Therapists in Kihei, HI

Photo of Jennifer Nill in Kihei, HI
Jennifer Nill
DNP, FNP-BC
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753
I am a Board Certified Family Nurse Practitioner through the American Nurses Credentialing Center, and graduated with honors earning a Doctorate in Nursing Practice through the University of Hawaii at Hilo. I specialized in Family Nursing Practice, with a focus on transcultural care for people of all ages. I hold additional mental health certifications through Evergreen Certifications: a Certified Clinical Anxiety Treatment Professional, and Integrative Mental Health Certification. As a Certified Mindfulness Meditation Teacher I will practice mindful moments with you and teach you how to blend it into your daily life.
I am a Board Certified Family Nurse Practitioner through the American Nurses Credentialing Center, and graduated with honors earning a Doctorate in Nursing Practice through the University of Hawaii at Hilo. I specialized in Family Nursing Practice, with a focus on transcultural care for people of all ages. I hold additional mental health certifications through Evergreen Certifications: a Certified Clinical Anxiety Treatment Professional, and Integrative Mental Health Certification. As a Certified Mindfulness Meditation Teacher I will practice mindful moments with you and teach you how to blend it into your daily life.
(808) 207-7264 View (808) 207-7264
Photo of Amanda Ford, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kihei, HI
Amanda Ford
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, RYT
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
I believe in using mindfulness and meditation as a tool to help clients develop a mind-body connection to support resilience and healing. I have found the best approach is finding a holistic model that works for each individual. I hope to create a warm, safe and non-judgmental space when working with clients. I feel it is an honor to help anyone who has decided they want help. I am dedicated to helping clients find inner peace and the tools needed to navigate life and improve thier interpersonal relationships.
I believe in using mindfulness and meditation as a tool to help clients develop a mind-body connection to support resilience and healing. I have found the best approach is finding a holistic model that works for each individual. I hope to create a warm, safe and non-judgmental space when working with clients. I feel it is an honor to help anyone who has decided they want help. I am dedicated to helping clients find inner peace and the tools needed to navigate life and improve thier interpersonal relationships.
(808) 468-7890 View (808) 468-7890
Photo of Teraysa Guinasso, Pre-Licensed Professional in Kihei, HI
Teraysa Guinasso
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, CSAC
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753
Do you need someone that will listen deeply and compassionately? Are you working through something and feel like you need non judgmental support? I am here for you. I have been coaching teens and adults for many years using a multitude of healing tools depending on you and what your needs are. Call today and let's see if it feels right to work together.
Do you need someone that will listen deeply and compassionately? Are you working through something and feel like you need non judgmental support? I am here for you. I have been coaching teens and adults for many years using a multitude of healing tools depending on you and what your needs are. Call today and let's see if it feels right to work together.
(808) 825-6544 View (808) 825-6544
Photo of Sarah Michelle Collins, Counselor in Kihei, HI
Sarah Michelle Collins
Counselor, MS, LMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Kihei, HI 96753
Stepping outside of your comfort zone and creating change takes courage. Whether you are grieving, experiencing stigma, emotional discomfort, or wanting to connect in a meaningful way, I will assist in guiding you toward healing on your path. If you are seeking clarification in your life, in a relationship, or struggling with anxiety, I will be present with you to address your conflicts head on and without judgment. I will work side-by-side with you to better help you discover and reach your personal goals.
Stepping outside of your comfort zone and creating change takes courage. Whether you are grieving, experiencing stigma, emotional discomfort, or wanting to connect in a meaningful way, I will assist in guiding you toward healing on your path. If you are seeking clarification in your life, in a relationship, or struggling with anxiety, I will be present with you to address your conflicts head on and without judgment. I will work side-by-side with you to better help you discover and reach your personal goals.
