Therapists in Curtis Park, Denver, CO

Photo of undefined - Brave Embodiment Counseling LLC, LPC, ATR-BC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Brave Embodiment Counseling LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ATR-BC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
You want to feel stable, unshakable, confident, empowered, able to set boundaries and use your voice effectively. We support clients in healing trauma and unresolved wounds so you may reach your potential. We all need a sacred space to unpack the complexities of life. We offer a space where you can build your confidence - a space that is just yours and allows you to center in your truth, intuition and sense of self-worth. We support you in breaking free from old traumas, self-limiting / self-destructive behaviors and beliefs. We create a safe space and work collaboratively with you to heal and become the best versions of yourself.
You want to feel stable, unshakable, confident, empowered, able to set boundaries and use your voice effectively. We support clients in healing trauma and unresolved wounds so you may reach your potential. We all need a sacred space to unpack the complexities of life. We offer a space where you can build your confidence - a space that is just yours and allows you to center in your truth, intuition and sense of self-worth. We support you in breaking free from old traumas, self-limiting / self-destructive behaviors and beliefs. We create a safe space and work collaboratively with you to heal and become the best versions of yourself.
(720) 780-7377 View (720) 780-7377
Photo of Jameline Lofing, LPCC, APCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jameline Lofing
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC, APCC
Not Verified Not Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
My name is Jamie Lofing. I am trained in CBT,DBT, ACT, EMDR, and have worked with those who have undergone trauma. Additionally, I have worked with families in crisis.
My name is Jamie Lofing. I am trained in CBT,DBT, ACT, EMDR, and have worked with those who have undergone trauma. Additionally, I have worked with families in crisis.
(720) 796-7378 View (720) 796-7378
Photo of Demetria Deary, MA,  LPC, LMHC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Demetria Deary
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
A liberation-oriented, anti-oppression practice. We honor all of your intercultural identities. Credible Experts (highly trained therapists with multiple marginalized identities and lived experience) who specialize in working with identity-based trauma & oppression, BIPOC MaGes, single parents, college students, Neurodivergent and Empaths/Highly Ṣensitive Persons. WARNING - This is a decolonized practice, we do some things differently: longer sessions, pay as you're able sliding scale for all & more. It's best to use our website to book a meet & greet: BPhoenix.intakeq.com/booking
A liberation-oriented, anti-oppression practice. We honor all of your intercultural identities. Credible Experts (highly trained therapists with multiple marginalized identities and lived experience) who specialize in working with identity-based trauma & oppression, BIPOC MaGes, single parents, college students, Neurodivergent and Empaths/Highly Ṣensitive Persons. WARNING - This is a decolonized practice, we do some things differently: longer sessions, pay as you're able sliding scale for all & more. It's best to use our website to book a meet & greet: BPhoenix.intakeq.com/booking
(720) 735-5391 View (720) 735-5391
Photo of Amanda Bryant, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Amanda Bryant
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
I believe the relationship between therapist and client is crucial to successful therapy and that change starts with being truly heard and understood. There are many techniques and ideas that can help you, and my role is to share these, build on your strengths, and increase your self-awareness so that you can make meaningful changes in your life.
I believe the relationship between therapist and client is crucial to successful therapy and that change starts with being truly heard and understood. There are many techniques and ideas that can help you, and my role is to share these, build on your strengths, and increase your self-awareness so that you can make meaningful changes in your life.
(720) 295-3189 View (720) 295-3189
Photo of undefined - Liza M. Torres Giusti, LPC, ACD, Licensed Professional Counselor
Liza M. Torres Giusti
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ACD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
I am a licensed counselor in Colorado offering online (Video-Voice Telehealth) counseling services in both English and Spanish. I specialize in helping individuals who want to grow, develop, and advance their relationships, education, careers and wellness goals. Experiencing fear, stress, anxiety, worry, panic, nervousness or difficulty sleeping. Feeling sad, hopeless, empty, irritable, worthlessness, or having difficulties making decisions. Having difficulties with transitions or changes in life. Desiring non-biased and value-neutral pre-marital relationship enrichment.
I am a licensed counselor in Colorado offering online (Video-Voice Telehealth) counseling services in both English and Spanish. I specialize in helping individuals who want to grow, develop, and advance their relationships, education, careers and wellness goals. Experiencing fear, stress, anxiety, worry, panic, nervousness or difficulty sleeping. Feeling sad, hopeless, empty, irritable, worthlessness, or having difficulties making decisions. Having difficulties with transitions or changes in life. Desiring non-biased and value-neutral pre-marital relationship enrichment.
(303) 747-4290 View (303) 747-4290
Photo of Oakley Ogden, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Oakley Ogden
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I am a Licensed Professional Mental Health Counselor with over 17 years of experience working in the field of psychotherapy & mindfulness practices. My work is a synthesis of western psychology and eastern philosophies. I offer individuals the tools to increase self-awareness, shift emotional patterning, strengthen mental focus, & increase spiritual character, to attain the vision one holds for their life. As part of my work, I have spent over a decade developing programs and curriculum for inner transformation and sustainable systems (community and/or family) change. I continue to offer my work virtually nation wide.
