Therapists in Greeley, CO

Photo of Allie Hauck, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Allie Hauck
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Greeley, CO 80634
My passion is working alongside trauma survivors of all ages as they heal, understand previously learned patterns, and rewrite new ones. It's important to me that you feel seen and in control on your healing journey. I do this through a collaborative approach to exploring the feelings in your body as well as the thoughts in your mind.
My passion is working alongside trauma survivors of all ages as they heal, understand previously learned patterns, and rewrite new ones. It's important to me that you feel seen and in control on your healing journey. I do this through a collaborative approach to exploring the feelings in your body as well as the thoughts in your mind.
(970) 464-8843 View (970) 464-8843
Photo of Jose Ramos, Pre-Licensed Professional in Greeley, CO
Jose Ramos
Pre-Licensed Professional, LPCC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80631  (Online Only)
With a Master's degree in Counseling from Alfred University and a Master's degree in Students with Disabilities from Hunter College, Jose possesses a strong foundation of knowledge and skills to effectively support individuals facing various challenges. Throughout his career, Jose has made a significant impact in the education sector, working closely with students with disabilities and mental challenges. His expertise and understanding of diverse needs allowed him to make a positive difference in their lives.
With a Master's degree in Counseling from Alfred University and a Master's degree in Students with Disabilities from Hunter College, Jose possesses a strong foundation of knowledge and skills to effectively support individuals facing various challenges. Throughout his career, Jose has made a significant impact in the education sector, working closely with students with disabilities and mental challenges. His expertise and understanding of diverse needs allowed him to make a positive difference in their lives.
(970) 572-4202 View (970) 572-4202
Photo of Nichole Miller, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Nichole Miller
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Greeley, CO 80634
Making the initial phone call to seek counseling can be one of the most difficult things to do. I have worked with many clients who initially avoid counseling because of fear, shame, or anxiety around sharing their experience. My hope is to be a safe place to process the ups and downs of life. If you are unsure, be encouraged that you have already taken the first courageous step by looking. By taking the next step, you will find that there is hope on the other side.
Making the initial phone call to seek counseling can be one of the most difficult things to do. I have worked with many clients who initially avoid counseling because of fear, shame, or anxiety around sharing their experience. My hope is to be a safe place to process the ups and downs of life. If you are unsure, be encouraged that you have already taken the first courageous step by looking. By taking the next step, you will find that there is hope on the other side.
(970) 471-7550 View (970) 471-7550
Photo of Sahiti Karumuri, LPC Intern in Greeley, CO
Sahiti Karumuri
LPC Intern
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Greeley, CO 80631  (Online Only)
I believe that you deserve to be your happiest, healthiest, and most empowered self. I am deeply devoted to supporting individuals, couples, and groups to seek healing and growth within their minds, bodies, and relationships with themselves and with others. Through building an empathetic and trusting relationship, I can help you find tools, strategies, and techniques to unlock your true potential and understand yourself fully. I am committed to empowering those in marginalized communities and helping them find a voice. I also have experience working with adults, parents, and families of all ethnicities and socioeconomic statuses.
I believe that you deserve to be your happiest, healthiest, and most empowered self. I am deeply devoted to supporting individuals, couples, and groups to seek healing and growth within their minds, bodies, and relationships with themselves and with others. Through building an empathetic and trusting relationship, I can help you find tools, strategies, and techniques to unlock your true potential and understand yourself fully. I am committed to empowering those in marginalized communities and helping them find a voice. I also have experience working with adults, parents, and families of all ethnicities and socioeconomic statuses.
