LGBTQ+ Affirming Therapists in View Park, CA

Photo of Noele Clayton, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Noele Clayton
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
View Park, CA 90043
I am a client-centered therapist who borrows from various treatment modalities depending on the client's needs. I meet you where you are in your journey as you are the expert on your life. My specialty is with mood issues, the LGBTQ+ population, and trauma, but I have a lot of experience with many other issues as well. It would be lovely to meet you!
I am a client-centered therapist who borrows from various treatment modalities depending on the client's needs. I meet you where you are in your journey as you are the expert on your life. My specialty is with mood issues, the LGBTQ+ population, and trauma, but I have a lot of experience with many other issues as well. It would be lovely to meet you!
(559) 550-6687 View (559) 550-6687
Photo of Jaha Higgs, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jaha Higgs
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
View Park, CA 90043
I have been successful in supporting clients facing challenges such as, depression, anxiety, life transition, difficulties with work, family conflict, relationship concerns, stress, trauma, loss and grief, creativity, cultural issues, and racial trauma. I work with clients from all paths of life, including, artists/ creatives, adolescents, LGBTQIA+ individuals. I am committed to being a part of the collective effort to make mental health services more accessible for marginalized communities; therefore, I especially welcome clients who are Black, Indigenous, or who are of color.
I have been successful in supporting clients facing challenges such as, depression, anxiety, life transition, difficulties with work, family conflict, relationship concerns, stress, trauma, loss and grief, creativity, cultural issues, and racial trauma. I work with clients from all paths of life, including, artists/ creatives, adolescents, LGBTQIA+ individuals. I am committed to being a part of the collective effort to make mental health services more accessible for marginalized communities; therefore, I especially welcome clients who are Black, Indigenous, or who are of color.
(213) 577-2385 View (213) 577-2385
Photo of Kellee M Kemp, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kellee M Kemp
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
View Park, CA 90043
I get it. Deciding to go to therapy can be a tough decision. We’ve become conditioned to believe that therapy is for “other people” and just not for us. Often times, we were not provided the tools we needed to handle our emotions which can leave us feeling overwhelmed, depressed, anxious and alone. I encourage you to take the time to emotionally invest in yourself so that you can nurture happy, healthy relationships with yourself and those close to you.
I get it. Deciding to go to therapy can be a tough decision. We’ve become conditioned to believe that therapy is for “other people” and just not for us. Often times, we were not provided the tools we needed to handle our emotions which can leave us feeling overwhelmed, depressed, anxious and alone. I encourage you to take the time to emotionally invest in yourself so that you can nurture happy, healthy relationships with yourself and those close to you.
(562) 269-1584 View (562) 269-1584
Photo of Sheila Smith, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sheila Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
View Park, CA 90043
Hello, I am Sheila Smith; I've been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker since 2000. I genuinely enjoy listening to people's experiences. I learn so much from my clients. I can work with just about anyone, but I especially like young people and the elderly population. My approach to therapy may appear casual, and I hope my clients feel relaxed and comfortable when we're together. I will work with my clients to figure out what will work best for them. I am direct but gentle. I listen much more than I speak in sessions. I work at understanding their lives from their point of view. My clients feel safe and heard with me.
Hello, I am Sheila Smith; I've been a Licensed Clinical Social Worker since 2000. I genuinely enjoy listening to people's experiences. I learn so much from my clients. I can work with just about anyone, but I especially like young people and the elderly population. My approach to therapy may appear casual, and I hope my clients feel relaxed and comfortable when we're together. I will work with my clients to figure out what will work best for them. I am direct but gentle. I listen much more than I speak in sessions. I work at understanding their lives from their point of view. My clients feel safe and heard with me.
(657) 837-6237 View (657) 837-6237
Photo of Kristin Michelle Howard, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kristin Michelle Howard
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
View Park, CA 90043  (Online Only)
Are you stuck in a rut, going through a difficult life transition, or just not feeling like yourself? Life is not a linear process and comes with ups and downs that can cause us to experience difficult emotions. Sometimes we need guidance in finding our center again, getting back to who we authentically are, and finding what brings us fulfillment. Kristin Howard is a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in the Los Angeles area, and is here to support you on your journey toward healing and self-discovery.
Are you stuck in a rut, going through a difficult life transition, or just not feeling like yourself? Life is not a linear process and comes with ups and downs that can cause us to experience difficult emotions. Sometimes we need guidance in finding our center again, getting back to who we authentically are, and finding what brings us fulfillment. Kristin Howard is a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in the Los Angeles area, and is here to support you on your journey toward healing and self-discovery.
(310) 773-5422 View (310) 773-5422

