Therapists in Chicago, IL

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Photo of Susan G Burland, Psychologist in Chicago, IL
Susan G Burland
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60618
I approach the therapy relationship with empathy and curiosity. I will listen deeply to your story and will always try to understand your concerns in the context of your world. I specialize in depth-oriented therapy. As a family psychologist, I see patients of all ages: individuals, couples, and families. I focus on understanding the meanings of body symptoms and physical illness. I incorporate mindfulness, breath, and other practices which integrate the latest brain research. As a cis white woman, my work incorporates my growing awareness of the sociocultural and political forces which impact BIPOC and LGBTQ2S+ communities.
I approach the therapy relationship with empathy and curiosity. I will listen deeply to your story and will always try to understand your concerns in the context of your world. I specialize in depth-oriented therapy. As a family psychologist, I see patients of all ages: individuals, couples, and families. I focus on understanding the meanings of body symptoms and physical illness. I incorporate mindfulness, breath, and other practices which integrate the latest brain research. As a cis white woman, my work incorporates my growing awareness of the sociocultural and political forces which impact BIPOC and LGBTQ2S+ communities.
(312) 487-2938 View (312) 487-2938
Photo of Jessica Moreno, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chicago, IL
Jessica Moreno
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60647
Hello! My name is Jessica Moreno, and I currently hold my LCSW. My approach to therapy is individualized and holistic. I have experience providing ACT, DBT, trauma-focused therapy, and crisis therapy. I have worked with people who have been diagnosed with depression, anxiety, Bipolar disorder, PTSD, eating disorders, etc. I'm comfortable treating the previously noted diagnosis. My approach to therapy is individualized and holistic. I have experience providing ACT, DBT, trauma-focused therapy, and crisis therapy. try to create an open and interactive environment in which clients can express themselves.
Hello! My name is Jessica Moreno, and I currently hold my LCSW. My approach to therapy is individualized and holistic. I have experience providing ACT, DBT, trauma-focused therapy, and crisis therapy. I have worked with people who have been diagnosed with depression, anxiety, Bipolar disorder, PTSD, eating disorders, etc. I'm comfortable treating the previously noted diagnosis. My approach to therapy is individualized and holistic. I have experience providing ACT, DBT, trauma-focused therapy, and crisis therapy. try to create an open and interactive environment in which clients can express themselves.
(773) 904-1931 View (773) 904-1931
Photo of Jenn Graus, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Chicago, IL
Jenn Graus
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60614
In working with my clients, we explore what holds meaning, what patterns/habits work and no longer work in their life as well as who/what helps them create balance and motivation. When clients find that some of their reactions and emotional responses are no longer having the same effect, we work together to allow their authentic self to take initiative and risks as they engage in relationships with a more healthy, centered, and intentional stance. I value and welcome my clients’ spiritual journey and faith background and the variety of practices that aid in healing and restoring integration and connection in our work together.
In working with my clients, we explore what holds meaning, what patterns/habits work and no longer work in their life as well as who/what helps them create balance and motivation. When clients find that some of their reactions and emotional responses are no longer having the same effect, we work together to allow their authentic self to take initiative and risks as they engage in relationships with a more healthy, centered, and intentional stance. I value and welcome my clients’ spiritual journey and faith background and the variety of practices that aid in healing and restoring integration and connection in our work together.
(847) 780-7086 View (847) 780-7086
Photo of Bri Beck, Counselor in Chicago, IL
Bri Beck
Counselor, LCPC, ATR
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60618
As a therapist, my goal is to co-create an authentic, safe, and courageous relationship with each unique individual. I firmly believe that within a strong therapeutic bond, beautiful transformations can unfold. My approach to therapy is characterized by openness, collaboration, affirmation, and honesty. I bring my full humanity into the therapeutic space and encourage each client to do the same. I utilize a blend of theoretical frameworks such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Somatically-Integrated Therapy, Art Therapy, "parts" work, and Feminist Therapy.
