Depression Therapists in Jacksonville, FL

Photo of Pamela Raspberry, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jacksonville, FL
Pamela Raspberry
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32218
My specialities include: Therapy with kids, teens, and young adults, Trauma, Anxiety, Depression, Self Care, Anger Management and Self-Esteem.
Let my 20-year experience as a Clinical Social Worker and 16-year experience as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker be your ticket to a better life! Working with couples, families, and individuals is a joy! Difficulties that we can face together include Anger Management, Trauma, Anxiety, Depression, Self Care, and others. Using a myriad of approaches opens the path to creating a unique plan that can set you on a path to success! I look forward to working together with you on your path to healing.
My specialities include: Therapy with kids, teens, and young adults, Trauma, Anxiety, Depression, Self Care, Anger Management and Self-Esteem.
Let my 20-year experience as a Clinical Social Worker and 16-year experience as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker be your ticket to a better life! Working with couples, families, and individuals is a joy! Difficulties that we can face together include Anger Management, Trauma, Anxiety, Depression, Self Care, and others. Using a myriad of approaches opens the path to creating a unique plan that can set you on a path to success! I look forward to working together with you on your path to healing.
(904) 867-8395 View (904) 867-8395
Photo of Erin Smith, Licensed Mental Health Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Erin Smith
Licensed Mental Health Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32218
My name is Erin Smith and I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in the State of Florida. I have been practicing in the counseling field since 2011. My training and experience derive from working with adults, children, teens, incarcerated individuals, and veterans regarding life adjustments, substance use, and trauma in various settings. I have specialties in treating adjustment, substance, relational, and other mental health disorders. Individuals, couples, adults 18 and up. I work with clients they may have anxiety, depression, career issues, stress, life transitions, substance use, and some trauma.
My name is Erin Smith and I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor in the State of Florida. I have been practicing in the counseling field since 2011. My training and experience derive from working with adults, children, teens, incarcerated individuals, and veterans regarding life adjustments, substance use, and trauma in various settings. I have specialties in treating adjustment, substance, relational, and other mental health disorders. Individuals, couples, adults 18 and up. I work with clients they may have anxiety, depression, career issues, stress, life transitions, substance use, and some trauma.
(904) 746-9656 View (904) 746-9656
Photo of Stacey Grant, Pre-Licensed Professional in Jacksonville, FL
Stacey Grant
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32257
Stacey Grant is a Registered Mental Health Counseling Intern with over 5 years of experience providing therapeutic services to adults, couples, and families with co-occurring disorders such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trauma, and addiction.
Stacey Grant is a Registered Mental Health Counseling Intern with over 5 years of experience providing therapeutic services to adults, couples, and families with co-occurring disorders such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trauma, and addiction.
(904) 830-9346 View (904) 830-9346
Photo of Diana Cofsky, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Diana Cofsky
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32246
I specialize in Anxiety, Depression, & Mood Disorders. I am a licensed professional counselor that has been working in behavioral health for over 20 years, obtaining my Bachelors and Masters degrees from La Salle University in Philadelphia. I have been fortunate to have backgrounds in both addiction and mental health at all levels of care, including inpatient residential, intensive outpatient and outpatient. My approach to therapy is client centered, using a variety of modalities including CBT, DBT and family systems therapy. I believe in the mind/body connection and offer guided imagery.
I specialize in Anxiety, Depression, & Mood Disorders. I am a licensed professional counselor that has been working in behavioral health for over 20 years, obtaining my Bachelors and Masters degrees from La Salle University in Philadelphia. I have been fortunate to have backgrounds in both addiction and mental health at all levels of care, including inpatient residential, intensive outpatient and outpatient. My approach to therapy is client centered, using a variety of modalities including CBT, DBT and family systems therapy. I believe in the mind/body connection and offer guided imagery.
(561) 769-5682 View (561) 769-5682
Photo of Sinadia E. Grubbs, Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Sinadia E. Grubbs
Counselor, LMHC, QS
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32235
Whether it is depression, anxiety, relationship issues, or simply work-life balance, I am here to help you navigate the process of healing and getting back on track.
