Therapists in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA

Photo of Amy J. Ugulini Pals, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Amy J. Ugulini Pals
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
Not accepting new clients
Do you or your child have many strengths, but have symptoms of depression, anxiety, anger, or trauma that are keeping you or your child from reaching your full potential? Does your child struggle with challenging behaviors that negatively impact his or her life? Therapy can help you overcome these symptoms and meet your goals! I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor with experience providing therapy to children, adolescents, young adults, families, and adults. I look forward to helping you regain the strength and confidence in yourself and your ability to manage and conquer struggles you may be facing.
Do you or your child have many strengths, but have symptoms of depression, anxiety, anger, or trauma that are keeping you or your child from reaching your full potential? Does your child struggle with challenging behaviors that negatively impact his or her life? Therapy can help you overcome these symptoms and meet your goals! I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor with experience providing therapy to children, adolescents, young adults, families, and adults. I look forward to helping you regain the strength and confidence in yourself and your ability to manage and conquer struggles you may be facing.
(515) 393-4137 View (515) 393-4137
Photo of Dustin Daugherty, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Dustin Daugherty
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
Waitlist for new clients
If you are experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, or a trauma that you just can't seem to "get over", give me a call. These are all areas that I love helping people overcome. I have over 10 years of clinical experience working in the mental health profession. I specialize in working through family problems with individuals and their families. I believe in empowering people to successfully discharge from therapy and take back control of their lives.
If you are experiencing symptoms of depression, anxiety, or a trauma that you just can't seem to "get over", give me a call. These are all areas that I love helping people overcome. I have over 10 years of clinical experience working in the mental health profession. I specialize in working through family problems with individuals and their families. I believe in empowering people to successfully discharge from therapy and take back control of their lives.
(515) 604-8046 View (515) 604-8046
Photo of Carlos Canales, Psychologist in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Carlos Canales
Psychologist, PsyD, CGP, FAGPA
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
I believe therapy is a way to enrich life in general, to enhance the enjoyable, and to understand and move through the painful. I think life is better in supportive company and that is why I am a therapist. I am fascinated with the multilayer complexity of life; in integrating the mind, body, heart, and spirit, as well as the richness of people and culture. I enjoy building connections with clients and exploring what brought them to therapy, how their history informs their present situation, and how needs and emotions are communicated. In essence, I’m thoughtful about how life is experienced, assimilated, digested and observed.
I believe therapy is a way to enrich life in general, to enhance the enjoyable, and to understand and move through the painful. I think life is better in supportive company and that is why I am a therapist. I am fascinated with the multilayer complexity of life; in integrating the mind, body, heart, and spirit, as well as the richness of people and culture. I enjoy building connections with clients and exploring what brought them to therapy, how their history informs their present situation, and how needs and emotions are communicated. In essence, I’m thoughtful about how life is experienced, assimilated, digested and observed.
(515) 393-2921 View (515) 393-2921
Photo of Kevin D West, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Kevin D West
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
I specialize working with adults and children (ages 8 to 17) with a focus in the areas of anxiety, anger control, parenting, ADHD, relationships and depression. Everyone has points in their lives where they may question themselves or have to deal with difficult situations they may, or may not, have been expecting. I want to help people find ways to help them realize their potential. I work with clients by exploring and educating them about the strengths they already have and how they can be a force for positive change.
I specialize working with adults and children (ages 8 to 17) with a focus in the areas of anxiety, anger control, parenting, ADHD, relationships and depression. Everyone has points in their lives where they may question themselves or have to deal with difficult situations they may, or may not, have been expecting. I want to help people find ways to help them realize their potential. I work with clients by exploring and educating them about the strengths they already have and how they can be a force for positive change.
(515) 219-4912 View (515) 219-4912
Photo of Ashley Paulson, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Ashley Paulson
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
Hello! I am Ashley Paulson, a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in Iowa and Licensed Independent Mental Health Practitioner in Nebraska. I offer online therapy to children, teens, and adults. I focus on helping those struggling with stress, anxiety, self-worth, parenting, trauma, and behavioral issues in children. I generally help people let go of what's holding them back. I often work with people on managing and reducing stress or anxiety, processing trauma or past experiences, building self-worth/self-esteem, becoming the parent they want to be, and helping parents increase cooperation at home through connection.
Hello! I am Ashley Paulson, a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in Iowa and Licensed Independent Mental Health Practitioner in Nebraska. I offer online therapy to children, teens, and adults. I focus on helping those struggling with stress, anxiety, self-worth, parenting, trauma, and behavioral issues in children. I generally help people let go of what's holding them back. I often work with people on managing and reducing stress or anxiety, processing trauma or past experiences, building self-worth/self-esteem, becoming the parent they want to be, and helping parents increase cooperation at home through connection.