(808) 215-6325 View (808) 215-6325
Photo of Audrey Fraychineaud, Counselor in Kihei, HI
Audrey Fraychineaud
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
My approach is centered around Mindfulness, Self-compassion, and Empowerment, helping clients to make positive changes in their lives. I’d love to help support you to live your most vibrant and fulfilling life. I’m passionate about helping clients to take the best possible care of themselves, clearing limiting beliefs and healing traumatic wounds. Together we will focus on practicing self-love, unconditional acceptance, and non-judgment to move toward what matters to you!
My approach is centered around Mindfulness, Self-compassion, and Empowerment, helping clients to make positive changes in their lives. I’d love to help support you to live your most vibrant and fulfilling life. I’m passionate about helping clients to take the best possible care of themselves, clearing limiting beliefs and healing traumatic wounds. Together we will focus on practicing self-love, unconditional acceptance, and non-judgment to move toward what matters to you!
(808) 215-4759 View (808) 215-4759
Photo of Dr. Heike Kholooci, Psychologist in Kihei, HI
Dr. Heike Kholooci
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Kihei, HI 96753
Not accepting new clients
If you look for relief from stress and emotional pain, or need help sorting things out, one of the kindest things you can do for yourself is to talk to an experienced and compassionate psychologist. Whether you are feeling stuck and overwhelmed, dealing with a disappointing relationship, or going through a difficult life transition, I can help you discover the path that is right for you. You don't have to do it alone. In a safe and supportive environment you can explore who you really are and what you want out of life, and learn the skills to make positive changes and improve your relationships.
If you look for relief from stress and emotional pain, or need help sorting things out, one of the kindest things you can do for yourself is to talk to an experienced and compassionate psychologist. Whether you are feeling stuck and overwhelmed, dealing with a disappointing relationship, or going through a difficult life transition, I can help you discover the path that is right for you. You don't have to do it alone. In a safe and supportive environment you can explore who you really are and what you want out of life, and learn the skills to make positive changes and improve your relationships.
(808) 427-0084 View (808) 427-0084
Photo of Mark Rauser, Psychologist in Kihei, HI
Mark Rauser
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753
Life consists of many challenges that can be difficult to handle on our own. At these times, it is helpful to know that we have an individual with us who provides non-judgmental support and guidance. I view the psychologist-client relationship as being collaborative, with both individuals working together to help understand the patient and the patients’ difficulties more clearly. It is my job to create a safe, comfortable environment where we can work together to help you better understand yourself and your difficulties more clearly, as well as develop a meaningful, helpful approach to resolve your concerns.
Life consists of many challenges that can be difficult to handle on our own. At these times, it is helpful to know that we have an individual with us who provides non-judgmental support and guidance. I view the psychologist-client relationship as being collaborative, with both individuals working together to help understand the patient and the patients’ difficulties more clearly. It is my job to create a safe, comfortable environment where we can work together to help you better understand yourself and your difficulties more clearly, as well as develop a meaningful, helpful approach to resolve your concerns.
(808) 204-4827 View (808) 204-4827
Photo of Mark Cady, Marriage & Family Therapist in Kihei, HI
Mark Cady
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753
Mark has experience working with a wide variety of clients ranging from children to geriatrics. His experience has primarily occurred in private practice as well as hospital and community clinic settings. He specializes in Individual Adult, Youth and Couples Counseling. Mark’s approach is compassionate, direct, and inquisitive aiming to support clients in greater harmony and self actualization. Mark believes that you, the client, has the ability to change whatever you want to change. You will work together and Mark will guide along the way. It is work, it does take time, and you can make changes.
Mark has experience working with a wide variety of clients ranging from children to geriatrics. His experience has primarily occurred in private practice as well as hospital and community clinic settings. He specializes in Individual Adult, Youth and Couples Counseling. Mark’s approach is compassionate, direct, and inquisitive aiming to support clients in greater harmony and self actualization. Mark believes that you, the client, has the ability to change whatever you want to change. You will work together and Mark will guide along the way. It is work, it does take time, and you can make changes.