I am a Licensed Professional Mental Health Counselor with over 17 years of experience working in the field of psychotherapy & mindfulness practices. My work is a synthesis of western psychology and eastern philosophies. I offer individuals the tools to increase self-awareness, shift emotional patterning, strengthen mental focus, & increase spiritual character, to attain the vision one holds for their life. As part of my work, I have spent over a decade developing programs and curriculum for inner transformation and sustainable systems (community and/or family) change. I continue to offer my work virtually nation wide.
(720) 463-1960 View (720) 463-1960
Photo of Khanhsong Nguyen, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Khanhsong Nguyen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Khanhsong Nguyen is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who earned her Master’s degree from Smith College School for Social Work. Khanhsong’s therapeutic work is informed by social justice and intersectionality. She is trained psychodynamically and in ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy), helping clients explore how past experiences and relationships impact how they navigate the world. She has a direct, playful and collaborative approach that will hold clients accountable and challenge clients to create change and build acceptance.
Khanhsong Nguyen is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who earned her Master’s degree from Smith College School for Social Work. Khanhsong’s therapeutic work is informed by social justice and intersectionality. She is trained psychodynamically and in ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy), helping clients explore how past experiences and relationships impact how they navigate the world. She has a direct, playful and collaborative approach that will hold clients accountable and challenge clients to create change and build acceptance.
(720) 459-9860 View (720) 459-9860
Photo of Melissa L Balent, MA, LPC, LAC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Melissa L Balent
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LAC
Verified Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I am someone who understands how anxiety, anger, sadness, trauma, moodiness, self-esteem, interpersonal problems, and substance use can impact a person's ability to cope with life demands such as work and relationships. Sometime life can seem so overwhelming, scary, and difficult to navigate. Please know there is help and hope for what you going through; I want to hear your story. I am here to support and guide you in recovery from painful past relationships and life events, addictions, difficult life transitions, loneliness, worry, sadness, and despair. Please know you are not alone in life struggles.
I am someone who understands how anxiety, anger, sadness, trauma, moodiness, self-esteem, interpersonal problems, and substance use can impact a person's ability to cope with life demands such as work and relationships. Sometime life can seem so overwhelming, scary, and difficult to navigate. Please know there is help and hope for what you going through; I want to hear your story. I am here to support and guide you in recovery from painful past relationships and life events, addictions, difficult life transitions, loneliness, worry, sadness, and despair. Please know you are not alone in life struggles.
(970) 238-2817 View (970) 238-2817
Photo of Dustin Kerrone, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dustin Kerrone
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
Love. Joy. Ecstasy. Awe. In my 18 years of clinical experience, I’ve discovered that we each have far more capacity for these expansive feelings than we often realize. Whether you are contending with many challenges, or feel ready to fly through the stars, I can work with you collaboratively to shape a life that fulfills your highest dreams, and maybe even soars beyond them. I’m eager to share what I’ve learned about our abilities to break out of old patterns of pain, fear, and shame into fruitful creativity and communion with the most inspiring aspects of being alive.
Love. Joy. Ecstasy. Awe. In my 18 years of clinical experience, I’ve discovered that we each have far more capacity for these expansive feelings than we often realize. Whether you are contending with many challenges, or feel ready to fly through the stars, I can work with you collaboratively to shape a life that fulfills your highest dreams, and maybe even soars beyond them. I’m eager to share what I’ve learned about our abilities to break out of old patterns of pain, fear, and shame into fruitful creativity and communion with the most inspiring aspects of being alive.
(720) 928-3271 View (720) 928-3271
Photo of Danny Sturtevant, MA, LPC, CMHC, Counselor
Danny Sturtevant
Counselor, MA, LPC, CMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205
I believe we all have within us what it takes to grow, heal, and work towards our goals, and I am honored to be a part of this journey with my clients. If you’re not sure what to expect from counseling, that’s okay! Working with me starts with getting to know your story, what you’re struggling with, and what your goals are. You can ask me questions about my training, experience, and philosophy to help you determine if I could be a good fit for you.
I believe we all have within us what it takes to grow, heal, and work towards our goals, and I am honored to be a part of this journey with my clients. If you’re not sure what to expect from counseling, that’s okay! Working with me starts with getting to know your story, what you’re struggling with, and what your goals are. You can ask me questions about my training, experience, and philosophy to help you determine if I could be a good fit for you.
(385) 899-2618 View (385) 899-2618
Photo of Margaret (Peggy) Steele, PsyD, Psychologist
Margaret (Peggy) Steele
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205  (Online Only)
Welcome! I have immediate, in-network and self pay availability for telehealth therapy in Colorado. If you are experiencing depression, anxiety, feelings of hopelessness, questioning the purpose of life, relationship issues or other distressing symptoms, therapy can be a great help. My focus will be to understand you and the situation you are currently experiencing. I am solution focused.
Welcome! I have immediate, in-network and self pay availability for telehealth therapy in Colorado. If you are experiencing depression, anxiety, feelings of hopelessness, questioning the purpose of life, relationship issues or other distressing symptoms, therapy can be a great help. My focus will be to understand you and the situation you are currently experiencing. I am solution focused.
(719) 417-7898 View (719) 417-7898
Photo of Mitra F Van Vuren, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Mitra F Van Vuren
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
Curtis Park, Denver, CO 80205
(720) 310-6604 View (720) 310-6604