(319) 253-2103 View (319) 253-2103
Photo of Ashley Nupp, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Ashley Nupp
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
We all have the ability to find effective and sustainable solutions to life's challenges, and I enjoy providing the unconditional positive regard that leads to discovery of your self-determination and resilience. I am particularly passionate about assisting clients in finding and addressing the root cause of their present-day symptoms and relationship cycles, and I enjoy working with attachment concerns in adults, teens, and couples. I have experience utilizing mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and other techniques that can help transform traumatic experiences into strength and confidence.
We all have the ability to find effective and sustainable solutions to life's challenges, and I enjoy providing the unconditional positive regard that leads to discovery of your self-determination and resilience. I am particularly passionate about assisting clients in finding and addressing the root cause of their present-day symptoms and relationship cycles, and I enjoy working with attachment concerns in adults, teens, and couples. I have experience utilizing mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and other techniques that can help transform traumatic experiences into strength and confidence.
(515) 493-7968 View (515) 493-7968
Photo of Dave Cunitz, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Dave Cunitz
Counselor, MS, tLMHC, CADC
Verified Verified
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
My approach as a therapist is to walk alongside clients as they discover their path forward. In every client interaction, my intention is to extend empathy, act genuinely, and offer an accepting environment where clients can feel comfortable and safe to explore their thoughts and feelings. Through the process of therapy, I seek to help clients gain clarity about their current situation, understand what their desired state looks like, and identify the steps they can take to bring about the change they desire.
My approach as a therapist is to walk alongside clients as they discover their path forward. In every client interaction, my intention is to extend empathy, act genuinely, and offer an accepting environment where clients can feel comfortable and safe to explore their thoughts and feelings. Through the process of therapy, I seek to help clients gain clarity about their current situation, understand what their desired state looks like, and identify the steps they can take to bring about the change they desire.
(515) 481-5274 View (515) 481-5274
Photo of Reilly Goodale in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Reilly Goodale
MS, tLMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
Welcome, I am a tLMHC at Goldfinch Counseling in Windsor Heights, IA. Mental health is something that I am so passionate about and I believe that every individual deserves a space to be heard, validated, and supported. My mission is to convey an inclusive, innovative, non-judgmental, and compassionate environment for all clients. I would love to get to know you and see if we would be a good fit for this journey together.
Welcome, I am a tLMHC at Goldfinch Counseling in Windsor Heights, IA. Mental health is something that I am so passionate about and I believe that every individual deserves a space to be heard, validated, and supported. My mission is to convey an inclusive, innovative, non-judgmental, and compassionate environment for all clients. I would love to get to know you and see if we would be a good fit for this journey together.
(515) 517-1949 View (515) 517-1949
Photo of Kim Willyard Stires, Licensed Professional Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Kim Willyard Stires
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317  (Online Only)
Accepting new adult clients on Mondays, Tuesdays, & Wednesdays. Evening hours available! Sessions with me are via video, so it's flexible & you can attend from comfort of your own space.
Accepting new adult clients on Mondays, Tuesdays, & Wednesdays. Evening hours available! Sessions with me are via video, so it's flexible & you can attend from comfort of your own space.
(551) 210-4915 View (551) 210-4915
Photo of Elizabeth B Schroeder in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Elizabeth B Schroeder
MA, TLMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
Serving individuals of all backgrounds, faiths and walks of life. I specialize in working with teenagers and adults of all ages. I look forward to working with you and helping you address the challenges you may be facing with anxiety, depression, and other unresolved stresses and struggles of life. As your therapist, I will work to create a space for you to feel free to express yourself without judgment, in a safe protective environment. You will set the pace as we journey together to a deeper understanding of yourself and in the pursuit of living in the moment as your true self.
Serving individuals of all backgrounds, faiths and walks of life. I specialize in working with teenagers and adults of all ages. I look forward to working with you and helping you address the challenges you may be facing with anxiety, depression, and other unresolved stresses and struggles of life. As your therapist, I will work to create a space for you to feel free to express yourself without judgment, in a safe protective environment. You will set the pace as we journey together to a deeper understanding of yourself and in the pursuit of living in the moment as your true self.
(515) 303-4903 View (515) 303-4903
Photo of Madison Flattery, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Madison Flattery
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA 50317
Not accepting new clients
Hi! I'm Maddy, your local mental health provider, born and raised here in the state of Iowa. Let's navigate the journey to wellness together. Whether you're tackling anxiety, stress, trauma or just need an objective ear, I'm here for you. Let's break down barriers and build a happier, healthier you!
Hi! I'm Maddy, your local mental health provider, born and raised here in the state of Iowa. Let's navigate the journey to wellness together. Whether you're tackling anxiety, stress, trauma or just need an objective ear, I'm here for you. Let's break down barriers and build a happier, healthier you!
(515) 585-8380 View (515) 585-8380