(808) 278-9684 View (808) 278-9684
Photo of Mindful Living Group, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kihei, HI
Mindful Living Group
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Kihei, HI 96753
In need of support with your child or family during a difficult time? It's my passion to offer effective, research based interventions to support you in creating positive change. Utilizing a strengths-based approach & variety of modalities, my focus is to assist you & your family in achieving your goals by increasing effective communication & coping skills. With more than fifteen years of experience working with children & families to understand & process life changing events, human development, gender identity, diagnoses, grief, separation, behavioral difficulties, trauma, adoption, blended families & more, I am here to help.
In need of support with your child or family during a difficult time? It's my passion to offer effective, research based interventions to support you in creating positive change. Utilizing a strengths-based approach & variety of modalities, my focus is to assist you & your family in achieving your goals by increasing effective communication & coping skills. With more than fifteen years of experience working with children & families to understand & process life changing events, human development, gender identity, diagnoses, grief, separation, behavioral difficulties, trauma, adoption, blended families & more, I am here to help.
(808) 201-1466 View (808) 201-1466
Photo of Roger Johnston, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kihei, HI
Roger Johnston
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
In your pursuit of a life filled with depth and equanimity, you may find yourself at a crossroads, feeling as though you've lost perspective or are at wit's end, grappling with how to respond effectively to life's internal and external challenges. You seek not just answers but meaningful strategies grounded in wisdom that has stood the test of time, paired with the insights of modern psychology. You're prepared to embark on a transformative journey, using these very challenges as catalysts for developing a richer understanding of yourself and crafting a life of purpose, resilience, and fulfillment.
In your pursuit of a life filled with depth and equanimity, you may find yourself at a crossroads, feeling as though you've lost perspective or are at wit's end, grappling with how to respond effectively to life's internal and external challenges. You seek not just answers but meaningful strategies grounded in wisdom that has stood the test of time, paired with the insights of modern psychology. You're prepared to embark on a transformative journey, using these very challenges as catalysts for developing a richer understanding of yourself and crafting a life of purpose, resilience, and fulfillment.
(808) 563-4847 View (808) 563-4847
Photo of Debbie Bayer, Marriage & Family Therapist in Kihei, HI
Debbie Bayer
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, CSAC, CSAT, CPTT
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
Addiction has the power to unravel families, leaving a trail of destruction. Our approach involves individualized and couples counseling tailored for issues such as substance abuse, sexual compulsion, infidelity, partner betrayal trauma, and the ripple effects on loved ones. We offer a compassionate and non-judgmental environment that nurtures healing and insight. With decades of experience, I understand the journey to recovery and am committed to guiding you and your loved ones toward a path of healing. No matter the crises you're facing, we're here to help you discover solutions. Feel free to reach out for a free consultation.
Addiction has the power to unravel families, leaving a trail of destruction. Our approach involves individualized and couples counseling tailored for issues such as substance abuse, sexual compulsion, infidelity, partner betrayal trauma, and the ripple effects on loved ones. We offer a compassionate and non-judgmental environment that nurtures healing and insight. With decades of experience, I understand the journey to recovery and am committed to guiding you and your loved ones toward a path of healing. No matter the crises you're facing, we're here to help you discover solutions. Feel free to reach out for a free consultation.
(808) 793-6984 View (808) 793-6984
Photo of Jillian Lommori, Pre-Licensed Professional in Kihei, HI
Jillian Lommori
Pre-Licensed Professional, MFT
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
I believe that a safe, supportive and strong therapeutic relationship is vital to creating meaningful change. If you are interested in scheduling a consultation to see if we might be a good fit, I'd love to connect with you. Please feel free to call or email. For more information about me and my practice, please visit my website at the link below.
I believe that a safe, supportive and strong therapeutic relationship is vital to creating meaningful change. If you are interested in scheduling a consultation to see if we might be a good fit, I'd love to connect with you. Please feel free to call or email. For more information about me and my practice, please visit my website at the link below.
