Therapists in Pleasant Valley, IA

Photo of Katie Flynn, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Katie Flynn
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Pleasant Valley, IA 52767
Accepting new clients! No matter what you're facing right now, I believe you're capable of growth and healing. Getting started is the hardest part and you've already done that. We will work together to create a set of goals that can take you from where you are now, to where you want to be. I'll be there along the way to provide coping skills, support and new ways of thinking about problems. I work with people experiencing anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship difficulties, big transitions and other concerns. I work with adults of all ages and I'm especially passionate about supporting women's health.
Accepting new clients! No matter what you're facing right now, I believe you're capable of growth and healing. Getting started is the hardest part and you've already done that. We will work together to create a set of goals that can take you from where you are now, to where you want to be. I'll be there along the way to provide coping skills, support and new ways of thinking about problems. I work with people experiencing anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship difficulties, big transitions and other concerns. I work with adults of all ages and I'm especially passionate about supporting women's health.
(563) 661-5526 View (563) 661-5526
Photo of Penny Carlton, MSW, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Penny Carlton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Pleasant Valley, IA 52767
If you're feeling overwhelmed, stuck, anxious, down, struggling in your relationships or dealing with a difficult transition, I can assist you with coping and feeling better. The thing is, you already have what it takes and I’ll help you uncover it. We will set goals and build upon your strengths. I have experience working with women who are struggling with life transitions, anxiety, depression, stress and trauma. I've been told by past clients that I'm laid back, not afraid to laugh with them, caring, genuine and helped them feel at ease. I also offer EMDR therapy.
If you're feeling overwhelmed, stuck, anxious, down, struggling in your relationships or dealing with a difficult transition, I can assist you with coping and feeling better. The thing is, you already have what it takes and I’ll help you uncover it. We will set goals and build upon your strengths. I have experience working with women who are struggling with life transitions, anxiety, depression, stress and trauma. I've been told by past clients that I'm laid back, not afraid to laugh with them, caring, genuine and helped them feel at ease. I also offer EMDR therapy.
(563) 666-6507 View (563) 666-6507
Photo of Melissa Michelle Estes, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Melissa Michelle Estes
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Pleasant Valley, IA 52767
Waitlist for new clients
Hello! I've been a therapist for 28 years and have had many opportunities to witness courage and resiliency. Along with their struggles and concerns, clients bring many strengths including creativity, humor, kindness, forgiveness and compassion. Being a therapist has brought meaning and fulfillment to my life. I can't imagine doing anything else. I'm most experienced and interested in working with couples working to improve their relationships at any stage of life and with individuals concerned with anxiety, life transitions, or depression.
Hello! I've been a therapist for 28 years and have had many opportunities to witness courage and resiliency. Along with their struggles and concerns, clients bring many strengths including creativity, humor, kindness, forgiveness and compassion. Being a therapist has brought meaning and fulfillment to my life. I can't imagine doing anything else. I'm most experienced and interested in working with couples working to improve their relationships at any stage of life and with individuals concerned with anxiety, life transitions, or depression.
(563) 794-4735 View (563) 794-4735
Photo of Lauren Ashley Isaacson, MSEd, LMHC, Counselor
Lauren Ashley Isaacson
Counselor, MSEd, LMHC
Verified Verified
Pleasant Valley, IA 52767
Hello and welcome to my therapy practice. I love what I do, and I am glad you are here. We all experience periods of turmoil or difficulties and sometimes our inner experiences are too difficult to sort out and understand alone. Are you and your child living the life you want to be living? Do they feel stuck, struggle with anxiety, depression, identity, family relationships, or grief? I have significant experience working with children, through teens, with specialized training in the treatment of adolescent anxiety and Child Centered Play Therapy. I work from a strengths-based perspective that celebrates your independent value.