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Joshua Polk, MA, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Joshua Polk
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified Verified
Inglewood, CA 90301
I specialize in LGBT affirmative therapy, which helps me to better understand difference, the need for acceptance, and oppression.
Welcome to a space where the intersections of race, sexuality, class and other identities are understood, respected, and celebrated. Striving to be the most authentic version of yourself isn't always the easiest. Maintaining your peace, living unapologetically, setting boundaries, processing your emotions, owning your truths and overcoming one obstacle after another can all sound like easy tasks, but we’ve all struggled with them. I’m here to invite you onto a transformative journey of discovering and recognizing your capability to create the life you know that you deserve. The time for radical change and healing is always now.
I specialize in LGBT affirmative therapy, which helps me to better understand difference, the need for acceptance, and oppression.
Welcome to a space where the intersections of race, sexuality, class and other identities are understood, respected, and celebrated. Striving to be the most authentic version of yourself isn't always the easiest. Maintaining your peace, living unapologetically, setting boundaries, processing your emotions, owning your truths and overcoming one obstacle after another can all sound like easy tasks, but we’ve all struggled with them. I’m here to invite you onto a transformative journey of discovering and recognizing your capability to create the life you know that you deserve. The time for radical change and healing is always now.
(213) 205-0964 View (213) 205-0964
Photo of Jason Markel, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jason Markel
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90047  (Online Only)
Being part of the LGBTQIA+ community can be a challenging path to walk. As a gay man, I have been walking that path all my life and I understand the challenge. As a therapist I am here to help you with many of the challenges of it. Whether you are struggling with gender identity, sexuality, or something related - I'm here to support you. Maybe you are a family member of someone who identifies as LGBTQIA+ and are struggling to understand how to support your loved one? Whatever the circumstance - I'm here for you. I provide Telehealth for anyone living in California and can offer a sliding scale to those in need.
Being part of the LGBTQIA+ community can be a challenging path to walk. As a gay man, I have been walking that path all my life and I understand the challenge. As a therapist I am here to help you with many of the challenges of it. Whether you are struggling with gender identity, sexuality, or something related - I'm here to support you. Maybe you are a family member of someone who identifies as LGBTQIA+ and are struggling to understand how to support your loved one? Whatever the circumstance - I'm here for you. I provide Telehealth for anyone living in California and can offer a sliding scale to those in need.
(415) 943-1094 View (415) 943-1094
Photo of Matthew Brinkley, PsyD, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Matthew Brinkley
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Baldwin Hills, CA 90008  (Online Only)
As a Black and gay mental health professional, I use my intersections of diversity to connect with all clients, knowing the importance of being heard, appreciated, and understood.
Anxiety, depression, and various mental health concerns impact our ability to maintain happiness, meaningful relationships, and positive coping skills. Therapy can be intimidating and uncomfortable at times, but I pride myself in creating a very interactive, fun, and accepting experience while assisting my clients learn the tools needed to better support their overall well-being. I invite you to collaborate with me, judgement free, to achieve your mental health needs both individually and relationally.
As a Black and gay mental health professional, I use my intersections of diversity to connect with all clients, knowing the importance of being heard, appreciated, and understood.
Anxiety, depression, and various mental health concerns impact our ability to maintain happiness, meaningful relationships, and positive coping skills. Therapy can be intimidating and uncomfortable at times, but I pride myself in creating a very interactive, fun, and accepting experience while assisting my clients learn the tools needed to better support their overall well-being. I invite you to collaborate with me, judgement free, to achieve your mental health needs both individually and relationally.
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Photo of undefined - Therapist ISH, MA, AMFT, APCC
Therapist ISH
Associate Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, AMFT, APCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Baldwin Hills, CA 90008  (Online Only)
Our experiences shape who we are. Our identities influence the way we perceive and interact with the world, and the way the world perceives and interacts with us. Navigating the world in my intersectional identity, I understand the importance of providing an intentional and affirming space for folx from marginalized communities. As such, I offer a holistic approach to therapy that addresses the unique needs and identities of my clients. I work with women, BIPOC, LGBTQIA+, and veteran communities. I also work with individuals who have experienced some form of abuse, trauma, oppression, inequity, or violence.
