Therapists in Monroe, CT

Photo of Ana Taveras, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Ana Taveras
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
Identifying and expressing our emotions or feelings can be challenging at times. Children utilize forms of play to express and communicate their feelings. It is my passion to help children and adolescents find their voice, communicate their feelings and build relationships with others. As a professional counselor, I am given the opportunity to help children and families come together despite the challenges that arise.
Identifying and expressing our emotions or feelings can be challenging at times. Children utilize forms of play to express and communicate their feelings. It is my passion to help children and adolescents find their voice, communicate their feelings and build relationships with others. As a professional counselor, I am given the opportunity to help children and families come together despite the challenges that arise.
(203) 286-5229 View (203) 286-5229
Photo of Raeann Dombrowski, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Monroe, CT
Raeann Dombrowski
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Monroe, CT 06468  (Online Only)
Life undoubtedly offers us challenges and hardships that turn our lives upside down. The good news is, there is a way back to yourself! The even better news is you don’t have to face the journey alone. I strive to offer individual, group & family therapy that looks at the collective life experiences that have impacted your current situation in order to support you in finding the YOU, you need. Behind the anxiety, depression, anger, conflict and pain is a true leader who is waiting for the opportunity to take the lead in your life.
Life undoubtedly offers us challenges and hardships that turn our lives upside down. The good news is, there is a way back to yourself! The even better news is you don’t have to face the journey alone. I strive to offer individual, group & family therapy that looks at the collective life experiences that have impacted your current situation in order to support you in finding the YOU, you need. Behind the anxiety, depression, anger, conflict and pain is a true leader who is waiting for the opportunity to take the lead in your life.
(475) 267-4766 View (475) 267-4766
Photo of Shaldeen Campbell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Monroe, CT
Shaldeen Campbell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468  (Online Only)
I am a licensed clinical social worker passionate about connecting with individuals and couples to support them in creating a life of harmony, balance, and pleasure. My focus lies in assisting folks in navigating the complexities of setting healthy boundaries in their relationships. I am also incredibly passionate about working with individuals overcome anxiety and self-defeating intrusive thoughts, by prioritizing self-care to create a fulfilling life. In addition, I am dedicated to supporting women cope with the challenges of pregnancy and motherhood. I am committed to helping clients achieve personal growth and resilience.
I am a licensed clinical social worker passionate about connecting with individuals and couples to support them in creating a life of harmony, balance, and pleasure. My focus lies in assisting folks in navigating the complexities of setting healthy boundaries in their relationships. I am also incredibly passionate about working with individuals overcome anxiety and self-defeating intrusive thoughts, by prioritizing self-care to create a fulfilling life. In addition, I am dedicated to supporting women cope with the challenges of pregnancy and motherhood. I am committed to helping clients achieve personal growth and resilience.
(475) 445-1754 View (475) 445-1754
Photo of Jenny Davis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Monroe, CT
Jenny Davis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Monroe, CT 06468
Often, the decision to seek professional help for oneself or a loved one is not an easy one but one that reaps tremendous rewards. I take a holistic approach to my work and believe that capitalizing on a client's strengths is a significant component to successful treatment, as is the therapeutic relationship and trust that one has with their therapist. I work collaboratively with other professionals who may be involved, such as school personnel, psychiatrists, and medical doctors, especially if medication is involved.
Often, the decision to seek professional help for oneself or a loved one is not an easy one but one that reaps tremendous rewards. I take a holistic approach to my work and believe that capitalizing on a client's strengths is a significant component to successful treatment, as is the therapeutic relationship and trust that one has with their therapist. I work collaboratively with other professionals who may be involved, such as school personnel, psychiatrists, and medical doctors, especially if medication is involved.
(203) 826-2049 View (203) 826-2049
Photo of Meghan Zeruk, Marriage & Family Therapist in Monroe, CT
Meghan Zeruk
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468  (Online Only)
I'm Meg, a Marriage and Family Therapist specializing in helping young adults aged 14 to 30 navigate the challenges of launching into adulthood. With more than 12 years of experience, I bring a holistic approach to therapy. My primary passion is supporting young adults during a pivotal stage of life when they often grapple with identity, relationships, careers, and personal growth. I understand the unique pressures they face and provide tailored guidance. My training in systems and structural family therapy enables me to address issues within the broader context of families and relationships, leading to more profound change.
I'm Meg, a Marriage and Family Therapist specializing in helping young adults aged 14 to 30 navigate the challenges of launching into adulthood. With more than 12 years of experience, I bring a holistic approach to therapy. My primary passion is supporting young adults during a pivotal stage of life when they often grapple with identity, relationships, careers, and personal growth. I understand the unique pressures they face and provide tailored guidance. My training in systems and structural family therapy enables me to address issues within the broader context of families and relationships, leading to more profound change.
