for your voice, your opinions, or to ask for your needs to be met by others. You might even have a sense that some of the relationships you are in are unhealthy. You have tried to find balance and fairness, but have felt unsuccessful. I get it! Who you are matters. What you want matters. Whether we are working on work, partner, familial relationships, or the relationship you have with yourself,
Navigating relationships can feel tricky and confusing. Do you find yourself giving to others and not getting the same in return? Maybe you feel like there is no room for your voice, your opinions, or to ask for your needs to be met by others. You might even have a sense that some of the relationships you are in are unhealthy. You have tried to find balance and fairness, but have felt unsuccessful. I get it! Who you are matters. What you want matters. Whether we are working on work, partner, familial relationships, or the relationship you have with yourself,
(773) 869-7144 View (773) 869-7144
Photo of Franzie Marie Giordani, MS, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Franzie Marie Giordani
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, NCC
Verified Verified
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
"The world breaks everyone and afterwards many are strong in the broken places" (Earnest Hemingway). That's why there is nothing I enjoy more than helping people reconnect with their internal power to grow from, cope with, and transform wounds that tend to separate us from our own highest good. Although this life and physical body are temporary, at our core we have a connection to an unlimited Source of power, wisdom,health, and healing.
"The world breaks everyone and afterwards many are strong in the broken places" (Earnest Hemingway). That's why there is nothing I enjoy more than helping people reconnect with their internal power to grow from, cope with, and transform wounds that tend to separate us from our own highest good. Although this life and physical body are temporary, at our core we have a connection to an unlimited Source of power, wisdom,health, and healing.
(708) 816-5388 View (708) 816-5388
Photo of Gregory J Harms, PsyD, LCP, Psychologist
Gregory J Harms
Psychologist, PsyD, LCP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
As a health psychologist, I work with clients who have physical and emotional conditions that are getting in the way of being able to live the lives they want. I help clients identify and follow through on changes they can make to improve their well-being. I use a behavioral approach supplemented with biofeedback and hypnosis. I also work with couples who are struggling to find ways to get closer together and feel like they are truly partners in their relationship. The key to my approach is to find effective ways to get what you want from your life.
As a health psychologist, I work with clients who have physical and emotional conditions that are getting in the way of being able to live the lives they want. I help clients identify and follow through on changes they can make to improve their well-being. I use a behavioral approach supplemented with biofeedback and hypnosis. I also work with couples who are struggling to find ways to get closer together and feel like they are truly partners in their relationship. The key to my approach is to find effective ways to get what you want from your life.
(773) 985-3895 View (773) 985-3895
Photo of Lilia Berkovich, PsyD, Psychologist
Lilia Berkovich
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
Are you dealing with recurring relationship problems, overwhelming anxiety or panic, paralyzing perfectionism or procrastination, intense sadness or anger, unhealthy habits, illness or somatic symptoms, or identity concerns? I am dedicated to helping individuals and couples on a path toward better self-understanding, emotional attunement, empathy, responsibility, and agency. Our goal would be to uncover shaping life experiences, identify patterns, and work on enhanced flexibility and intentionality in choices and actions. In my therapeutic approach I rely on relational, classical, and bodymind psychodynamic perspectives.
Are you dealing with recurring relationship problems, overwhelming anxiety or panic, paralyzing perfectionism or procrastination, intense sadness or anger, unhealthy habits, illness or somatic symptoms, or identity concerns? I am dedicated to helping individuals and couples on a path toward better self-understanding, emotional attunement, empathy, responsibility, and agency. Our goal would be to uncover shaping life experiences, identify patterns, and work on enhanced flexibility and intentionality in choices and actions. In my therapeutic approach I rely on relational, classical, and bodymind psychodynamic perspectives.
(872) 274-3016 View (872) 274-3016
Photo of Michael R Maloney, LCPC, Counselor
Michael R Maloney
Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60640
I approach therapy based upon the three core values: Curiosity, Compassion, and Community. I want to be curious about each client or couple that walks through my door. I want to know their unique problem and share some of my knowledge and skills to assist in meeting their goals. I want to be compassionate to each individual and explore what fosters their own sense of compassion. I also want to understand a person's community. Isolation is a painful state of being and I want to find how clients connect to others and build an environment of safety.
I approach therapy based upon the three core values: Curiosity, Compassion, and Community. I want to be curious about each client or couple that walks through my door. I want to know their unique problem and share some of my knowledge and skills to assist in meeting their goals. I want to be compassionate to each individual and explore what fosters their own sense of compassion. I also want to understand a person's community. Isolation is a painful state of being and I want to find how clients connect to others and build an environment of safety.
(312) 477-2046 View (312) 477-2046
Photo of Eleni Marsh, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Eleni Marsh
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60707  (Online Only)
I believe that the relationship between the person and practitioner is the crux of the work together, no matter what kind of therapy you want to engage in. I believe in Irvin Yalom's saying, "Create a new therapy for each client." I will work hard to engage every client I encounter in creating a warm and caring relationship to get to positive change in their lives
I believe that the relationship between the person and practitioner is the crux of the work together, no matter what kind of therapy you want to engage in. I believe in Irvin Yalom's saying, "Create a new therapy for each client." I will work hard to engage every client I encounter in creating a warm and caring relationship to get to positive change in their lives
(708) 381-2667 View (708) 381-2667
Photo of Vivian Sierra, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Vivian Sierra