Our experiences shape who we are. Our identities influence the way we perceive and interact with the world, and the way the world perceives and interacts with us. Navigating the world in my intersectional identity, I understand the importance of providing an intentional and affirming space for folx from marginalized communities. As such, I offer a holistic approach to therapy that addresses the unique needs and identities of my clients. I work with women, BIPOC, LGBTQIA+, and veteran communities. I also work with individuals who have experienced some form of abuse, trauma, oppression, inequity, or violence.
(323) 897-1199 View (323) 897-1199
Photo of Kelly Howard, MA, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Kelly Howard
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90037  (Online Only)
I am a sex positive psychotherapist offering trauma-informed Telehealth sessions to couples and individuals in California. My practice is affirming and supportive for gender, sexuality, and relationship diversity (GSRD) from early adulthood to later life. With a nurturing and non-judgmental approach, I empower people to explore their desires, overcome obstacles, and create fulfilling relationships. I aim to provide a grounded and warm space for folks to explore the parts of themselves that are challenging to sit with alone. I am kink affirming, queer affirming, and non-monogamy affirming!
I am a sex positive psychotherapist offering trauma-informed Telehealth sessions to couples and individuals in California. My practice is affirming and supportive for gender, sexuality, and relationship diversity (GSRD) from early adulthood to later life. With a nurturing and non-judgmental approach, I empower people to explore their desires, overcome obstacles, and create fulfilling relationships. I aim to provide a grounded and warm space for folks to explore the parts of themselves that are challenging to sit with alone. I am kink affirming, queer affirming, and non-monogamy affirming!
(341) 758-5091 View (341) 758-5091
Photo of Eryn Reeder, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Eryn Reeder
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Inglewood, CA 90301  (Online Only)
You deserve to be seen, to be heard & to feel understood. I aim to support you in creating a safe space to explore your dreams, desires, wants, needs and challenges. I seek to co-create an empowering space for Black, POC, Queer and neurodivergent individuals. I come with deep understanding and empathy towards the unique challenges faced by those navigating intersections of race, gender, and sexual orientation. I am committed to providing compassionate and culturally competent care.
You deserve to be seen, to be heard & to feel understood. I aim to support you in creating a safe space to explore your dreams, desires, wants, needs and challenges. I seek to co-create an empowering space for Black, POC, Queer and neurodivergent individuals. I come with deep understanding and empathy towards the unique challenges faced by those navigating intersections of race, gender, and sexual orientation. I am committed to providing compassionate and culturally competent care.
(916) 796-1327 View (916) 796-1327
Photo of Larry S Hymes, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Larry S Hymes
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90047
I have 10 years experience working in the LGBT community.
I am Intensely DBT trained from The Linehan Institute. DBT began as the premiere treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder and then grew to be successfully used for a variety of issues, including: depression, anxiety, impulsivity, couples counselling and substance addiction. I also use a variety of other practices and therapies, including: CBT, Motivational Interviewing, and Trauma Informed Therapy. My process is always to ask you, the client, what it is you want, what would that look like, and what is in your way. Then we collaborate to get you there!
I have 10 years experience working in the LGBT community.
I am Intensely DBT trained from The Linehan Institute. DBT began as the premiere treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder and then grew to be successfully used for a variety of issues, including: depression, anxiety, impulsivity, couples counselling and substance addiction. I also use a variety of other practices and therapies, including: CBT, Motivational Interviewing, and Trauma Informed Therapy. My process is always to ask you, the client, what it is you want, what would that look like, and what is in your way. Then we collaborate to get you there!
(323) 609-5715 View (323) 609-5715
Photo of Jenny Raz, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jenny Raz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90047
Hello, I'm Jenny Raz, a licensed clinical social worker. I work with adults and teens struggling with a range of mental health topics from relationship issues, aging & end of life, grief, suicidal ideations, veteran issues, LGBTQ+ issues, and more. I am effective in utilizing CBT, psychodynamic approach, and person-centered therapeutic modalities. Therapy is a safe place to share, problem-solve and/or accept the present moment for what it is.