Whether you are the working parent needing to learn how to balance time for yourself and time for your family, the person that just can't find that silver lining to your cloud to bring back that smile you once had, or someone who is simply anxious because life has made you a little fearful. I am here to assist. You have made the best, first decision by just acknowledging that you need a little something more to get you through it, so now continue those steps with reaching out to start your journey.
Whether it is depression, anxiety, relationship issues, or simply work-life balance, I am here to help you navigate the process of healing and getting back on track.
Whether you are the working parent needing to learn how to balance time for yourself and time for your family, the person that just can't find that silver lining to your cloud to bring back that smile you once had, or someone who is simply anxious because life has made you a little fearful. I am here to assist. You have made the best, first decision by just acknowledging that you need a little something more to get you through it, so now continue those steps with reaching out to start your journey.
(904) 395-4046 View (904) 395-4046
Photo of Alexa Buford, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jacksonville, FL
Alexa Buford
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
My name is Alexa (Lex) Buford and I am a licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based out of Palm Harbor, Florida and working with clients statewide via Telehealth. I work with adolescents, teenagers, and adults and specialize in anxiety, depression, relationship issues, stress, and eating disorders. My approach to therapy is supportive and collaborative. I have found that my style and approach is a good fit for teens and adults navigating difficult life transitions, stressors of daily life, social pressures, relationship issues, as well as eating disorders. Many of my clients have depression and anxiety.
My name is Alexa (Lex) Buford and I am a licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based out of Palm Harbor, Florida and working with clients statewide via Telehealth. I work with adolescents, teenagers, and adults and specialize in anxiety, depression, relationship issues, stress, and eating disorders. My approach to therapy is supportive and collaborative. I have found that my style and approach is a good fit for teens and adults navigating difficult life transitions, stressors of daily life, social pressures, relationship issues, as well as eating disorders. Many of my clients have depression and anxiety.
(904) 944-7419 View (904) 944-7419
Photo of Liza Cristin Provenzano, Mental Health Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Liza Cristin Provenzano
Mental Health Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32256
I use strength based approaches to help my clients reduce depression, manage anxiety, improve self esteem, and have better relationships.
I am honored to know every individual I have met in the 22 years I have been practicing. Joining my clients while they process their experiences has taught me to listen deeply and with compassion. My skills are only part of the journey. Helping clients find their own healing is more fulfilling than simply providing instruction or answers. I work collaboratively to find each person's strengths and help them to find peace and self-acceptance.
I use strength based approaches to help my clients reduce depression, manage anxiety, improve self esteem, and have better relationships.
I am honored to know every individual I have met in the 22 years I have been practicing. Joining my clients while they process their experiences has taught me to listen deeply and with compassion. My skills are only part of the journey. Helping clients find their own healing is more fulfilling than simply providing instruction or answers. I work collaboratively to find each person's strengths and help them to find peace and self-acceptance.
(904) 692-7644 View (904) 692-7644
Photo of Krista Bartosch, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jacksonville, FL
Krista Bartosch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CAC, QS
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210  (Online Only)
It takes great strength to reach out to another for help, so the one you choose must be someone you can feel free to open up with, trust, and respect. I am confident I can provide that for you! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker as well as a Certified Addictions Specialist. I have over 17 years of experience, working in a myriad of areas. Most of my experience has been working with domestic violence, addiction, depression, anxiety, and reentry. I also have experience working with people who have struggled with trauma. I feel that counseling is not to blame our past, but rather to explain our thoughts and behaviors.
It takes great strength to reach out to another for help, so the one you choose must be someone you can feel free to open up with, trust, and respect. I am confident I can provide that for you! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker as well as a Certified Addictions Specialist. I have over 17 years of experience, working in a myriad of areas. Most of my experience has been working with domestic violence, addiction, depression, anxiety, and reentry. I also have experience working with people who have struggled with trauma. I feel that counseling is not to blame our past, but rather to explain our thoughts and behaviors.
(904) 746-1952 View (904) 746-1952
Photo of Melissa Brown, Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Melissa Brown
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32204
I have 12 years’ experience working with adults, veterans, and teens who have dealt with trauma, depression, anxiety, addiction, relationship issues, and numerous other mental health concerns.