As a therapist, my goal is to co-create an authentic, safe, and courageous relationship with each unique individual. I firmly believe that within a strong therapeutic bond, beautiful transformations can unfold. My approach to therapy is characterized by openness, collaboration, affirmation, and honesty. I bring my full humanity into the therapeutic space and encourage each client to do the same. I utilize a blend of theoretical frameworks such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Somatically-Integrated Therapy, Art Therapy, "parts" work, and Feminist Therapy.
(312) 262-2873 View (312) 262-2873
Photo of Elizabeth Schaefer, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chicago, IL
Elizabeth Schaefer
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCPC, CADC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60602
My clients want to make changes in their lives. They believe that healing is possible for both body and mind. When they feel safe enough, they bravely share the old stories about themselves and the no-longer-helpful ways of dealing with the world that kept them feeling sick or stuck. They keep showing up when the going gets rough, because they’ve seen for themselves that they can trust the process, and they’re willing to keep working it until it works, one day at a time.
My clients want to make changes in their lives. They believe that healing is possible for both body and mind. When they feel safe enough, they bravely share the old stories about themselves and the no-longer-helpful ways of dealing with the world that kept them feeling sick or stuck. They keep showing up when the going gets rough, because they’ve seen for themselves that they can trust the process, and they’re willing to keep working it until it works, one day at a time.
(312) 471-0895 x2 View (312) 471-0895 x2
Photo of Sherri A Wandler, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chicago, IL
Sherri A Wandler
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCN
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60657
Waitlist for new clients
My clients are looking for effective therapy to resolve or manage symptoms related to procrastination, AD/HD, trauma, anxiety, depression and OCD. They want to work with a therapist who has a high level of expertise and experience working with their particular struggles. They are motivated and ready to tackle the issues that interfere with feeling they are performing at their best at home and work. They want therapy in which they’re met with warmth and compassion and feel understood, respected and validated. My clients are university students, professionals in high performance careers, and professionals staying home to parent.
My clients are looking for effective therapy to resolve or manage symptoms related to procrastination, AD/HD, trauma, anxiety, depression and OCD. They want to work with a therapist who has a high level of expertise and experience working with their particular struggles. They are motivated and ready to tackle the issues that interfere with feeling they are performing at their best at home and work. They want therapy in which they’re met with warmth and compassion and feel understood, respected and validated. My clients are university students, professionals in high performance careers, and professionals staying home to parent.
(872) 240-5105 View (872) 240-5105
Photo of Melyssa Scott in Chicago, IL
Melyssa Scott
MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60653
I have 5 years of Social Work experience working with Domestic Violence and Severe Mental Illness. Within my experience I have worked with teens, adults, and families. I am passionate about art therapy and finding the tools to understanding one’s own mental health. The therapeutic approaches I work with are CBT, DBT, and Mindfulness.
I have 5 years of Social Work experience working with Domestic Violence and Severe Mental Illness. Within my experience I have worked with teens, adults, and families. I am passionate about art therapy and finding the tools to understanding one’s own mental health. The therapeutic approaches I work with are CBT, DBT, and Mindfulness.
(312) 313-0669 View (312) 313-0669
Photo of Joseph Harrington, Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in Chicago, IL
Joseph Harrington
Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, NCC, LCPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60605
My areas of focus include working with adult individuals around topics such as anxiety, depression, addiction, relationship issues, life transitions, identity development, and men’s issues. I have a particular interest and experience in working with men and culturally diverse clients. I am LGBTQIA+ affirming and continually striving to move beyond allyship towards being a genuine accomplice for marginalized communities.
My areas of focus include working with adult individuals around topics such as anxiety, depression, addiction, relationship issues, life transitions, identity development, and men’s issues. I have a particular interest and experience in working with men and culturally diverse clients. I am LGBTQIA+ affirming and continually striving to move beyond allyship towards being a genuine accomplice for marginalized communities.