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613  (Online Only)
I believe in creating safe space for self-expression and exploration in a collaborative and affirming way. I have worked with individuals navigating gender and sexuality identity exploration, polyamory struggles and dynamics, sexual trauma – including religious trauma and family of origin trauma, anxiety, depression, grief, HIV+ status, domestic violence, ADHD, suicidality, and milestone transitions. I have also worked with couples around family of origin conflict, communication struggles, parenting, navigating polyamory and kink, gender and sexuality expansion, as well as various role changes across the lifespan.
I believe in creating safe space for self-expression and exploration in a collaborative and affirming way. I have worked with individuals navigating gender and sexuality identity exploration, polyamory struggles and dynamics, sexual trauma – including religious trauma and family of origin trauma, anxiety, depression, grief, HIV+ status, domestic violence, ADHD, suicidality, and milestone transitions. I have also worked with couples around family of origin conflict, communication struggles, parenting, navigating polyamory and kink, gender and sexuality expansion, as well as various role changes across the lifespan.
(872) 204-1646 View (872) 204-1646
Photo of Silvija Barisic, MA, LCPC, Counselor
Silvija Barisic
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613  (Online Only)
If you feel unsuccessful, unproductive, unloved, overwhelmed by your own or other people expectations; stressed at work, home, or feel professionally and socially inadequate; or if you are going through sudden crises, trauma, loss, disruptive transitions such as job loss, divorce, and migration, then these problems could be addressed, transformed, and healed through counseling process. My extensive counseling experience has helped many clients to re-build their self-confidence, regain lost hope, and transcendent barriers. I am confident that together we can transform adversities into potentials and weaknesses into strengths.
If you feel unsuccessful, unproductive, unloved, overwhelmed by your own or other people expectations; stressed at work, home, or feel professionally and socially inadequate; or if you are going through sudden crises, trauma, loss, disruptive transitions such as job loss, divorce, and migration, then these problems could be addressed, transformed, and healed through counseling process. My extensive counseling experience has helped many clients to re-build their self-confidence, regain lost hope, and transcendent barriers. I am confident that together we can transform adversities into potentials and weaknesses into strengths.
(773) 295-0971 View (773) 295-0971
Photo of Jisela Regalado, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jisela Regalado
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
Congratulations! By looking at this site, you have already taken the first step to your healing process. Psychological struggles can feel so isolating. Psychotherapy is a powerful method for restoring wellness and facilitating both short-term and enduring changes. I utilize a collaborative approach with my clients, which provides them with a non-judgmental and compassionate safe space to feel empowered to take action and change.
Congratulations! By looking at this site, you have already taken the first step to your healing process. Psychological struggles can feel so isolating. Psychotherapy is a powerful method for restoring wellness and facilitating both short-term and enduring changes. I utilize a collaborative approach with my clients, which provides them with a non-judgmental and compassionate safe space to feel empowered to take action and change.
(630) 999-0252 View (630) 999-0252
Photo of Eve Gunderkline, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Eve Gunderkline
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60640
My approach to therapy is based on respect. I work to honor your unique life experience by adjusting my clinical approach to best meet your individual goals for therapy. I strive to provide a safe and collaborative space for clients to explore thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and patterns in order to facilitate meaningful change in your life. Using a holistic and psychodynamic approach, I can help you to utilize your strengths to promote healing.
My approach to therapy is based on respect. I work to honor your unique life experience by adjusting my clinical approach to best meet your individual goals for therapy. I strive to provide a safe and collaborative space for clients to explore thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and patterns in order to facilitate meaningful change in your life. Using a holistic and psychodynamic approach, I can help you to utilize your strengths to promote healing.
(872) 704-1703 View (872) 704-1703
Photo of Chris Tennant, MSW, LCSW, C-EMDR, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Chris Tennant
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, C-EMDR
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Buena Park, Chicago, IL 60613
Your decision to seek therapy is a sign of strength, courage, and respect for your personal well-being. I welcome people facing a variety of challenges including depression, anxiety, trauma, substance use challenges, LBGTQ+ identities, relationship issues, and the general "stuck" feeling. My therapeutic style is caring, encouraging and individualized in order to help each person learn skills to work with their emotions, see situations without judgment and recognize solutions that fit personal values. I also have a strong emphasis on diversity and social justice and incorporate it into my practice.
Your decision to seek therapy is a sign of strength, courage, and respect for your personal well-being. I welcome people facing a variety of challenges including depression, anxiety, trauma, substance use challenges, LBGTQ+ identities, relationship issues, and the general "stuck" feeling. My therapeutic style is caring, encouraging and individualized in order to help each person learn skills to work with their emotions, see situations without judgment and recognize solutions that fit personal values. I also have a strong emphasis on diversity and social justice and incorporate it into my practice.
(872) 239-3953 View (872) 239-3953
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Buena Park, Chicago, IL

100+

Average cost per session

$162

Therapists in Buena Park, Chicago, IL who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
91% Relationship Issues
88% Depression
76% Self Esteem
72% Trauma and PTSD
72% Life Transitions
67% Grief

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

98% BlueCross and BlueShield
63% Aetna
56% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Buena Park, Chicago, IL see their clients

62% In Person and Online
38% Online Only

Gender breakdown

61% Female
34% Male
5% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Buena Park, Chicago?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.