(475) 267-4059 View (475) 267-4059
Photo of Susan Marie O'Connor, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Susan Marie O'Connor
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA CMH, LPC, NCC, MA I/O
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
Life can bring forth a multitude of challenging circumstances which frequently lead to sensations of chronic stress, worry, panic and burnout. Failure to address these emotions can potentially contribute to a range of ailments such as depression, anxiety disorders and pain. As a clinical counselor my primary focus lies in promoting comprehensive mental health and well-being, while assisting adult individuals who are grappling with stress, burnout, anxiety, and grief & loss.
Life can bring forth a multitude of challenging circumstances which frequently lead to sensations of chronic stress, worry, panic and burnout. Failure to address these emotions can potentially contribute to a range of ailments such as depression, anxiety disorders and pain. As a clinical counselor my primary focus lies in promoting comprehensive mental health and well-being, while assisting adult individuals who are grappling with stress, burnout, anxiety, and grief & loss.
(203) 945-0549 View (203) 945-0549
Photo of Thrive Counseling and Wellness Group, LLC, Marriage & Family Therapist in Monroe, CT
Thrive Counseling and Wellness Group, LLC
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, EMDR
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468  (Online Only)
Im so happy that you have decided to take this next step for you and improving your overall quality of life! ​ We all experience challenging times in our lives, and there are instances when additional support can be helpful. Psychotherapy can assist you or a family member to overcome emotional and psychological difficulties and learn constructive ways to deal with life's challenges. Therapy can provide support to those undergoing difficult life transitions or experiencing problems in their careers, relationships or family. I aim to help guide you, empower you and teach healthy coping skills to help you manage life's stressors.
Im so happy that you have decided to take this next step for you and improving your overall quality of life! ​ We all experience challenging times in our lives, and there are instances when additional support can be helpful. Psychotherapy can assist you or a family member to overcome emotional and psychological difficulties and learn constructive ways to deal with life's challenges. Therapy can provide support to those undergoing difficult life transitions or experiencing problems in their careers, relationships or family. I aim to help guide you, empower you and teach healthy coping skills to help you manage life's stressors.
(203) 490-4146 View (203) 490-4146
Photo of Ashley O'Connor, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Ashley O'Connor
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
I very much enjoy working with young adults who are struggling with anxiety. I can assist with developing coping skills, figuring out career paths and helping with relationships and friendships. I also took additional trainings to develop a skill set in working with issues related to pregnancy, pregnancy loss, birth trauma, infertility and postpartum disorders.
I very much enjoy working with young adults who are struggling with anxiety. I can assist with developing coping skills, figuring out career paths and helping with relationships and friendships. I also took additional trainings to develop a skill set in working with issues related to pregnancy, pregnancy loss, birth trauma, infertility and postpartum disorders.
(475) 251-7071 View (475) 251-7071
Photo of Denise Cirillo-Romaniello, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Monroe, CT
Denise Cirillo-Romaniello
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Monroe, CT 06468  (Online Only)
I like to focus on helping people to find their passion in life. My holistic approach can help to relieve your uneasiness, fears, and problems in order to live a healthier, more satisfying life every single day. I specialize in hypnotherapy, Mindfulness practice, CBT, and EFT to eliminate negative beliefs and capitalize on strengths to help you achieve your goals. I believe that thoughts and emotions have a direct impact on your physical and emotional wellness. Anxiety, stress, and internal conflict can negatively affect your health and overall physical state which can effect how you enjoy your life.
I like to focus on helping people to find their passion in life. My holistic approach can help to relieve your uneasiness, fears, and problems in order to live a healthier, more satisfying life every single day. I specialize in hypnotherapy, Mindfulness practice, CBT, and EFT to eliminate negative beliefs and capitalize on strengths to help you achieve your goals. I believe that thoughts and emotions have a direct impact on your physical and emotional wellness. Anxiety, stress, and internal conflict can negatively affect your health and overall physical state which can effect how you enjoy your life.
(203) 457-6237 View (203) 457-6237
Photo of Christine Guerrera, Marriage & Family Therapist in Monroe, CT
Christine Guerrera
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Monroe, CT 06468
I work with men and woman who are interested in exploring themselves deeply to overcome any limiting behaviors and beliefs that stem from trauma, cultural entrainments, neurological/ mental/ spiritual/ emotional patterns or blocks and/or simply not being taught how to tap into their greatest potential to not only heal themselves but to thrive with purpose and joy.
I work with men and woman who are interested in exploring themselves deeply to overcome any limiting behaviors and beliefs that stem from trauma, cultural entrainments, neurological/ mental/ spiritual/ emotional patterns or blocks and/or simply not being taught how to tap into their greatest potential to not only heal themselves but to thrive with purpose and joy.