Have you been wondering what it would be like to have a life where it is not difficult to get through your day? A life where you are able to get out of bed easily each morning, have healthy personal and professional relationships, and manage any negative thoughts, feelings or behaviors? Your current mental health issues may be making all of that seem impossible, but by working on those same issues within the safe and judgement free environment I create for all of my clients, you can find that this becomes more and more of your reality each day.
I have 12 years’ experience working with adults, veterans, and teens who have dealt with trauma, depression, anxiety, addiction, relationship issues, and numerous other mental health concerns.
Have you been wondering what it would be like to have a life where it is not difficult to get through your day? A life where you are able to get out of bed easily each morning, have healthy personal and professional relationships, and manage any negative thoughts, feelings or behaviors? Your current mental health issues may be making all of that seem impossible, but by working on those same issues within the safe and judgement free environment I create for all of my clients, you can find that this becomes more and more of your reality each day.
(904) 454-8452 View (904) 454-8452
Photo of Paul D Knabb, Psychologist in Jacksonville, FL
Paul D Knabb
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32216
If you're nervous about coming to therapy, please know that many others feel that way before the first visit. One of my most basic concerns is that you feel comfortable. Your time with me is important. I strive to put you at ease with compassion, empathy, and humor so that we can work together to best meet your needs. I enjoy working with adults who are motivated to make changes and improve their lives. Frequently my patients work on issues of anxiety, depression, marital difficulty, coping with illnesses of all types, anger, grief/loss, and stress.
If you're nervous about coming to therapy, please know that many others feel that way before the first visit. One of my most basic concerns is that you feel comfortable. Your time with me is important. I strive to put you at ease with compassion, empathy, and humor so that we can work together to best meet your needs. I enjoy working with adults who are motivated to make changes and improve their lives. Frequently my patients work on issues of anxiety, depression, marital difficulty, coping with illnesses of all types, anger, grief/loss, and stress.
(904) 584-3527 View (904) 584-3527
Photo of Crystal Adams, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jacksonville, FL
Crystal Adams
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, Lcsw
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32202
Thank you for visiting my profile ! I look forward to connecting with you ! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Therapist with over 15 years of experience as a helping professional . In life we often face challenges that require help outside of ourselves. Problems like depression, anxiety, chronic illness, pre-marital issues, divorce, trauma, grief and many other types of problems life transitions that are sometimes difficult to overcome without professional help. My mission is to help you move through these problems to promote overall wellness, balance and contentment.
Thank you for visiting my profile ! I look forward to connecting with you ! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Therapist with over 15 years of experience as a helping professional . In life we often face challenges that require help outside of ourselves. Problems like depression, anxiety, chronic illness, pre-marital issues, divorce, trauma, grief and many other types of problems life transitions that are sometimes difficult to overcome without professional help. My mission is to help you move through these problems to promote overall wellness, balance and contentment.
(904) 901-6962 View (904) 901-6962
Photo of Renewing Spirit: Therapy for Women, Psychologist in Jacksonville, FL
Renewing Spirit: Therapy for Women
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32216  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Hi, I’m Dr. Cabrera. I specialize in helping working women who are struggling with anxiety and depression. Too many women experience waves of sadness, racing thoughts that seem uncontrollable, and disrupted sleep. On top of that, some may feel a sense of isolation and loneliness or the overwhelming sensation that they can't cope with the challenges of the day. These emotions are frequently linked to anxiety and depression. The encouraging news, however, is that you don’t have to keep living perpetually trapped by these feelings. There is effective treatment available!
Hi, I’m Dr. Cabrera. I specialize in helping working women who are struggling with anxiety and depression. Too many women experience waves of sadness, racing thoughts that seem uncontrollable, and disrupted sleep. On top of that, some may feel a sense of isolation and loneliness or the overwhelming sensation that they can't cope with the challenges of the day. These emotions are frequently linked to anxiety and depression. The encouraging news, however, is that you don’t have to keep living perpetually trapped by these feelings. There is effective treatment available!
(904) 593-3295 View (904) 593-3295
Photo of Nancy Alonzo, Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Nancy Alonzo
Counselor, MS , LMHC
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32246
I specialize in women's issues, in addition to depression & anxiety.