Hello, I'm Jenny Raz, a licensed clinical social worker. I work with adults and teens struggling with a range of mental health topics from relationship issues, aging & end of life, grief, suicidal ideations, veteran issues, LGBTQ+ issues, and more. I am effective in utilizing CBT, psychodynamic approach, and person-centered therapeutic modalities. Therapy is a safe place to share, problem-solve and/or accept the present moment for what it is.
(714) 617-7416 View (714) 617-7416
Photo of Erick S Nunez, MSSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Erick S Nunez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Inglewood, CA 90301  (Online Only)
Hello fam!, and welcome to my Psychology Today page. My name is Erick Nunez, and I am a gay man of Black and Puerto Rican descent. Throughout my career, I've advocated for my community (those who have been marginalized and oppressed) and I'm honored to provide a safe and creative therapy space for my clients to express themselves openly and freely with no judgment. My goal is to make therapy comfortable for people of color.
Hello fam!, and welcome to my Psychology Today page. My name is Erick Nunez, and I am a gay man of Black and Puerto Rican descent. Throughout my career, I've advocated for my community (those who have been marginalized and oppressed) and I'm honored to provide a safe and creative therapy space for my clients to express themselves openly and freely with no judgment. My goal is to make therapy comfortable for people of color.
(310) 742-8072 View (310) 742-8072
Photo of undefined - APLA Health - Gleicher/Chen Health Center, Psychologist
APLA Health - Gleicher/Chen Health Center
Psychologist
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90016
We at APLA Health - Gleicher/Chen Health Center are dedicated to serving our community, and we make working with individuals of all backgrounds part of our mission. We are here to help, whether you're completely committed to change or you're struggling with the idea. We provide medical, dental, and behavioral health care all within the same clinic. In addition to primary care, we offer sexual health testing and treatment, HIV/AIDs care, and medical interventions for the trans community. We also have a team of substance abuse and prevention specialists at this location.
We at APLA Health - Gleicher/Chen Health Center are dedicated to serving our community, and we make working with individuals of all backgrounds part of our mission. We are here to help, whether you're completely committed to change or you're struggling with the idea. We provide medical, dental, and behavioral health care all within the same clinic. In addition to primary care, we offer sexual health testing and treatment, HIV/AIDs care, and medical interventions for the trans community. We also have a team of substance abuse and prevention specialists at this location.
(323) 612-0729 View (323) 612-0729
Photo of undefined - APLA Health - David Geffen Center, Psychologist
APLA Health - David Geffen Center
Psychologist
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90016
We proudly serve the community at large, with a specialty for the LGBTQIA+ community and individuals living with HIV/AIDS.
We at APLA Health - David Geffen Center, located in Koreatown, are dedicated to serving our community, and we make working with individuals of all backgrounds part of our mission. We are here to help, whether you're completely committed to change or you're struggling with the idea.
We proudly serve the community at large, with a specialty for the LGBTQIA+ community and individuals living with HIV/AIDS.
We at APLA Health - David Geffen Center, located in Koreatown, are dedicated to serving our community, and we make working with individuals of all backgrounds part of our mission. We are here to help, whether you're completely committed to change or you're struggling with the idea.
(323) 329-9900 View (323) 329-9900
Photo of Cassandra Falby, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Cassandra Falby
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Baldwin Hills, CA 90008  (Online Only)
I appreciate the opportunity to work with LGBTQIA folks, children of immigrants, folks in tech, and those living with a chronic illness (cancer, lupus, MS).
Therapy is one of few spaces that is dedicated to you and YOUR experiences. It is a non-judgmental space where you can explore issues that have gotten in the way of living with greater ease and comfort. Only you are the keeper of your truth and your story. I can support you in exploring how to hold difficult feelings in more helpful ways whether they be worry, shame, hurt, or pride. What would it be like to increase your emotional buoyancy as you create a path to healing and deeper self-knowledge? What kind of life might that give you?
I appreciate the opportunity to work with LGBTQIA folks, children of immigrants, folks in tech, and those living with a chronic illness (cancer, lupus, MS).
Therapy is one of few spaces that is dedicated to you and YOUR experiences. It is a non-judgmental space where you can explore issues that have gotten in the way of living with greater ease and comfort. Only you are the keeper of your truth and your story. I can support you in exploring how to hold difficult feelings in more helpful ways whether they be worry, shame, hurt, or pride. What would it be like to increase your emotional buoyancy as you create a path to healing and deeper self-knowledge? What kind of life might that give you?