(203) 295-3088 View (203) 295-3088
Photo of Jamie Philp, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Monroe, CT
Jamie Philp
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
Life can be stressful, overwhelming and difficult to navigate at times. We often put pressure on ourselves and our relationships to succeed before working on ourselves first. I am here to offer you the opportunity to work on YOU through an empathetic, non-judgmental, and skilled approach. My goal is to offer you a supportive and safe place to deal with life’s stressors, transitions and difficulties. My approach is client-centered and genuine in nature. I truly believe in working together to establish realistic goals and working towards them at a pace that feels comfortable and supportive to you.
Life can be stressful, overwhelming and difficult to navigate at times. We often put pressure on ourselves and our relationships to succeed before working on ourselves first. I am here to offer you the opportunity to work on YOU through an empathetic, non-judgmental, and skilled approach. My goal is to offer you a supportive and safe place to deal with life’s stressors, transitions and difficulties. My approach is client-centered and genuine in nature. I truly believe in working together to establish realistic goals and working towards them at a pace that feels comfortable and supportive to you.
(203) 793-0878 View (203) 793-0878
Photo of Lauren Collins, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Lauren Collins
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ADS
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
Sometimes life can feel unmanageable and prevent us from reaching our personal goals in life. Therapy can open new doors to connecting more deeply with ourselves and others. Taking the step to seek therapy can be frightening and difficult. As a therapist my goal is to help individuals, families, and couples overcome life's challenges.
Sometimes life can feel unmanageable and prevent us from reaching our personal goals in life. Therapy can open new doors to connecting more deeply with ourselves and others. Taking the step to seek therapy can be frightening and difficult. As a therapist my goal is to help individuals, families, and couples overcome life's challenges.
(203) 951-5583 View (203) 951-5583
Photo of Key Therapy, Marriage & Family Therapist in Monroe, CT
Key Therapy
Marriage & Family Therapist
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
Deciding to move on or tough it out. Believing it's your fault. Learning it was all a lie. Finding out the thing you fear most is exactly what's happening. Being invisible. Loving someone so completely then losing them. Not knowing why. Knowing it's over but still pretending. Feeling powerless. Letting go of who you thought you would be. Accepting who you are. Showing up. Being accountable for your actions. Not feeling safe. Realizing you lost it and can't get it back. Losing control. Lying awake in the middle of the night. Having regret. Feeling unwanted... These are just some of the hard things. Asking for help doesn't have to be.
Deciding to move on or tough it out. Believing it's your fault. Learning it was all a lie. Finding out the thing you fear most is exactly what's happening. Being invisible. Loving someone so completely then losing them. Not knowing why. Knowing it's over but still pretending. Feeling powerless. Letting go of who you thought you would be. Accepting who you are. Showing up. Being accountable for your actions. Not feeling safe. Realizing you lost it and can't get it back. Losing control. Lying awake in the middle of the night. Having regret. Feeling unwanted... These are just some of the hard things. Asking for help doesn't have to be.
(475) 224-3826 View (475) 224-3826
Photo of Tosha Goyette, Marriage & Family Therapist in Monroe, CT
Tosha Goyette
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LPCA, NCC
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
I am a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist who strives to provide a safe space for individuals and couples to process relationship challenges, learn healthy communication strategies, process traumatic experiences, and difficult life transitions. My passion is to help others heal, grow, and acquire the skills necessary to overcome many of life's challenges.
I am a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist who strives to provide a safe space for individuals and couples to process relationship challenges, learn healthy communication strategies, process traumatic experiences, and difficult life transitions. My passion is to help others heal, grow, and acquire the skills necessary to overcome many of life's challenges.
(203) 689-0182 View (203) 689-0182
Photo of Victoria Lynn Massey, Marriage & Family Therapist in Monroe, CT
Victoria Lynn Massey
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Monroe, CT 06468
Each person has the power to change, and I will collaborate with you to discover the solutions to the challenges you are facing. I provide a warm, nurturing environment and tailor the therapeutic process to help you overcome obstacles standing in your way. You deserve to achieve fulfillment and experience joy in your life and it’s a privilege to take this journey with you. Please reach out via email or phone to schedule an initial phone consultation.
Each person has the power to change, and I will collaborate with you to discover the solutions to the challenges you are facing. I provide a warm, nurturing environment and tailor the therapeutic process to help you overcome obstacles standing in your way. You deserve to achieve fulfillment and experience joy in your life and it’s a privilege to take this journey with you. Please reach out via email or phone to schedule an initial phone consultation.