(970) 548-3380 View (970) 548-3380
Photo of Susan Schneeberger in Greeley, CO
Susan Schneeberger
PsyD, RN
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634
Hello, and welcome! Are you finding life's challenges pretty overwhelming at times? I've been there, and I understand. I can help you explore those challenges and find the best way for you to address them. Are you at a crossroads in your journey, feeling that there must be more in life for you to experience? I've been helping clients with these and other concerns for over 35 years. I can help with anxiety, depression, gender and sexuality issues, health concerns, and grief and loss. Your sessions with me will be at least a full 60 minutes; I just don't believe in the "50 minute hour!" My education and experience as a registered nurse and psychotherapist allows me to provide you with an integrated and holistic approach to whatever you are experiencing in your life. Our emotions and mental status are always intertwined with our physical health and need to be approached as a whole. I also believe that we are more than our mind/body selves. There are aspects to our lives that cannot be explained by traditional studies, and these need to be acknowledged, too.
Hello, and welcome! Are you finding life's challenges pretty overwhelming at times? I've been there, and I understand. I can help you explore those challenges and find the best way for you to address them. Are you at a crossroads in your journey, feeling that there must be more in life for you to experience? I've been helping clients with these and other concerns for over 35 years. I can help with anxiety, depression, gender and sexuality issues, health concerns, and grief and loss. Your sessions with me will be at least a full 60 minutes; I just don't believe in the "50 minute hour!" My education and experience as a registered nurse and psychotherapist allows me to provide you with an integrated and holistic approach to whatever you are experiencing in your life. Our emotions and mental status are always intertwined with our physical health and need to be approached as a whole. I also believe that we are more than our mind/body selves. There are aspects to our lives that cannot be explained by traditional studies, and these need to be acknowledged, too.
(970) 372-1390 View (970) 372-1390
Photo of Adriana Ramirez, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Adriana Ramirez
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634
You'll feel heard, understood, and soothed in the caring presence of Adriana. Her empathy, humor, and compassion will make you feel valued. Adriana Ramirez is a Licensed Professional Counselor and a Licensed Addictions Counselor who has been practicing since 2008. She graduated from the University of Northern Colorado with a Master's degree in Clinical Counseling. Adriana helps her clients overcome many life challenges that include depression, anxiety, trauma, and substance abuse. Through active listening and non-judgmental methods, she creates a specialized treatment plan that is tailored for each client.
You'll feel heard, understood, and soothed in the caring presence of Adriana. Her empathy, humor, and compassion will make you feel valued. Adriana Ramirez is a Licensed Professional Counselor and a Licensed Addictions Counselor who has been practicing since 2008. She graduated from the University of Northern Colorado with a Master's degree in Clinical Counseling. Adriana helps her clients overcome many life challenges that include depression, anxiety, trauma, and substance abuse. Through active listening and non-judgmental methods, she creates a specialized treatment plan that is tailored for each client.
(970) 648-5369 View (970) 648-5369
Photo of Gregory S Creed, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Gregory S Creed
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Greeley, CO 80634
I have 20 years of clinical experience working with couples, families, teens, school age children and adults. I believe my work has greatly contributed to enhancing the lives of my clients. I utilize a strength-based approach, which helps families to see beyond the problem and see opportunities for change. I strongly believe in building on family strengths to improve relationships and family functioning. I provide consultation and parent education designed to empower, educate and support parents in developing effective parenting strategies.
I have 20 years of clinical experience working with couples, families, teens, school age children and adults. I believe my work has greatly contributed to enhancing the lives of my clients. I utilize a strength-based approach, which helps families to see beyond the problem and see opportunities for change. I strongly believe in building on family strengths to improve relationships and family functioning. I provide consultation and parent education designed to empower, educate and support parents in developing effective parenting strategies.
(970) 438-3142 View (970) 438-3142
Photo of Anne Knack, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Greeley, CO
Anne Knack
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634  (Online Only)
Anne invites you into a safe space where you'll be empowered and motivated to work on a therapeutic level. Her empathy and understanding will help you feel okay to show up just as you are and to be emotionally vulnerable as you share your thoughts. Generally, Anne's clients can expect to reach their desired goals emotionally, mentally, and holistically.
Anne invites you into a safe space where you'll be empowered and motivated to work on a therapeutic level. Her empathy and understanding will help you feel okay to show up just as you are and to be emotionally vulnerable as you share your thoughts. Generally, Anne's clients can expect to reach their desired goals emotionally, mentally, and holistically.