(312) 262-6350 View (312) 262-6350
Photo of Jake Colling, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chicago, IL
Jake Colling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSW, PEL
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60613  (Online Only)
Relationships and systems can be as uplifting and liberating as much as they can be minimizing and painful. Humans have a beautiful tendency to feel a lot of things which can lead to issues in communication, understanding, anxiety, and depression but it is our capacity to develop relationships with these different parts of ourselves through curiosity, compassion, and empathy that help us heal. Within those feelings there is growth and opportunity to find ourselves and our needs. Therapy is a way to find our interconnected parts and how we relate to ourselves and others.
Relationships and systems can be as uplifting and liberating as much as they can be minimizing and painful. Humans have a beautiful tendency to feel a lot of things which can lead to issues in communication, understanding, anxiety, and depression but it is our capacity to develop relationships with these different parts of ourselves through curiosity, compassion, and empathy that help us heal. Within those feelings there is growth and opportunity to find ourselves and our needs. Therapy is a way to find our interconnected parts and how we relate to ourselves and others.
(872) 274-4475 View (872) 274-4475
Photo of Victoria Ann Kessinger, Counselor in Chicago, IL
Victoria Ann Kessinger
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60602
Victoria is the founder of Great Lakes Therapy Center (GLTC) and a DBT-Linehan Board of Certification, Certified Therapist. At GLTC, she provides individual therapy, leads DBT skills groups and supervises other therapists. She has many years of experience providing comprehensive DBT and specializes in treating Borderline Personality Disorder. In addition to providing DBT, Victoria uses the DBT Prolonged Exposure protocol to treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Victoria is the founder of Great Lakes Therapy Center (GLTC) and a DBT-Linehan Board of Certification, Certified Therapist. At GLTC, she provides individual therapy, leads DBT skills groups and supervises other therapists. She has many years of experience providing comprehensive DBT and specializes in treating Borderline Personality Disorder. In addition to providing DBT, Victoria uses the DBT Prolonged Exposure protocol to treat Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
(312) 313-0481 View (312) 313-0481
Photo of Paul Pendler, Psychologist in Chicago, IL
Paul Pendler
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60611
I work with people who are struggling through transitions. Sometimes the movement between life phases brings about struggles, questions, and the need for behavior change. My active, and direct style will challenge you to examine the questions you have and work together to identify strategies to relieve your distress. I utilize a very direct style with an emphasis on "telling the truth" and learning to increase one's accountability in their life. In short, the dialogue between us will help challenge you to obtain the necessary changes in your life, appreciating how you got here and where to go next.
I work with people who are struggling through transitions. Sometimes the movement between life phases brings about struggles, questions, and the need for behavior change. My active, and direct style will challenge you to examine the questions you have and work together to identify strategies to relieve your distress. I utilize a very direct style with an emphasis on "telling the truth" and learning to increase one's accountability in their life. In short, the dialogue between us will help challenge you to obtain the necessary changes in your life, appreciating how you got here and where to go next.
(312) 313-7792 View (312) 313-7792
Photo of Dr. Poneh Kazemsoltani, Psychologist in Chicago, IL
Dr. Poneh Kazemsoltani
Psychologist, PsyD, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60601  (Online Only)
When feeling anxious, depressed, or having relational challenges we often feel stuck. Together we will connect the patterns in your life and use evidence-based tools to move you toward your best outcome. I will ensure you have a respectful, safe, and supportive environment in which you feel empowered. I value each person as a unique individual with distinct needs. My diverse experiences and my multicultural background facilitate my ability to relate to the challenges associated with the intersectionality of identity.
When feeling anxious, depressed, or having relational challenges we often feel stuck. Together we will connect the patterns in your life and use evidence-based tools to move you toward your best outcome. I will ensure you have a respectful, safe, and supportive environment in which you feel empowered. I value each person as a unique individual with distinct needs. My diverse experiences and my multicultural background facilitate my ability to relate to the challenges associated with the intersectionality of identity.