(860) 301-6977 View (860) 301-6977
Photo of Betrayal Trauma and Sex Addiction, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Betrayal Trauma and Sex Addiction
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, NCC, LPC, APSATS, Trainee
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Monroe, CT 06468
As of 3/27/24 we have daytime appointments available for ages 18 and older with Tara Beall-Gomes. Tara specializes in Betrayal Trauma for partners of Sex, Porn, Love, Lust Addicts, and infidelity. As a therapy group, we are rooted in building therapeutic relationships that lead to self-discovery and the development of healthy behavioral patterns, focusing on optimizing mental health and daily functioning. Whether you're feeling stuck or facing other challenges, we are here to help you achieve optimal mental health and reduce the obstacles in your life that may be holding you back.
As of 3/27/24 we have daytime appointments available for ages 18 and older with Tara Beall-Gomes. Tara specializes in Betrayal Trauma for partners of Sex, Porn, Love, Lust Addicts, and infidelity. As a therapy group, we are rooted in building therapeutic relationships that lead to self-discovery and the development of healthy behavioral patterns, focusing on optimizing mental health and daily functioning. Whether you're feeling stuck or facing other challenges, we are here to help you achieve optimal mental health and reduce the obstacles in your life that may be holding you back.
(475) 264-6664 View (475) 264-6664
Photo of James Perrone, Psychologist in Monroe, CT
James Perrone
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468  (Online Only)
My therapeutic approach is humanistic, client centered, interactive and solution-focused. , I always make an effort to first listen in order to truly understand your feelings and problems, and then work together with you to resolve them.
My therapeutic approach is humanistic, client centered, interactive and solution-focused. , I always make an effort to first listen in order to truly understand your feelings and problems, and then work together with you to resolve them.
(203) 403-6597 View (203) 403-6597
Photo of Linda Valera, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Linda Valera
Licensed Professional Counselor, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
Linda is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) with advanced training in the applied sciences. She uses Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Rational EmotiveBehavioral Therapy to provide an integrative approach to the helping profession. Therapy with Linda will be strength-based and solution-focused. Though visualization and reflection, Linda encourages self-empowerment through an exploration of courage, self-awareness, and love. You will participate in developing a personalized treatment plan that will identify and modify problem behaviors using your vision of who you want to be
Linda is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) with advanced training in the applied sciences. She uses Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Rational EmotiveBehavioral Therapy to provide an integrative approach to the helping profession. Therapy with Linda will be strength-based and solution-focused. Though visualization and reflection, Linda encourages self-empowerment through an exploration of courage, self-awareness, and love. You will participate in developing a personalized treatment plan that will identify and modify problem behaviors using your vision of who you want to be
(475) 889-7031 View (475) 889-7031
Photo of Meghan Emanuelson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Meghan Emanuelson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468  (Online Only)
As a counselor and educator for more than 20 years, I have learned A LOT about teens, adolescents, and adults. As humans, we handle a great deal andoften need help navigating complex relationships, conflicts, expectations, and pressures. My goal is to meet clients where they are and to give them a safe space to talk through things. We are capable of tremendous growth and resiliency. It is a gift to yourself and children to give them their own space and person to bounce things off of - the hard things, the wonderful things, and all the confusion that comes with this very special (and challenging) time of growth!
As a counselor and educator for more than 20 years, I have learned A LOT about teens, adolescents, and adults. As humans, we handle a great deal andoften need help navigating complex relationships, conflicts, expectations, and pressures. My goal is to meet clients where they are and to give them a safe space to talk through things. We are capable of tremendous growth and resiliency. It is a gift to yourself and children to give them their own space and person to bounce things off of - the hard things, the wonderful things, and all the confusion that comes with this very special (and challenging) time of growth!
(203) 204-9817 View (203) 204-9817
Photo of Lauren Brown-Sadighi, Licensed Professional Counselor in Monroe, CT
Lauren Brown-Sadighi
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Monroe, CT 06468
I have experience working with a variety of life stages, populations, and diagnoses. I specialize in working with individuals struggling with depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, communication difficulties, suicidal thoughts, and/or self-harm. When working with minors, I incorporate the family and engage parents in individual sessions. In addition to working with minors, I also work with adults in individual therapy. In session I use a variety of interventions that are individualized based on a person's strengths, tendencies, and preferences. I utilize a cognitive behavioral and person centered approach to therapy.
I have experience working with a variety of life stages, populations, and diagnoses. I specialize in working with individuals struggling with depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, communication difficulties, suicidal thoughts, and/or self-harm. When working with minors, I incorporate the family and engage parents in individual sessions. In addition to working with minors, I also work with adults in individual therapy. In session I use a variety of interventions that are individualized based on a person's strengths, tendencies, and preferences. I utilize a cognitive behavioral and person centered approach to therapy.
(475) 549-0012 View (475) 549-0012

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Monroe, CT

70+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Monroe, CT who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
84% Relationship Issues
84% Depression
84% Coping Skills
83% Self Esteem
76% Family Conflict
76% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% Cigna and Evernorth
69% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
64% Aetna

How Therapists in Monroe, CT see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
16% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Monroe?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.