(970) 367-1314 View (970) 367-1314
Photo of Julie Darter, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Julie Darter
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634
Julie is a mental health counselor who has been practicing since 2018. She graduated from Capella University with a MS in mental health counseling. Julie believes in an eclectic approach to therapy. Therapy can be scary and hard, and Julie believes that it is important to meet the client where they are at in order to reduce the scariness of this difficult time in a client's life. Her main areas of focus include trauma, domestic violence and LGBTQ+.
Julie is a mental health counselor who has been practicing since 2018. She graduated from Capella University with a MS in mental health counseling. Julie believes in an eclectic approach to therapy. Therapy can be scary and hard, and Julie believes that it is important to meet the client where they are at in order to reduce the scariness of this difficult time in a client's life. Her main areas of focus include trauma, domestic violence and LGBTQ+.
(970) 432-1907 View (970) 432-1907
Photo of Deanne Helmboldt, Marriage & Family Therapist in Greeley, CO
Deanne Helmboldt
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Greeley, CO 80634
I have been counseling since 1991, my passion has been to help people achieve their greatest potential using counseling, spiritual direction and Neurofeedback. I have particularly enjoyed working with people desiring to heal and strengthen their own sense of self, marriages, working through life challenges and long term goals as well as discerning direction at times of major life transition.
I have been counseling since 1991, my passion has been to help people achieve their greatest potential using counseling, spiritual direction and Neurofeedback. I have particularly enjoyed working with people desiring to heal and strengthen their own sense of self, marriages, working through life challenges and long term goals as well as discerning direction at times of major life transition.
(970) 279-4659 View (970) 279-4659
Photo of Heather Schulte, Psychologist in Greeley, CO
Heather Schulte
Psychologist, PsyD, LP
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Does life seem like a struggle right now? Is it hard to get up in the morning? Do you have trouble turning off your brain so you can rest? When you make mistakes do you blame yourself? Do you wish you had a bestie to talk to and to help you make decisions about hard things? Do you want to achieve your goals and dreams but don't know what the first step is? Together we can figure out the hard stuff. It helps when you have someone with whom you can share your ups and downs. I have training in traditional talk therapies, trauma treatment, and meditation. I believe our work together will help you thrive!
Does life seem like a struggle right now? Is it hard to get up in the morning? Do you have trouble turning off your brain so you can rest? When you make mistakes do you blame yourself? Do you wish you had a bestie to talk to and to help you make decisions about hard things? Do you want to achieve your goals and dreams but don't know what the first step is? Together we can figure out the hard stuff. It helps when you have someone with whom you can share your ups and downs. I have training in traditional talk therapies, trauma treatment, and meditation. I believe our work together will help you thrive!
(970) 239-1984 View (970) 239-1984
Photo of Cynthia Chavez, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Cynthia Chavez
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634
When you meet with Cynthia, you'll be treated with compassion and kindness. No matter what you've experienced or where you've come from, you'll find Cynthia has a remarkable talent for helping you feel heard and understood. Her intuitive and empathic abilities combined with her life experience will create a safe environment for you. Cynthia's sense of humor will put you at ease, and will help you share and write your life story. Cynthia has been working with individuals, couples, and families for the past 10 years in a variety of settings, including residential, outpatient, and school/corrections facilities.
When you meet with Cynthia, you'll be treated with compassion and kindness. No matter what you've experienced or where you've come from, you'll find Cynthia has a remarkable talent for helping you feel heard and understood. Her intuitive and empathic abilities combined with her life experience will create a safe environment for you. Cynthia's sense of humor will put you at ease, and will help you share and write your life story. Cynthia has been working with individuals, couples, and families for the past 10 years in a variety of settings, including residential, outpatient, and school/corrections facilities.