(312) 940-3190 View (312) 940-3190
Photo of John C Knapp, Psychologist in Chicago, IL
John C Knapp
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60640
Today’s environment makes many assumptions about the nature of psychological health, oftentimes seeing depression, anxiety, or other psychological concerns as only problems to be avoided and eradicated. However, there is much that our symptoms can teach us about ourselves and our world. In fact, they may even hold the key to our psychological well-being.
Today’s environment makes many assumptions about the nature of psychological health, oftentimes seeing depression, anxiety, or other psychological concerns as only problems to be avoided and eradicated. However, there is much that our symptoms can teach us about ourselves and our world. In fact, they may even hold the key to our psychological well-being.
(847) 865-9243 View (847) 865-9243
Photo of Rachel Lurie, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chicago, IL
Rachel Lurie
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LCPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60613
Does your weight interfere with your ability to feel good about yourself? Does your eating feel out of control or a constant source of anxiety? Have you tried diets, only to end up feeling like a failure? No matter where you are in your relationship with food, I can help you calm the vicious cycle of binging and dieting, allowing your body to return to a healthy and natural weight for you. Problems with eating affect every aspect of our lives, from relationships, to physical activity, and most importantly, to the seemingly simple act of enjoying one's own company.
Does your weight interfere with your ability to feel good about yourself? Does your eating feel out of control or a constant source of anxiety? Have you tried diets, only to end up feeling like a failure? No matter where you are in your relationship with food, I can help you calm the vicious cycle of binging and dieting, allowing your body to return to a healthy and natural weight for you. Problems with eating affect every aspect of our lives, from relationships, to physical activity, and most importantly, to the seemingly simple act of enjoying one's own company.
(773) 435-9222 View (773) 435-9222
Photo of Julie Wallace Zimmerman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chicago, IL
Julie Wallace Zimmerman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60604  (Online Only)
I seek to set my clients at ease in a comfortable setting so that they can tell their story in a nurturing and non-judgmental setting. Only then can we begin to focus on what they want to accomplish: setting realistic goals for both personal and professional success. I believe that this is done best with a sense of humor, as laughter is the best medicine! I show my clients that therapy can be as fun and as productive as they want it to be, where your thoughts and feelings are taken very seriously, and where what you put in is what you get out!
I seek to set my clients at ease in a comfortable setting so that they can tell their story in a nurturing and non-judgmental setting. Only then can we begin to focus on what they want to accomplish: setting realistic goals for both personal and professional success. I believe that this is done best with a sense of humor, as laughter is the best medicine! I show my clients that therapy can be as fun and as productive as they want it to be, where your thoughts and feelings are taken very seriously, and where what you put in is what you get out!
(773) 683-3462 View (773) 683-3462
Photo of Allegra Socki, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chicago, IL
Allegra Socki
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ATR-P
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60640
Art therapy offers a fresh way to view challenges and explore solutions. Our therapy sessions will encourage you to see things from different angles, creating a deeper understanding of yourself and your mental health journey. As a neurodivergent practitioner, I can offer a safe space for you to unmask and give you tools to navigate challenges and embrace your strengths. Feel free to reach out today and we can set up a free consultation!
Art therapy offers a fresh way to view challenges and explore solutions. Our therapy sessions will encourage you to see things from different angles, creating a deeper understanding of yourself and your mental health journey. As a neurodivergent practitioner, I can offer a safe space for you to unmask and give you tools to navigate challenges and embrace your strengths. Feel free to reach out today and we can set up a free consultation!