Hello and welcome to my therapy practice. I love what I do, and I am glad you are here. We all experience periods of turmoil or difficulties and sometimes our inner experiences are too difficult to sort out and understand alone. Are you and your child living the life you want to be living? Do they feel stuck, struggle with anxiety, depression, identity, family relationships, or grief? I have significant experience working with children, through teens, with specialized training in the treatment of adolescent anxiety and Child Centered Play Therapy. I work from a strengths-based perspective that celebrates your independent value.
(563) 748-5778 View (563) 748-5778

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Alyson Pearson - Pearson Mental Health Therapy - Alyson Pearson, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Pearson Mental Health Therapy - Alyson Pearson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52807
Have you had an experience that has led to negative thoughts, difficulty sleeping, or feelings of depression and anxiety? Do you feel stuck? Facing these emotions can feel overwhelming, but you don't have to do it alone. There is hope to feel better and a path back to your true self. There are types of therapy that have been proven effective in decreasing the symptoms of trauma, PTSD, and negative experiences. Brene Brown says, "Owning our story and loving ourselves through it is the bravest thing we can do." I can help you own your story, unravel it, and heal.
Have you had an experience that has led to negative thoughts, difficulty sleeping, or feelings of depression and anxiety? Do you feel stuck? Facing these emotions can feel overwhelming, but you don't have to do it alone. There is hope to feel better and a path back to your true self. There are types of therapy that have been proven effective in decreasing the symptoms of trauma, PTSD, and negative experiences. Brene Brown says, "Owning our story and loving ourselves through it is the bravest thing we can do." I can help you own your story, unravel it, and heal.
(563) 349-7948 View (563) 349-7948
Photo of Beth Stone, LCSW, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Beth Stone
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LISW
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52807
Whether it is a single event or a life time of struggles, our thoughts and emotions can become so overwhelming that every day tasks are difficult to complete. For some, it is hard to reach out for help but once you have taken the first step which is acknowledging you need help and you cannot do it alone, the journey of emotional healing begins. It is learning to confront life's adversities rather than allowing them to define you. It is a journey of self-discovery, self-awareness, and learning to trust intuition while building inner strength to embrace and love who you are. As your therapist, I will walk that journey with you.
Whether it is a single event or a life time of struggles, our thoughts and emotions can become so overwhelming that every day tasks are difficult to complete. For some, it is hard to reach out for help but once you have taken the first step which is acknowledging you need help and you cannot do it alone, the journey of emotional healing begins. It is learning to confront life's adversities rather than allowing them to define you. It is a journey of self-discovery, self-awareness, and learning to trust intuition while building inner strength to embrace and love who you are. As your therapist, I will walk that journey with you.
(309) 518-9138 View (309) 518-9138
Photo of Matt Johnson, MS, LMHC, CFRC, Counselor
Matt Johnson
Counselor, MS, LMHC, CFRC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Davenport, IA 52803
I have worked with children and adolescents in the quad cities area for over 8 years. Throughout most of that time, I have helped families with conflict resolution, a decrease in negative behavior (truancy, substance use, running away, etc.) and have seen great results. I am actively working on my play therapy (RPT) license under supervision. With a very small number of male play therapists in this area, I believe I can help fill a large void by helping children who have been impacted negatively by trauma or other setbacks. I meet clients where they are at, no matter their age. Adults and children alike just want to be heard.
I have worked with children and adolescents in the quad cities area for over 8 years. Throughout most of that time, I have helped families with conflict resolution, a decrease in negative behavior (truancy, substance use, running away, etc.) and have seen great results. I am actively working on my play therapy (RPT) license under supervision. With a very small number of male play therapists in this area, I believe I can help fill a large void by helping children who have been impacted negatively by trauma or other setbacks. I meet clients where they are at, no matter their age. Adults and children alike just want to be heard.