(808) 855-6596 View (808) 855-6596
Photo of Chase Conrad, Counselor in Kihei, HI
Chase Conrad
Counselor, PhD, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kihei, HI 96753
Adults to Elderly Adults, from various cultural backgrounds. Specialties include: Depression/Low Mood, Anxiety/Stress, Isolation/Loneliness, Gifted Adolescents and Adults, Geriatrics – Senior Mental Health, High Functioning Autistic Adults, Sexual and Self Esteem Issues, Social and Conversational Skills Training, Multicultural Counseling – 2nd or 3rd Culture Individuals / Adapting and Transition Issues and Identity and Phase of Life Transitions
Adults to Elderly Adults, from various cultural backgrounds. Specialties include: Depression/Low Mood, Anxiety/Stress, Isolation/Loneliness, Gifted Adolescents and Adults, Geriatrics – Senior Mental Health, High Functioning Autistic Adults, Sexual and Self Esteem Issues, Social and Conversational Skills Training, Multicultural Counseling – 2nd or 3rd Culture Individuals / Adapting and Transition Issues and Identity and Phase of Life Transitions
(808) 698-9961 View (808) 698-9961
Photo of Ben Griffin, Mental Health Counselor in Kihei, HI
Ben Griffin
Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
Life doesn’t always go as planned, and let’s face it, it can be hard. My goal is to provide a safe and non-judgmental place for you to explore ways to cope, adapt to change, challenge yourself, and work through emotional, career, and personal difficulties. My hope is for each client to gain a sense of empowerment, learn their abilities and work together to create a unique, individual plan for their personal success.
Life doesn’t always go as planned, and let’s face it, it can be hard. My goal is to provide a safe and non-judgmental place for you to explore ways to cope, adapt to change, challenge yourself, and work through emotional, career, and personal difficulties. My hope is for each client to gain a sense of empowerment, learn their abilities and work together to create a unique, individual plan for their personal success.
(808) 353-4553 View (808) 353-4553
Photo of Graciela Dyangko, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kihei, HI
Graciela Dyangko
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
The expectations for women in this world can be overwhelming and challenging. Women can naturally multi-task and do it all with very little to no support or validation. With a holistic and strengths-based approach we will address stress, depression, anxiety, change, loss, grief and relationship challenges. I utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness and other techniques to support and empower clients.
The expectations for women in this world can be overwhelming and challenging. Women can naturally multi-task and do it all with very little to no support or validation. With a holistic and strengths-based approach we will address stress, depression, anxiety, change, loss, grief and relationship challenges. I utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness and other techniques to support and empower clients.
(808) 400-9138 View (808) 400-9138
Photo of Insightful Living LLC, Marriage & Family Therapist in Kihei, HI
Insightful Living LLC
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, EMDR, BSP
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753
We all have times in our lives that carry burden, darkness and pain. We can be held back by fears, limiting beliefs and attempted distractions that over time have lost their luster, and ultimately impact the quality of our connection to ourselves and others. It is often the bravest thing we can do to take a stand and be willing to own our story. A collaborative therapeutic setting creates a safe and nonjudmental space to harness curiosity, empathy, awareness, and a more integrated connection to the Self, thus opening new pathways to personal healing and growth. I consider it a privilege to be a support to you in this journey.
We all have times in our lives that carry burden, darkness and pain. We can be held back by fears, limiting beliefs and attempted distractions that over time have lost their luster, and ultimately impact the quality of our connection to ourselves and others. It is often the bravest thing we can do to take a stand and be willing to own our story. A collaborative therapeutic setting creates a safe and nonjudmental space to harness curiosity, empathy, awareness, and a more integrated connection to the Self, thus opening new pathways to personal healing and growth. I consider it a privilege to be a support to you in this journey.
(320) 456-0535 View (320) 456-0535
Photo of Chris Haas, Pre-Licensed Professional in Kihei, HI
Chris Haas
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA , MFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kihei, HI 96753
Is your current state of life really taking a toll on your relationships, marriage, or your own mental health individually? I would love to work with you through life’s difficulties and confusion by creating a safe place to explore all of life’s emotions and struggles. We are all people hardwired for and long for connection with others, and yet, relationships can be so difficult.