(970) 614-4293 View (970) 614-4293
Photo of Deborah Edsall, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Deborah Edsall
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634
Meet Deborah. She is an enthusiastic, empathetic therapist who creates a warm and welcoming environment. Deborah invites adults, adolescents and couples to join her for open communication and a healing journey. While she may never "walk in your shoes", she feels passionate about walking next to you and supporting you as together you build the life you deserve and desire. Deborah believes in healing the whole person, and helping you to achieve sustainable, healthy living.
Meet Deborah. She is an enthusiastic, empathetic therapist who creates a warm and welcoming environment. Deborah invites adults, adolescents and couples to join her for open communication and a healing journey. While she may never "walk in your shoes", she feels passionate about walking next to you and supporting you as together you build the life you deserve and desire. Deborah believes in healing the whole person, and helping you to achieve sustainable, healthy living.
(970) 474-5723 View (970) 474-5723
Photo of Jacqueline McMillin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Greeley, CO
Jacqueline McMillin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634  (Online Only)
There are experiences in life that just outweigh our ability to cope. When this happens and you feel consumed by anxiety, depression or stress, you do not need to face this alone. If you are looking for support to improve your overall well being, increase your quality of life and feel authentically connected in your relationships, I want to partner with you in these goals.
There are experiences in life that just outweigh our ability to cope. When this happens and you feel consumed by anxiety, depression or stress, you do not need to face this alone. If you are looking for support to improve your overall well being, increase your quality of life and feel authentically connected in your relationships, I want to partner with you in these goals.
(970) 305-3945 View (970) 305-3945
Photo of Cary Dodson, Licensed Professional Counselor Candidate in Greeley, CO
Cary Dodson
Licensed Professional Counselor Candidate, LPCC, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Greeley, CO 80634
I am dedicated to providing compassionate care to clients navigating life’s challenges. My personal philosophy of life is interwoven with my professional approach to counseling. I emphasize creating meaning, mindfulness, and deep inquiry into what seems to be a difficult question of the human condition - what do we need to thrive and flourish? I endeavor to create a space where you can creatively and safely journey through your inner and outer worlds.
I am dedicated to providing compassionate care to clients navigating life’s challenges. My personal philosophy of life is interwoven with my professional approach to counseling. I emphasize creating meaning, mindfulness, and deep inquiry into what seems to be a difficult question of the human condition - what do we need to thrive and flourish? I endeavor to create a space where you can creatively and safely journey through your inner and outer worlds.
(970) 788-2902 View (970) 788-2902
Photo of Mary-Eliza St. Gemme-Pate, Pre-Licensed Professional in Greeley, CO
Mary-Eliza St. Gemme-Pate
Pre-Licensed Professional, LPCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Greeley, CO 80631  (Online Only)
Mary-Eliza St.Gemme-Pate is a graduate of Western Colorado University with a Bachelor's degree in Psychology and a Master's in Professional Counseling with an emphasis in School Counseling from the University of Northern Colorado. Currently, she is a school counselor for an elementary school. She has a passion for working with all individuals and decided to get her licensure to become a professional counselor. At her school, Mary-Eliza also teaches a social-emotional curriculum to help children foster emotional awareness, emotional regulation, social skills, friendships, and many more skills. However, Mary-Eliza works with all ages.
Mary-Eliza St.Gemme-Pate is a graduate of Western Colorado University with a Bachelor's degree in Psychology and a Master's in Professional Counseling with an emphasis in School Counseling from the University of Northern Colorado. Currently, she is a school counselor for an elementary school. She has a passion for working with all individuals and decided to get her licensure to become a professional counselor. At her school, Mary-Eliza also teaches a social-emotional curriculum to help children foster emotional awareness, emotional regulation, social skills, friendships, and many more skills. However, Mary-Eliza works with all ages.