(510) 924-0808 View (510) 924-0808
Photo of Chris Sanchez Lascurain, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Chris Sanchez Lascurain
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90056  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I enjoy helping youth, college students, adults, and older adults learn to manage emotional stress, anxiety, depression, ADHD, PTSD, Trauma, and LGBTQ+ issues. Collaborating with clients on goals helps them tap into their authentic selves, helping them identify personalized self-care skills to restructure negative thinking patterns. I think it is important to meet people where they are focusing on their strengths to inspire and motivate them to meet their particular needs or goals. I help my clients find inner happiness through a positive mindset.
I enjoy helping youth, college students, adults, and older adults learn to manage emotional stress, anxiety, depression, ADHD, PTSD, Trauma, and LGBTQ+ issues. Collaborating with clients on goals helps them tap into their authentic selves, helping them identify personalized self-care skills to restructure negative thinking patterns. I think it is important to meet people where they are focusing on their strengths to inspire and motivate them to meet their particular needs or goals. I help my clients find inner happiness through a positive mindset.
(310) 361-5163 View (310) 361-5163
Photo of Malcolm Jay, APCC, MCMHC, NCC, LPC Intern
Malcolm Jay
LPC Intern, APCC, MCMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Inglewood, CA 90305
Specialties: BIPOC, queer, trans, non binary people, gender exploration, neurodivergence, disability, trauma, health care professions, life transitions, systemic oppression, entertainment industry, life transitions, grief, teens, couples.
I hold the belief that we grow and change through relationships and because of that my style is relational, trauma informed, collaborative and social justice centered. It is not my job or purpose to help create tools for capitalism. I believe there are no predetermined paths or timelines for healing, and that the best way to get where you want is to focus on what keeps you safe, allows you time to rest and helps you create the community you want and need to thrive.
Specialties: BIPOC, queer, trans, non binary people, gender exploration, neurodivergence, disability, trauma, health care professions, life transitions, systemic oppression, entertainment industry, life transitions, grief, teens, couples.
I hold the belief that we grow and change through relationships and because of that my style is relational, trauma informed, collaborative and social justice centered. It is not my job or purpose to help create tools for capitalism. I believe there are no predetermined paths or timelines for healing, and that the best way to get where you want is to focus on what keeps you safe, allows you time to rest and helps you create the community you want and need to thrive.
(310) 715-8308 View (310) 715-8308
Photo of Kristopher Curtis Kern, PsyD, MSCP, Psychologist
Kristopher Curtis Kern
Psychologist, PsyD, MSCP
Verified Verified
Los Angeles, CA 90016  (Online Only)
I'm a gay cisgender psychologist of color and my relational and culturally sensitive therapeutic approach to working with stress, grief/loss, and other concerns; considers your lived experience and integrates best practices encouraging a corrective experience through coping effectively and rewriting your narrative towards authenticity and a meaningful life.
When making the complex and vulnerable choice to begin therapy, you should be able to trust your therapist and feel safe sharing your story. This is why compassion and empathy are my priorities when building our therapeutic alliance. Together, we will collaborate on an individualized plan for change and growth that is consistent with your values and cultural identities. Every human is a unique mix of identities, experiences, fears, dreams, and values. I am well-versed in theory and operate from a foundation of science. However, I also believe that it is essential to recognize the humanity behind everyone’s struggles and actions.
I'm a gay cisgender psychologist of color and my relational and culturally sensitive therapeutic approach to working with stress, grief/loss, and other concerns; considers your lived experience and integrates best practices encouraging a corrective experience through coping effectively and rewriting your narrative towards authenticity and a meaningful life.
When making the complex and vulnerable choice to begin therapy, you should be able to trust your therapist and feel safe sharing your story. This is why compassion and empathy are my priorities when building our therapeutic alliance. Together, we will collaborate on an individualized plan for change and growth that is consistent with your values and cultural identities. Every human is a unique mix of identities, experiences, fears, dreams, and values. I am well-versed in theory and operate from a foundation of science. However, I also believe that it is essential to recognize the humanity behind everyone’s struggles and actions.
(510) 319-0519 View (510) 319-0519