Online Therapists

Photo of Catherine Kochman Newton, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Catherine Kochman Newton
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Denver, CO 80210  (Online Only)
Are you having difficulties related to your relationship or sexuality? Have you struggled to find a therapist who is accepting and non-judgmental? You may be fed up with sexual concerns impacting you and/or your partner(s), feeling anxious about the prospect of discussing your sex life, and judged by your choices. One thing is for sure, you’re ready to overcome your current obstacles and feel more confident in yourself and your relationships. You’re ready to understand and own your sexuality. Most of all, you’re ready to live a life of happiness and fulfillment, whatever that looks like for you.
Are you having difficulties related to your relationship or sexuality? Have you struggled to find a therapist who is accepting and non-judgmental? You may be fed up with sexual concerns impacting you and/or your partner(s), feeling anxious about the prospect of discussing your sex life, and judged by your choices. One thing is for sure, you’re ready to overcome your current obstacles and feel more confident in yourself and your relationships. You’re ready to understand and own your sexuality. Most of all, you’re ready to live a life of happiness and fulfillment, whatever that looks like for you.
(512) 488-1914 View (512) 488-1914
Photo of Tim Flemming (E-M-D-R Trained), MA, LPCC, ADDC
Tim Flemming (E-M-D-R Trained)
Licensed Professional Counselor Candidate, MA, LPCC, ADDC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Denver, CO 80203
Schedule through my website link in my bio today! Before his own private practice, Tim provided mental health and addiction counseling to individuals and groups. Most of his time was spent serving forensic clients, who were state-mandated to inpatient rehabilitation for a history of felony convictions and serious drug use. Many of them had dual diagnoses, meaning they had mental health issues coinciding with their substance use disorders (which is often the case). Tim relied heavily on various counseling theories including Existential Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Narrative Therapy. He became trained in EMDR.
Schedule through my website link in my bio today! Before his own private practice, Tim provided mental health and addiction counseling to individuals and groups. Most of his time was spent serving forensic clients, who were state-mandated to inpatient rehabilitation for a history of felony convictions and serious drug use. Many of them had dual diagnoses, meaning they had mental health issues coinciding with their substance use disorders (which is often the case). Tim relied heavily on various counseling theories including Existential Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Narrative Therapy. He became trained in EMDR.
(720) 927-9258 View (720) 927-9258
Photo of Lauren Hugunin, MA, MFTC
Lauren Hugunin
Marriage and Family Therapist Candidate, MA, MFTC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Denver, CO 80212
You may keep parts of yourself or your relationship(s) hidden because you fear judgment from others. Perhaps shame and feelings of inadequacy keep you quiet while you ache to be seen, heard, and understood. Imagine a space where your authenticity and the uniqueness of your experiences are not only acknowledged, but celebrated. Whether you are seeking support around sensitive sex-related issues, aiming to break patterns in your relationship, or needing support as you navigate challenges associated with postpartum and/or parenthood, you are not alone and your experience is valid.
You may keep parts of yourself or your relationship(s) hidden because you fear judgment from others. Perhaps shame and feelings of inadequacy keep you quiet while you ache to be seen, heard, and understood. Imagine a space where your authenticity and the uniqueness of your experiences are not only acknowledged, but celebrated. Whether you are seeking support around sensitive sex-related issues, aiming to break patterns in your relationship, or needing support as you navigate challenges associated with postpartum and/or parenthood, you are not alone and your experience is valid.
(303) 647-9906 View (303) 647-9906
Photo of Ross Anderson, MA, LPCC, Counselor
Ross Anderson
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
Denver, CO 80203
Ross Anderson is a Licensed Professional Counselor Candidate in Colorado who has been practicing since 2023. He has a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature from The College of William & Mary and a Master of Arts in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from University of Colorado Denver. Ross can help his clients by creating a radical safe space for them to take a good look at their lives, pinpoint the changes they want to make, and then safely move towards those changes.
Ross Anderson is a Licensed Professional Counselor Candidate in Colorado who has been practicing since 2023. He has a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature from The College of William & Mary and a Master of Arts in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from University of Colorado Denver. Ross can help his clients by creating a radical safe space for them to take a good look at their lives, pinpoint the changes they want to make, and then safely move towards those changes.
(844) 387-1586 View (844) 387-1586
Photo of Hannah Glusenkamp, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Hannah Glusenkamp