My ideal clients are middle-aged Hispanic females who are married and have children. They may struggle with disturbed sleep, excessive worry, feeling overwhelmed, lack of motivation, trouble concentrating, and feeling under-appreciated. They are experiencing difficulties "juggling" their roles at home, work, and parenting responsibilities. They have expressed a desire to feel "normal" and "efficient", and to be a "good mother, spouse and employee." The end goal would be a reduction of anxiety and depression symptoms, returning to a normal level of function, practicing self-care, and enhancing time management skills.
I specialize in women's issues, in addition to depression & anxiety.
My ideal clients are middle-aged Hispanic females who are married and have children. They may struggle with disturbed sleep, excessive worry, feeling overwhelmed, lack of motivation, trouble concentrating, and feeling under-appreciated. They are experiencing difficulties "juggling" their roles at home, work, and parenting responsibilities. They have expressed a desire to feel "normal" and "efficient", and to be a "good mother, spouse and employee." The end goal would be a reduction of anxiety and depression symptoms, returning to a normal level of function, practicing self-care, and enhancing time management skills.
(561) 926-9867 View (561) 926-9867
Photo of Keith Mattson, Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Keith Mattson
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Hello, my name is Keith Mattson and I am a Licensed Mental Counselor in the state of Florida. I have provided therapy services in various settings for over 10 years. My specialties include life transitions and adjustment, trauma, grief and loss, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and PTSD. I utilize a mindfulness-based, solution focused, and person-centered approach, and incorporate several modalities including CBT, DBT, and Motivational Interviewing, amongst others.
Hello, my name is Keith Mattson and I am a Licensed Mental Counselor in the state of Florida. I have provided therapy services in various settings for over 10 years. My specialties include life transitions and adjustment, trauma, grief and loss, depression, anxiety, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and PTSD. I utilize a mindfulness-based, solution focused, and person-centered approach, and incorporate several modalities including CBT, DBT, and Motivational Interviewing, amongst others.
(904) 530-3171 View (904) 530-3171
Photo of Syma Khan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jacksonville, FL
Syma Khan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32224
The best gift you can give yourself and your loved ones is your own healing. At some point, we all are challenged by psychological stress and overwhelming life events. A lack of support, unhealed trauma, or emotional wounds can bring on strong feelings of anger, irritability, anxiety, depression, or mood swings. It may seem difficult to reach out for help, but counseling and therapy can play a beneficial role by providing insight and self-awareness. At Thriving Minds, you will get professional and personalized care for successful long-term recovery.
The best gift you can give yourself and your loved ones is your own healing. At some point, we all are challenged by psychological stress and overwhelming life events. A lack of support, unhealed trauma, or emotional wounds can bring on strong feelings of anger, irritability, anxiety, depression, or mood swings. It may seem difficult to reach out for help, but counseling and therapy can play a beneficial role by providing insight and self-awareness. At Thriving Minds, you will get professional and personalized care for successful long-term recovery.
(904) 409-3933 View (904) 409-3933
Photo of Jasmine Floyd, Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern in Jacksonville, FL
Jasmine Floyd
Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern, MA
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Welcome to the beginning of your healing journey! Whether you're grappling with anxiety, depression, trauma, or navigating life transitions, I am here to walk alongside you on your journey towards healing and self-discovery. Together, we will work towards fostering a greater sense of self-awareness, resilience, and empowerment.
Welcome to the beginning of your healing journey! Whether you're grappling with anxiety, depression, trauma, or navigating life transitions, I am here to walk alongside you on your journey towards healing and self-discovery. Together, we will work towards fostering a greater sense of self-awareness, resilience, and empowerment.
(904) 830-6385 View (904) 830-6385
Photo of Haley Morris, Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Haley Morris
Counselor, LMFT, LPCC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32216
Seeking therapy can be an intimidating process, it takes a lot of courage to begin this journey! My passion is to help individuals and couples live their most beneficial and rewarding lives. I have worked extensively with grief, relationship difficulties, anxiety, depression, addiction, trauma, and much more. I am of Christian faith but am open to working with any religious orientations. I have had the pleasure of working with individuals from all different ages, cultures, backgrounds, and religions. I look forward to getting to know you on a individual basis and helping you navigate your world and experiences.