Online Therapists

Photo of Jennifer Lock Oman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Jennifer Lock Oman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Des Moines, IA 50321  (Online Only)
Life gives us experiences that are unexpected, often perplexing and sometimes overwhelming. With over 30 years of practice, I've worked with wonderful people facing just about everything life has to offer. Through this, I've developed a way of working with clients that is empowering, and most of all, effective. Relief comes when we begin to understand the emotions motivating us. The ability to identify and soothe difficult emotions is central to alleviating depression, anxiety, the echoes of trauma, or relational issues.
Life gives us experiences that are unexpected, often perplexing and sometimes overwhelming. With over 30 years of practice, I've worked with wonderful people facing just about everything life has to offer. Through this, I've developed a way of working with clients that is empowering, and most of all, effective. Relief comes when we begin to understand the emotions motivating us. The ability to identify and soothe difficult emotions is central to alleviating depression, anxiety, the echoes of trauma, or relational issues.
(515) 375-1033 View (515) 375-1033
Photo of Megan Wych, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Megan Wych
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified Verified
Des Moines, IA 50309
Do you feel like you've tried everything, and it is just not 'clicking' for whatever reason? Has your child's personality shifted? Do you recognize struggles where there have not been any? Are you uncertain about what to do next and afraid that whatever this is, it might get worse? You might not have the words to describe what's happening, or maybe you're left second-guessing your thoughts, feelings, or purpose.
Do you feel like you've tried everything, and it is just not 'clicking' for whatever reason? Has your child's personality shifted? Do you recognize struggles where there have not been any? Are you uncertain about what to do next and afraid that whatever this is, it might get worse? You might not have the words to describe what's happening, or maybe you're left second-guessing your thoughts, feelings, or purpose.
(515) 303-4119 View (515) 303-4119
Photo of Alicia Peña, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Alicia Peña
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Des Moines, IA 50310
Welcome! Life is a continual journey of healing the mind, body, and spirit. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and I provide individual and family therapy. My passion is working with people from multi-cultural populations who have experienced trauma, PTSD, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, grief/loss, anger, irritability, stress, and substance abuse. I am a Certified EMDR Therapist and Consultant, (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), and offer Mindfulness, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Client Centered Therapy,
Welcome! Life is a continual journey of healing the mind, body, and spirit. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and I provide individual and family therapy. My passion is working with people from multi-cultural populations who have experienced trauma, PTSD, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, grief/loss, anger, irritability, stress, and substance abuse. I am a Certified EMDR Therapist and Consultant, (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), and offer Mindfulness, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Client Centered Therapy,
(515) 608-8892 View (515) 608-8892
Photo of Kiera Dymit, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Kiera Dymit
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified Verified
Des Moines, IA 50309
I see clients between the ages of 4 and 104 on a variety of issues. Whether you are looking to process day to day stressors, or heal from past wounds, I work with my clients to create a safe, caring atmosphere. I place a strong emphasis on building a trusting and supportive therapeutic relationship. Areas of experience and interest include working with teachers and those in education, divorce recovery, career and vocation exploration, children with ADHD or other behavioral struggles, depression, anxiety, PTSD, self-harm, and suicidal thoughts/behaviors. This list is not exclusive, so please reach out with questions.
I see clients between the ages of 4 and 104 on a variety of issues. Whether you are looking to process day to day stressors, or heal from past wounds, I work with my clients to create a safe, caring atmosphere. I place a strong emphasis on building a trusting and supportive therapeutic relationship. Areas of experience and interest include working with teachers and those in education, divorce recovery, career and vocation exploration, children with ADHD or other behavioral struggles, depression, anxiety, PTSD, self-harm, and suicidal thoughts/behaviors. This list is not exclusive, so please reach out with questions.
(515) 800-4929 View (515) 800-4929
Photo of Kenneth Dwayne Cameron, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Kenneth Dwayne Cameron
Counselor, MA, NCC, LMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Des Moines, IA 50322
Today you are one step closer to achieving your goals and beginning a positive path toward growth and well-being. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can work to better understand and resolve challenges in life. Applying complementary therapy approaches and techniques, we will begin to change long-standing behavior patterns or negative perceptions holding you back from a more fulfilling and meaningful life.If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or ready to move in a new direction in life, I look forward to assisting you to achieve.