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Denver, CO 80211  (Online Only)
Many of my clients seek therapy to improve their relationships with themselves, their partner, and their loved ones. I specifically work with individuals and partners around experiences of trauma, depression, PTSD, anxiety, work stress, parenting stress, relationship and sexual intimacy challenges, affairs, break-ups, addiction and/or other major life transitions. I work with folks in monogamous and consensual non-monogamous relationships. In addition to counseling, I have a background in business operations and enjoy working with entrepreneurs and executives that want to improve their personal and professional lives.
Many of my clients seek therapy to improve their relationships with themselves, their partner, and their loved ones. I specifically work with individuals and partners around experiences of trauma, depression, PTSD, anxiety, work stress, parenting stress, relationship and sexual intimacy challenges, affairs, break-ups, addiction and/or other major life transitions. I work with folks in monogamous and consensual non-monogamous relationships. In addition to counseling, I have a background in business operations and enjoy working with entrepreneurs and executives that want to improve their personal and professional lives.
(720) 594-6146 View (720) 594-6146
Photo of Jane Ashley, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jane Ashley
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Denver, CO 80207
I work collaboratively with people to help them create the lives they want -- in their relationships, families, recreation and work. This process of exploration and discovery is inspiring and taps into hopes, dreams and imagination through story and re-connecting and remembering memories and experiences of connection and joy in their lives. Clients who benefit most from working with me are usually bright, creative and interested in freeing themselves from the constraints of family, social and cultural expectations that have become internalized and held as truths. This is a way of finding your way home ... to where your heart is.
I work collaboratively with people to help them create the lives they want -- in their relationships, families, recreation and work. This process of exploration and discovery is inspiring and taps into hopes, dreams and imagination through story and re-connecting and remembering memories and experiences of connection and joy in their lives. Clients who benefit most from working with me are usually bright, creative and interested in freeing themselves from the constraints of family, social and cultural expectations that have become internalized and held as truths. This is a way of finding your way home ... to where your heart is.
(540) 860-0972 View (540) 860-0972
Photo of Alison Ferriera, MA, LMFT, LAC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Alison Ferriera
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, LAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Denver, CO 80220  (Online Only)
Everyone deserves to be heard, understood, and the chance to lead a happy, healthy, fulfilling life. No one is meant to do this work alone. I believe everyone is worthy of support to work through, heal, grow, and accept challenges life has given us. We all have power and wisdom inside us. Together we will look at what has hindered you, and work to untangle what we discover. To me, this looks a little different for everyone.
Everyone deserves to be heard, understood, and the chance to lead a happy, healthy, fulfilling life. No one is meant to do this work alone. I believe everyone is worthy of support to work through, heal, grow, and accept challenges life has given us. We all have power and wisdom inside us. Together we will look at what has hindered you, and work to untangle what we discover. To me, this looks a little different for everyone.
(720) 649-5547 View (720) 649-5547
Photo of Cynthia Allen, NP, DEA
Cynthia Allen
NP, DEA
Verified Verified
Denver, CO 80246  (Online Only)
Have you been struggling with anxiety, depression, insomnia or attentional issues? Would you like to find out how medication can help? I am an experienced, compassionate, collaborative prescriber who will work with you to select psychiatric medication that not only targets your symptoms of concern but is also tailored to align with your lifestyle and preferences.
Have you been struggling with anxiety, depression, insomnia or attentional issues? Would you like to find out how medication can help? I am an experienced, compassionate, collaborative prescriber who will work with you to select psychiatric medication that not only targets your symptoms of concern but is also tailored to align with your lifestyle and preferences.
(720) 815-3668 View (720) 815-3668

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Curtis Park, Denver, CO

10+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Curtis Park, Denver, CO who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
92% Depression
92% Stress
83% Grief
75% Relationship Issues
67% Life Coaching
67% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

89% Aetna
78% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
67% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Curtis Park, Denver, CO see their clients

83% Online Only
17% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

84% Female
8% Male
8% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Curtis Park, Denver?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.