(872) 808-7927 View (872) 808-7927
Photo of Lily Diego-Johnson, Pre-Licensed Professional in Chicago, IL
Lily Diego-Johnson
Pre-Licensed Professional, LSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60657  (Online Only)
I have personal experience navigating the complexities of our mental health systems and proceed with gentleness, compassion, and understanding as you seek to find the right therapist for you. I believe in the power of your story as knowledge. I strive to live and practice within the vision of disability justice, particularly while practicing within systems that have been known to cause harm to BIPOC, disabled, queer, and other marginalized communities.
I have personal experience navigating the complexities of our mental health systems and proceed with gentleness, compassion, and understanding as you seek to find the right therapist for you. I believe in the power of your story as knowledge. I strive to live and practice within the vision of disability justice, particularly while practicing within systems that have been known to cause harm to BIPOC, disabled, queer, and other marginalized communities.
(872) 259-5121 View (872) 259-5121
Photo of Jessica Murphy, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chicago, IL
Jessica Murphy
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MEd, NCC, C-DBT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chicago, IL 60604
Jess Murphy, MEd, LPC, NCC, C-DBT graduated from the Clinical Mental Health Counseling Program at DePaul University and has recently joined SpringSource. She has immediate availability for new referrals. Jess specializes in the treatment of individuals struggling with eating disorders, body-image, life-transitions, depression, anxiety, and relationship issues for adolescents and adults. Her clinical foundation is rooted in psychodynamic theory while integrating a trauma informed care perspective. Through humor, empathy, and compassion Jess fosters a therapeutic space to help you achieve a higher sense of self.
Jess Murphy, MEd, LPC, NCC, C-DBT graduated from the Clinical Mental Health Counseling Program at DePaul University and has recently joined SpringSource. She has immediate availability for new referrals. Jess specializes in the treatment of individuals struggling with eating disorders, body-image, life-transitions, depression, anxiety, and relationship issues for adolescents and adults. Her clinical foundation is rooted in psychodynamic theory while integrating a trauma informed care perspective. Through humor, empathy, and compassion Jess fosters a therapeutic space to help you achieve a higher sense of self.
(630) 793-1148 View (630) 793-1148
Photo of Cyntoya Campbell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chicago, IL
Cyntoya Campbell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60606  (Online Only)
Do you want to finally feel heard and make progress with an experienced therapist? Whether you are facing big life decisions, having relationship issues, or healing from complex trauma, there is hope in recovery. I have extensive experience with providing mental health therapy, clinical supervision, and program management. Additional experience includes working with mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, trauma, attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, and family relations issues.
Do you want to finally feel heard and make progress with an experienced therapist? Whether you are facing big life decisions, having relationship issues, or healing from complex trauma, there is hope in recovery. I have extensive experience with providing mental health therapy, clinical supervision, and program management. Additional experience includes working with mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, trauma, attention deficit disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, and family relations issues.
(224) 279-6938 View (224) 279-6938
Photo of Natalie Sabo in Chicago, IL
Natalie Sabo
LCPC, CAADC, CCTP
Verified Verified
Chicago, IL 60614
The process of researching therapists who could be a good fit is overwhelming. Sometimes it's difficult to know what you should even be looking for. My approach is initially focused on developing rapport and ensuring that you feel comfortable with my style of practice. Whether you're struggling with anxiety, depression, or just don't feel supported in your relationships (personal or professional), we'll work together to set goals and establish the best route to help you feel less stuck.
The process of researching therapists who could be a good fit is overwhelming. Sometimes it's difficult to know what you should even be looking for. My approach is initially focused on developing rapport and ensuring that you feel comfortable with my style of practice. Whether you're struggling with anxiety, depression, or just don't feel supported in your relationships (personal or professional), we'll work together to set goals and establish the best route to help you feel less stuck.
(312) 766-6762 View (312) 766-6762

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Chicago, IL

3,000+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Chicago, IL who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
79% Relationship Issues
77% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
67% Coping Skills
67% Stress

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

95% BlueCross and BlueShield
59% Aetna
49% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Chicago, IL see their clients

63% In Person and Online
37% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
18% Male
3% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Chicago?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.