Today you are one step closer to achieving your goals and beginning a positive path toward growth and well-being. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can work to better understand and resolve challenges in life. Applying complementary therapy approaches and techniques, we will begin to change long-standing behavior patterns or negative perceptions holding you back from a more fulfilling and meaningful life.If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation or ready to move in a new direction in life, I look forward to assisting you to achieve.
(515) 608-5418 View (515) 608-5418
Photo of Diamond Denney, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Diamond Denney
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Des Moines, IA 50311  (Online Only)
Are you struggling with how to cope with stress? Are you dealing with a life-changing event? Do you need help finding yourself, your passions or your purpose? Are you struggling with your racial identity? Are you in a toxic relationship? Do you need help improving your self-esteem? Do you need to find healing? Diamond can assist you with all that and more. Diamond believes that you can’t pour from an empty cup. Let’s fill your cup so you can live the life you want!
Are you struggling with how to cope with stress? Are you dealing with a life-changing event? Do you need help finding yourself, your passions or your purpose? Are you struggling with your racial identity? Are you in a toxic relationship? Do you need help improving your self-esteem? Do you need to find healing? Diamond can assist you with all that and more. Diamond believes that you can’t pour from an empty cup. Let’s fill your cup so you can live the life you want!
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Photo of Hailey Penrod, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Hailey Penrod
Counselor, tLMHC
Verified Verified
Des Moines, IA 50322  (Online Only)
Hello! I work with individuals (13+) exclusively through telehealth, on a variety of different topics including; anxiety, depression, the stress of life, PTSD and trauma, ADHD, relationship concerns, body image and self-esteem struggles, and many other concerns. My goal when meeting with you is to meet you where you are while offering you unconditional positive regard, support, and a non-judgmental space where we can explore any of the stresses, problems, trauma, or any other issues that you are be experiencing, while also working together to build up and celebrate you.
Hello! I work with individuals (13+) exclusively through telehealth, on a variety of different topics including; anxiety, depression, the stress of life, PTSD and trauma, ADHD, relationship concerns, body image and self-esteem struggles, and many other concerns. My goal when meeting with you is to meet you where you are while offering you unconditional positive regard, support, and a non-judgmental space where we can explore any of the stresses, problems, trauma, or any other issues that you are be experiencing, while also working together to build up and celebrate you.
(712) 412-4692 View (712) 412-4692
Photo of Megan Dooley, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Megan Dooley
Counselor, MA, (t)LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Des Moines, IA 50309
Hi there! I am currently accepting new clients for individual therapy. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (tLMHC). I am passionate about empowering individuals to live a wholehearted life and make meaningful progress toward their goals. It is important to me to make sure my clients know they are not alone. In therapy, we will work together to process thoughts, emotions, and determine how themes might impact relationships.
Hi there! I am currently accepting new clients for individual therapy. I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor (tLMHC). I am passionate about empowering individuals to live a wholehearted life and make meaningful progress toward their goals. It is important to me to make sure my clients know they are not alone. In therapy, we will work together to process thoughts, emotions, and determine how themes might impact relationships.
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Photo of Erin Moskal, Counselor in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA
Erin Moskal
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Des Moines, IA 50312  (Online Only)
When facing an overwhelming emotional experience, so many people feel lost, isolated and alone. Therapy, first and foremost, is a way to relieve that sense of aloneness and form a trusting, collaborative relationship with someone who accepts you just as you are. My mission is to empower each individual by guiding them along the journey of personal growth and change.
When facing an overwhelming emotional experience, so many people feel lost, isolated and alone. Therapy, first and foremost, is a way to relieve that sense of aloneness and form a trusting, collaborative relationship with someone who accepts you just as you are. My mission is to empower each individual by guiding them along the journey of personal growth and change.
(515) 489-4223 View (515) 489-4223

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA

10+

Average cost per session

$100

Therapists in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
100% Self Esteem
91% Depression
91% Trauma and PTSD
73% Relationship Issues
73% Grief
73% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% BlueCross and BlueShield
80% Wellmark BCBS
70% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Gray's Woods, Des Moines, IA see their clients

91% In Person and Online
9% Online Only

Gender breakdown

64% Female
36% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Gray's Woods, Des Moines?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.