(563) 921-6033 View (563) 921-6033
Photo of Robert W. Donohoo, MSEd, NCC, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Robert W. Donohoo
Marriage & Family Therapist, MSEd, NCC, LMFT
Verified Verified
Bettendorf, IA 52722
As as Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, I can give you tools to improve communication with your partner and ask for what you need, educate you on the type of interactions that can cause damage during times of conflict, coach you on how you can make meaningful and positive connections with your partner, and most importantly, how to become friends again! I also work to help families facilitate safe I communication so each member's needs can be expressed and heard. In addition to marriage counseling, my practice also serves individuals who are wanting to learn more effective ways to manage stress, anxiety, and depression.
As as Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, I can give you tools to improve communication with your partner and ask for what you need, educate you on the type of interactions that can cause damage during times of conflict, coach you on how you can make meaningful and positive connections with your partner, and most importantly, how to become friends again! I also work to help families facilitate safe I communication so each member's needs can be expressed and heard. In addition to marriage counseling, my practice also serves individuals who are wanting to learn more effective ways to manage stress, anxiety, and depression.
(563) 500-2345 View (563) 500-2345
Photo of Emily Clifton, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Emily Clifton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52807
I like working with clients with trauma, anxiety or depression to help them feel better and safer. I also enjoy working with children and adolescents with autism, ADHD, and other neurodivergent struggles in conjunction with their families to help them achieve the most success at home and school.
I like working with clients with trauma, anxiety or depression to help them feel better and safer. I also enjoy working with children and adolescents with autism, ADHD, and other neurodivergent struggles in conjunction with their families to help them achieve the most success at home and school.
(563) 424-2016 View (563) 424-2016
Photo of Mara Doye, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mara Doye
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Davenport, IA 52807
Welcome! My name is Mara and I have worked in the field of social work for 13 years, with 11 years of counseling experience. My areas of expertise and clinical interest include: trauma, grief and loss, identity development and exploration, anxiety, depression, relationship/familial concerns, attachment, and emotional dysregulation. My approach emphasizes creating a space that allows for healing and growth, as well as meaningful connection. Further, in treatment, I have experience utilizing expressive therapies, such as art and sand tray therapy, in order to assist in exploration and expression.
Welcome! My name is Mara and I have worked in the field of social work for 13 years, with 11 years of counseling experience. My areas of expertise and clinical interest include: trauma, grief and loss, identity development and exploration, anxiety, depression, relationship/familial concerns, attachment, and emotional dysregulation. My approach emphasizes creating a space that allows for healing and growth, as well as meaningful connection. Further, in treatment, I have experience utilizing expressive therapies, such as art and sand tray therapy, in order to assist in exploration and expression.
(800) 531-4236 View (800) 531-4236
Photo of Jessica Slover Miller, LCPC, LMHC, Counselor
Jessica Slover Miller
Counselor, LCPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52803
My therapeutic practice centers on a holistic, pleasure-positive, and trauma-informed approach, validating and humanizing all experiences. I strive to respect and incorporate each client’s values, background, identity, and diversity, fostering personal growth and empowerment.
My therapeutic practice centers on a holistic, pleasure-positive, and trauma-informed approach, validating and humanizing all experiences. I strive to respect and incorporate each client’s values, background, identity, and diversity, fostering personal growth and empowerment.
(309) 727-8990 View (309) 727-8990
Photo of Jo Carthey, LPC, LMHC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jo Carthey
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52803
I am continually amazed when people take the courageous step of hoping for change and asking for help with that change. I have been in the helping field for 36 years in various capacities. I have experiences that are rich and varied. I am able to draw upon those experiences to assist those adults, adolescents or couples who are ready to take the plunge! Are you ready to dive in together?
I am continually amazed when people take the courageous step of hoping for change and asking for help with that change. I have been in the helping field for 36 years in various capacities. I have experiences that are rich and varied. I am able to draw upon those experiences to assist those adults, adolescents or couples who are ready to take the plunge! Are you ready to dive in together?