Is your current state of life really taking a toll on your relationships, marriage, or your own mental health individually? I would love to work with you through life’s difficulties and confusion by creating a safe place to explore all of life’s emotions and struggles. We are all people hardwired for and long for connection with others, and yet, relationships can be so difficult.
(210) 972-7179 View (210) 972-7179
Photo of Ryan Price, Counselor in Kihei, HI
Ryan Price
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
Whether you're struggling with PTSD, childhood trauma, the aftermath of a recent traumatic event, depression, anxiety or more specific mental health conditions- I am here to support you every step of the way. My goal is not just to help you survive, but to thrive. Together, we'll work as a team to identify your strengths, uncover underlying patterns, and empower you to live a more fulfilling and balanced life. No matter what challenges you're facing, know that you don't have to face them alone.
Whether you're struggling with PTSD, childhood trauma, the aftermath of a recent traumatic event, depression, anxiety or more specific mental health conditions- I am here to support you every step of the way. My goal is not just to help you survive, but to thrive. Together, we'll work as a team to identify your strengths, uncover underlying patterns, and empower you to live a more fulfilling and balanced life. No matter what challenges you're facing, know that you don't have to face them alone.
(808) 862-2807 View (808) 862-2807
Photo of Angela Palaian, Marriage & Family Therapist in Kihei, HI
Angela Palaian
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, LLP
Verified Verified
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
Do you find yourself fascinated with personal growth and self-development? Do you want to better understand yourself so you can live your truth and show up more fully? Are you interested in deepening your relationships, learning to sit with discomfort, and communicate effectively in real time? Do you have tendency to self-abandon and people-please? Are you feeling the weight of pain and loneliness during this screen-heavy tech era? If so, you've come to the right place. Therapy can help with all this and more. Let's discuss your struggles in a safe, light-hearted space, and redirect your focus so that you can write your story anew.
Do you find yourself fascinated with personal growth and self-development? Do you want to better understand yourself so you can live your truth and show up more fully? Are you interested in deepening your relationships, learning to sit with discomfort, and communicate effectively in real time? Do you have tendency to self-abandon and people-please? Are you feeling the weight of pain and loneliness during this screen-heavy tech era? If so, you've come to the right place. Therapy can help with all this and more. Let's discuss your struggles in a safe, light-hearted space, and redirect your focus so that you can write your story anew.
(808) 757-7755 View (808) 757-7755
Photo of Lauren Kelly, Counselor in Kihei, HI
Lauren Kelly
Counselor, LMHC, BCBA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kihei, HI 96753  (Online Only)
Lauren became a holistic therapist in 2009 and began her counseling career providing crisis care to families involved in the child welfare system. She remained involved in trauma treatment while transitioning to the Maui school system to work with students with learning disabilities. She cared for adults in home and community settings, as well, and in 2019, she became licensed to provide medical treatment to individuals with autism. She continues to serve individuals with disabilities, teach parenting skills, and offer therapy to children and adults seeking to resolve problems around stress, mood, relationships, and purpose.
Lauren became a holistic therapist in 2009 and began her counseling career providing crisis care to families involved in the child welfare system. She remained involved in trauma treatment while transitioning to the Maui school system to work with students with learning disabilities. She cared for adults in home and community settings, as well, and in 2019, she became licensed to provide medical treatment to individuals with autism. She continues to serve individuals with disabilities, teach parenting skills, and offer therapy to children and adults seeking to resolve problems around stress, mood, relationships, and purpose.
(808) 378-7520 View (808) 378-7520

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Kihei, HI

90+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Kihei, HI who prioritize treating:

86% Depression
83% Anxiety
78% Relationship Issues
78% Trauma and PTSD
73% Self Esteem
70% Grief
67% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

83% Hawaii Medical Services Association
69% Hawaii Medical Assurance Association
65% University Health Alliance

How Therapists in Kihei, HI see their clients

67% In Person and Online
33% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Kihei?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.