See more therapy options for View Park

LGBTQ+ Therapists

Do LGBTQ-affirmative therapists receive special training?

Yes. Many therapists who practice LGBTQ-affirmative therapy have completed specialized training, either during their degree program or as continuing education, to learn the core principles of affirmative therapy and how to best support their LGBTQ clients; some have received certifications in LGBTQ-affirmative therapy. Prospective clients should inquire as to a clinician’s background and training to ensure a good fit.

Why might I want to see an LGBTQ-affirming or LGBTQ-friendly therapist?

Queer and gender-non-conforming individuals frequently experience bias and marginalization in day-to-day life. Working with a therapist who understands these unique challenges, as well as accepts and affirms their identity, can help LGBTQ clients feel safe and supported during therapy—allowing them to better navigate their relationships, mental health, and anything else that they wish to explore during therapy. It is important to note that many therapists can be effective in their work with LGBTQ+ individuals, even in the absence of specific training or background knowledge. The most important component in therapy is the alliance between therapist and client, and this alliance can exist between individuals with very different backgrounds.

How can I find an LGBTQ-friendly therapist?

You may wish to inquire about a therapist’s expertise with your specific challenges or concerns—depression, for example, or relationship strife—as well as their past experiences treating LGBTQ+ clients. Prospective clients may also ask whether a therapist has obtained additional training and/or certification in LGBTQ-affirmative techniques.

How can I inquire about a therapist’s experience with LGBTQ issues?

Prospective clients should feel empowered to directly ask therapists whether they have received training or been certified in LGBTQ-affirming therapy; competent therapists will be happy to explain their educational background and preferred approach(es) to help a client find the best match for them. Clients may also wish to ask how a therapist has treated clients with their particular challenges in the past and what they expect treatment to look like.

Are all the therapists listed in the LGBTQ directory themselves members of the LGBTQ community?

While therapists may choose to disclose their sexual orientation or gender identity in their profiles, the LGBTQ directory features not only those who have shared this information but also those who assert specialized training or experience in providing support to queer individuals, couples or families.