(563) 723-4139 View (563) 723-4139
Photo of Margy Hendershott - Margy Hendershott, MSW, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Margy Hendershott
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bettendorf, IA 52722
You deserve to be happy, let me help! I support women with feelings of stress, overwhelm and sadness to achieve a sense of calm, self-confidence and wellness. I specialize in treating anxiety, depression, and other mood difficulties. I help with stress management, relationship problems, divorce adjustment, life transitions, parenting, boundary setting, self-esteem, and prenatal/postpartum adjustment. I offer a Christian perspective. With compassion and understanding, I work with you to help build on strengths, learn new coping skills, and attain the personal growth you are committed to accomplishing.
You deserve to be happy, let me help! I support women with feelings of stress, overwhelm and sadness to achieve a sense of calm, self-confidence and wellness. I specialize in treating anxiety, depression, and other mood difficulties. I help with stress management, relationship problems, divorce adjustment, life transitions, parenting, boundary setting, self-esteem, and prenatal/postpartum adjustment. I offer a Christian perspective. With compassion and understanding, I work with you to help build on strengths, learn new coping skills, and attain the personal growth you are committed to accomplishing.
(563) 293-5518 View (563) 293-5518
Photo of Holly Shannon, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Holly Shannon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52807
We all face difficult times in our lives and we all deserve to experience happiness and tranquility. However, asking for help can be challenging, especially when it comes to mental health. My professional philosophy is that clients are the ones who have the most knowledge about their own experiences, and it is the job of mental health professionals to assist them as they navigate various challenges. I work mostly with adults facing life challenges that are affecting their peace and enjoyment of life. Whether you are facing a life transition, grief, anxiety or depression, I might be the right fit to support healing and finding joy.
We all face difficult times in our lives and we all deserve to experience happiness and tranquility. However, asking for help can be challenging, especially when it comes to mental health. My professional philosophy is that clients are the ones who have the most knowledge about their own experiences, and it is the job of mental health professionals to assist them as they navigate various challenges. I work mostly with adults facing life challenges that are affecting their peace and enjoyment of life. Whether you are facing a life transition, grief, anxiety or depression, I might be the right fit to support healing and finding joy.
(563) 770-2681 View (563) 770-2681
Photo of Emma Deem, LISW, Counselor
Emma Deem
Counselor, LISW
Verified Verified
Le Claire, IA 52753
Sometimes life gets hard and emotions can be difficult to manage. The symptoms of anxiety and depression can take a toll on you and prevent you from enjoying life and becoming as successful as you would like to be.
Sometimes life gets hard and emotions can be difficult to manage. The symptoms of anxiety and depression can take a toll on you and prevent you from enjoying life and becoming as successful as you would like to be.
(563) 748-5587 View (563) 748-5587
Photo of Maria G Giuliana - Beyond The Matter Counseling Services, LMHC, QualSup, Veteran, Counselor
Beyond The Matter Counseling Services
Counselor, LMHC, QualSup, Veteran
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Davenport, IA 52806  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Greetings! I'm Maria Giuliana, founder of Beyond The Matter Counseling and Consulting Services LLC. I'm committed to caring for the whole person. I use an existential-humanistic-integrative approach that is trauma-informed, multi-culturally competent, and offer a safe space for all. I provide individual, couples counseling, and clinical supervision services via telehealth only. I'm a 20-year Navy Veteran who understands the unique stresses and the full impact of the military lifestyle on our active, retired, and veteran service members and their families. Together, we'll develop tools to better navigate your course.
Greetings! I'm Maria Giuliana, founder of Beyond The Matter Counseling and Consulting Services LLC. I'm committed to caring for the whole person. I use an existential-humanistic-integrative approach that is trauma-informed, multi-culturally competent, and offer a safe space for all. I provide individual, couples counseling, and clinical supervision services via telehealth only. I'm a 20-year Navy Veteran who understands the unique stresses and the full impact of the military lifestyle on our active, retired, and veteran service members and their families. Together, we'll develop tools to better navigate your course.