(970) 341-2717 x1 View (970) 341-2717 x1
Photo of Jessica Weijola, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Greeley, CO
Jessica Weijola
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LPC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634
Jessica Weijola is a Licensed Professional Counselor, who has been practicing since 2015. She graduated from CUNY John Jay of Criminal Justice in New York City with a Master's degree in Forensic Psychology. Jessica believes in a treatment philosophy that includes a holistic approach to care. She integrates different types of therapy that focus on modifying unhelpful behaviors by connecting them to unhelpful thought patterns. Her main areas of focus are Sleep Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, and Women's Issues. In her spare time, Jessica enjoys spending time with her adopted pitbulls, boyfriend, friends and family.
Jessica Weijola is a Licensed Professional Counselor, who has been practicing since 2015. She graduated from CUNY John Jay of Criminal Justice in New York City with a Master's degree in Forensic Psychology. Jessica believes in a treatment philosophy that includes a holistic approach to care. She integrates different types of therapy that focus on modifying unhelpful behaviors by connecting them to unhelpful thought patterns. Her main areas of focus are Sleep Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders, and Women's Issues. In her spare time, Jessica enjoys spending time with her adopted pitbulls, boyfriend, friends and family.
(970) 714-3048 View (970) 714-3048
Photo of Louise Zimmerman, Licensed Professional Counselor in Greeley, CO
Louise Zimmerman
Licensed Professional Counselor, LAC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80634  (Online Only)
My work with adults who suffer from PTSD, trauma, depression, and anxiety is the meat and potatoes of my day. When someone tells me that they want to heal and need support to change then I am ready to help. I can teach you tools and skills, hold you accountable, offer corrective experiences, and much more.
My work with adults who suffer from PTSD, trauma, depression, and anxiety is the meat and potatoes of my day. When someone tells me that they want to heal and need support to change then I am ready to help. I can teach you tools and skills, hold you accountable, offer corrective experiences, and much more.
(720) 640-8696 View (720) 640-8696
Photo of A.j. Schena, Pre-Licensed Professional in Greeley, CO
A.j. Schena
Pre-Licensed Professional, Intern, BS
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80631
My goal is to help clients find the power and skills to become the captain of their own ship. I want to create a therapeutic relationship that does not create dependence, but empowers you to take the driver's seat. I have worked with all age groups, but am most knowledgeable about adolescents. I approach each client with a positive mindset, and the readiness to grow together.
My goal is to help clients find the power and skills to become the captain of their own ship. I want to create a therapeutic relationship that does not create dependence, but empowers you to take the driver's seat. I have worked with all age groups, but am most knowledgeable about adolescents. I approach each client with a positive mindset, and the readiness to grow together.
(720) 248-9390 View (720) 248-9390
Photo of Malisa Komolthiti, Pre-Licensed Professional in Greeley, CO
Malisa Komolthiti
Pre-Licensed Professional, MFTC
Verified Verified
Greeley, CO 80631  (Online Only)
I am a psychotherapist and a licensed intervention specialist. EMDR trained and Harvard trained mindfulness in clinical practice. I am a prepared enriched facilitator who helps couples identify their relationship strengths, gain understanding about the underlying dynamics that influence their communication, and help them develop skills to improve their growth areas. With more than 20 years of experience working with children, teens, adolescents, and families. I understand the many life challenges individuals face. My passion is to help others unlock their full potential. I provide remote counseling in Colorado.
I am a psychotherapist and a licensed intervention specialist. EMDR trained and Harvard trained mindfulness in clinical practice. I am a prepared enriched facilitator who helps couples identify their relationship strengths, gain understanding about the underlying dynamics that influence their communication, and help them develop skills to improve their growth areas. With more than 20 years of experience working with children, teens, adolescents, and families. I understand the many life challenges individuals face. My passion is to help others unlock their full potential. I provide remote counseling in Colorado.
(970) 427-0766 View (970) 427-0766

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Greeley, CO

200+

Average cost per session

$120

Therapists in Greeley, CO who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
86% Depression
77% Trauma and PTSD
70% Relationship Issues
68% Self Esteem
61% Grief
61% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% Aetna
77% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
76% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Greeley, CO see their clients

66% In Person and Online
34% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
20% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Greeley?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.