Seeking therapy can be an intimidating process, it takes a lot of courage to begin this journey! My passion is to help individuals and couples live their most beneficial and rewarding lives. I have worked extensively with grief, relationship difficulties, anxiety, depression, addiction, trauma, and much more. I am of Christian faith but am open to working with any religious orientations. I have had the pleasure of working with individuals from all different ages, cultures, backgrounds, and religions. I look forward to getting to know you on a individual basis and helping you navigate your world and experiences.
(904) 587-4725 View (904) 587-4725
Photo of Dr. Amy Hartley, Psychologist in Jacksonville, FL
Dr. Amy Hartley
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32217
Do you need an ADHD evaluation or other type of evaluation? I am Dr. Amy Hartley and have been a psychologist for nearly 15 years. I specialize in the psychological assessment of children, adolescents, and adults in areas such as learning and cognition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, memory, achievement, autism spectrum, and intellectual functioning. Additionally, I provide psychotherapy for adults and adolescents for anxiety, panic, depression, and trauma and for those needing to improve their relationship or those recovering from infidelity or a major life event or loss.
Do you need an ADHD evaluation or other type of evaluation? I am Dr. Amy Hartley and have been a psychologist for nearly 15 years. I specialize in the psychological assessment of children, adolescents, and adults in areas such as learning and cognition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, memory, achievement, autism spectrum, and intellectual functioning. Additionally, I provide psychotherapy for adults and adolescents for anxiety, panic, depression, and trauma and for those needing to improve their relationship or those recovering from infidelity or a major life event or loss.
(904) 469-1982 View (904) 469-1982
Photo of Robi Lipscomb, Counselor in Jacksonville, FL
Robi Lipscomb
Counselor, FL, MHC, GA, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Jacksonville, FL 32244  (Online Only)
What you want the most right now is to find someone who can help stop the emotional rollercoaster. Someone who can throw you a life line because you feel like you are drowning. What would your life be like if you could overcome the obstacles to your happiness? My counseling techniques and style can provide support, tools, understanding, healing and growth. There is treatment for depression, anxiety, OCD, addiction, gender and sexual issues, marital issues and more. I have been a counselor for 15+ years. I have a high positive outcome rate with clients who have never been in therapy, tried several therapist or all things in-between,
What you want the most right now is to find someone who can help stop the emotional rollercoaster. Someone who can throw you a life line because you feel like you are drowning. What would your life be like if you could overcome the obstacles to your happiness? My counseling techniques and style can provide support, tools, understanding, healing and growth. There is treatment for depression, anxiety, OCD, addiction, gender and sexual issues, marital issues and more. I have been a counselor for 15+ years. I have a high positive outcome rate with clients who have never been in therapy, tried several therapist or all things in-between,
(904) 643-7991 View (904) 643-7991
Photo of Terry Kirton, Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern in Jacksonville, FL
Terry Kirton
Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern, MS
Verified Verified
Jacksonville, FL 32246
At some time or other, many of us may experience a disconnect from ourselves, parts of ourselves and/or what is most important to us. This can be a result of trauma, circumstance, or unmet needs. A disconnect from self can manifest in unwanted feelings and symptoms including anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, relationship issues, and substance abuse. The reconnection process can elicit growing pains as we explore the root cause, identify and overcome barriers, and explore new ways of living in alignment with ourselves. I am passionate about creating a warm, safe space for clients to show up as themselves and do this work.
At some time or other, many of us may experience a disconnect from ourselves, parts of ourselves and/or what is most important to us. This can be a result of trauma, circumstance, or unmet needs. A disconnect from self can manifest in unwanted feelings and symptoms including anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, relationship issues, and substance abuse. The reconnection process can elicit growing pains as we explore the root cause, identify and overcome barriers, and explore new ways of living in alignment with ourselves. I am passionate about creating a warm, safe space for clients to show up as themselves and do this work.
(904) 822-0961 View (904) 822-0961

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Depression Therapists

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognize and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioral activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.