(904) 549-6786 View (904) 549-6786
Photo of Jennifer Bishop, T-LPHA, T-LMHC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jennifer Bishop
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, T-LPHA, T-LMHC
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52803
It can be difficult reaching out for help, but I am ready to walk alongside you on your journey to hope and healing! I strive to create a casual and comfortable environment where my clients are in control of their sessions. We’ll work together to create a flexible treatment plan that is the perfect fit for you, and all sessions are provided in a safe, nonjudgmental setting.
It can be difficult reaching out for help, but I am ready to walk alongside you on your journey to hope and healing! I strive to create a casual and comfortable environment where my clients are in control of their sessions. We’ll work together to create a flexible treatment plan that is the perfect fit for you, and all sessions are provided in a safe, nonjudgmental setting.
(563) 316-6106 View (563) 316-6106
Photo of Kelly McReynolds, MSEd, LMHC, LCPC, Counselor
Kelly McReynolds
Counselor, MSEd, LMHC, LCPC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Davenport, IA 52807
Do your days feel too heavy? Does life feel unmanageable? Do you feel alone with your thoughts? Throughout of lives, beginning in childhood we are faced with challenges that shape who we are today. What events have shaped you? What thoughts do you need to say out loud to free your mind? It takes a lot of courage to talk to a stranger. I know this because I was a client prior to becoming a therapist. Its essential that therapists have sat on the other side of the couch. We all need therapy, we all deserve a safe space that is non-judgmental and confidential
Do your days feel too heavy? Does life feel unmanageable? Do you feel alone with your thoughts? Throughout of lives, beginning in childhood we are faced with challenges that shape who we are today. What events have shaped you? What thoughts do you need to say out loud to free your mind? It takes a lot of courage to talk to a stranger. I know this because I was a client prior to becoming a therapist. Its essential that therapists have sat on the other side of the couch. We all need therapy, we all deserve a safe space that is non-judgmental and confidential
(563) 202-2265 View (563) 202-2265
Photo of Arthea J Larson, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Arthea J Larson
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bettendorf, IA 52722
I have 30 years experience as a licensed clinician and believe all behavior is communication. Whether it’s a child having meltdowns at school, an angry teenager, or an adult with anxiety – each contains a message that therapy can help decipher. I believe everyone is doing the best they can with the tools they currently have but sometimes that isn’t enough. By collaborating with you, the client, we will look at the bigger picture of things that may be influencing your challenges and make adjustments/learn new tools so that more effective strategies can shine through.
I have 30 years experience as a licensed clinician and believe all behavior is communication. Whether it’s a child having meltdowns at school, an angry teenager, or an adult with anxiety – each contains a message that therapy can help decipher. I believe everyone is doing the best they can with the tools they currently have but sometimes that isn’t enough. By collaborating with you, the client, we will look at the bigger picture of things that may be influencing your challenges and make adjustments/learn new tools so that more effective strategies can shine through.
(563) 594-5558 View (563) 594-5558
Photo of Natalie Fecht, MA, LMHC, LCPC, Counselor
Natalie Fecht
Counselor, MA, LMHC, LCPC
Verified Verified
Davenport, IA 52807
I consider it a privilege to help children and teens navigate life's challenges. Whether your child is experiencing behavior issues, fears and worries, or having a hard time adjusting to a change in life, my goal as a counselor is to provide a comfortable, trusting environment for them to share their feelings, learn new skills, and build confidence.
I consider it a privilege to help children and teens navigate life's challenges. Whether your child is experiencing behavior issues, fears and worries, or having a hard time adjusting to a change in life, my goal as a counselor is to provide a comfortable, trusting environment for them to share their feelings, learn new skills, and build confidence.
(563) 278-3770 View (563) 278-3770

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Pleasant Valley, IA

< 10

Therapists in Pleasant Valley, IA who prioritize treating:

75% Depression
75% Anxiety
75% Grief
75% Trauma and PTSD
75% Divorce
75% Emotional Disturbance
75% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% BlueCross and BlueShield
100% Wellmark BCBS
75% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Pleasant Valley, IA see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

100% Female
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Pleasant Valley?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.