Addiction Therapists in San Rafael, CA

Photo of Amy Cosby-Frost, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Amy Cosby-Frost
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901
We all need help sometimes. Clients come to me with a variety of problems, depression, anxiety, parenting, relationship issues and substance abuse. I work with my clients, identifying the strengths they already have and teaching new skills to address the problems that are causing them pain.
We all need help sometimes. Clients come to me with a variety of problems, depression, anxiety, parenting, relationship issues and substance abuse. I work with my clients, identifying the strengths they already have and teaching new skills to address the problems that are causing them pain.
(415) 868-4519 View (415) 868-4519
Photo of Jenny Bates, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jenny Bates
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94901
Many of us have been affected by mental health and/or substance abuse at some time in our lives. My practice was created so that individuals, couples and families could get support from someone who is experienced in the recovery process and has a true passion to help others and help people to find the best solutions to their own recovery. My specialty areas include those who are living with anxiety, depression, trauma and supporting those going through life changes (job, relationships etc.) Addiction and Co-Dependency is also a specialty area. I am an LGBTQ+ affirming therapist and welcome you to come as you are.
Many of us have been affected by mental health and/or substance abuse at some time in our lives. My practice was created so that individuals, couples and families could get support from someone who is experienced in the recovery process and has a true passion to help others and help people to find the best solutions to their own recovery. My specialty areas include those who are living with anxiety, depression, trauma and supporting those going through life changes (job, relationships etc.) Addiction and Co-Dependency is also a specialty area. I am an LGBTQ+ affirming therapist and welcome you to come as you are.
(415) 534-3954 View (415) 534-3954
Photo of Michelle Bonsignore, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Michelle Bonsignore
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94901
Waitlist for new clients
My personal + professional experience with addiction's impact on relationships has been combined with training in CBT, ACT, EMDR, + Family Systems.
Are you feeling lonely, sad, angry, or unhappy in your relationships? Do you worry about your or someone else's alcohol or drug use? Substance Use Disorder often impacts individuals and families in painful + predictable ways that trap people in destructive patterns of anxiety, loneliness, anger, helplessness, and despair. You are not alone if your efforts to manage and move beyond the chaos in your relationships feel futile. Don't lose hope! People do get better, and relationships can be repaired!
My personal + professional experience with addiction's impact on relationships has been combined with training in CBT, ACT, EMDR, + Family Systems.
Are you feeling lonely, sad, angry, or unhappy in your relationships? Do you worry about your or someone else's alcohol or drug use? Substance Use Disorder often impacts individuals and families in painful + predictable ways that trap people in destructive patterns of anxiety, loneliness, anger, helplessness, and despair. You are not alone if your efforts to manage and move beyond the chaos in your relationships feel futile. Don't lose hope! People do get better, and relationships can be repaired!
(628) 240-0812 View (628) 240-0812
Photo of Stephanie Daigre, MFT, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Stephanie Daigre
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94901
Working through painful memories and feelings with curiosity and self-acceptance can provide relief from anxiety and mood disorders, substance addiction, eating disorders and other compulsive patterns of coping.
Therapy is a collaborative relationship, as individual as the people in the room. Often the work involves slowing down and creating a secure space for being open, curious and able to revisit and make sense of thoughts, memories and feelings that give rise to present difficulties. I'm especially attentive to your higher powers of perception and positive self determination. Together we resolve present-day problems with roots in the past, changing patterns that produce familiar and unwanted results so you are freer to choose the life you want.
Working through painful memories and feelings with curiosity and self-acceptance can provide relief from anxiety and mood disorders, substance addiction, eating disorders and other compulsive patterns of coping.
Therapy is a collaborative relationship, as individual as the people in the room. Often the work involves slowing down and creating a secure space for being open, curious and able to revisit and make sense of thoughts, memories and feelings that give rise to present difficulties. I'm especially attentive to your higher powers of perception and positive self determination. Together we resolve present-day problems with roots in the past, changing patterns that produce familiar and unwanted results so you are freer to choose the life you want.
(415) 969-2137 View (415) 969-2137
Photo of Ginny Bahr - Marin Family Recovery, MA, LPCC, MAC, Counselor
Marin Family Recovery
Counselor, MA, LPCC, MAC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94915  (Online Only)
Addiction is a complex illness that has a lasting impact on a person and their entire family. Everyone's best intentions to heal or change can often result in outcomes that perpetuate suffering. The addiction cycle can feel like a rollercoaster with fleeting to no progress, or worse. There is a way off this ride. At Marin Family Recovery, we believe that a person's ability to change their life story and fully live a satisfying life is possible no matter how dark the starting place feels. Addiction is 100% treatable. With life there is always opportunity.
Addiction is a complex illness that has a lasting impact on a person and their entire family. Everyone's best intentions to heal or change can often result in outcomes that perpetuate suffering. The addiction cycle can feel like a rollercoaster with fleeting to no progress, or worse. There is a way off this ride. At Marin Family Recovery, we believe that a person's ability to change their life story and fully live a satisfying life is possible no matter how dark the starting place feels. Addiction is 100% treatable. With life there is always opportunity.
(415) 969-3045 View (415) 969-3045
Photo of Jessica Potter, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jessica Potter
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901
I also specialize in substance abuse treatment, childhood and adolescent issues, parenting, and suicide prevention.
I am versatile in my clinical experience with clients of different ages and cultures. I have particular training in working with individuals struggling with trauma and the many symptoms related to trauma. I also have many years of experience working with those who struggle with addictions. I enjoy providing support groups for adults and teenagers. I have worked in schools, outpatient clinics, and private practice. I also have experience in suicide prevention work with teenagers and young adults.
I also specialize in substance abuse treatment, childhood and adolescent issues, parenting, and suicide prevention.
I am versatile in my clinical experience with clients of different ages and cultures. I have particular training in working with individuals struggling with trauma and the many symptoms related to trauma. I also have many years of experience working with those who struggle with addictions. I enjoy providing support groups for adults and teenagers. I have worked in schools, outpatient clinics, and private practice. I also have experience in suicide prevention work with teenagers and young adults.
(415) 689-1017 View (415) 689-1017
Photo of Patricia Mary Pike - Patricia Pike: Certified Intervention Professional, LAADC, CADC II, CIP, CCIP, Drug & Alcohol Counselor
Patricia Pike: Certified Intervention Professional
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, LAADC, CADC II, CIP, CCIP
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94903
Patricia M. Pike, CEO of CanAm Interventions, Certified Interventionist & Addiction Specialist, is a trained expert with over 25 years of professional experience in the field of behavioral heath treatment, specializing in addiction and alcoholism. Ms. Pike holds a master accredited certification in addiction studies, conducts successful interventions nationally and internationally. Patricia is a Licensed Advance Alcohol Drug Counselor (LAADC), Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselor (CADC-II), long standing member of the Canadian Addiction Counselor Association Federation, internationally Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselor.
Patricia M. Pike, CEO of CanAm Interventions, Certified Interventionist & Addiction Specialist, is a trained expert with over 25 years of professional experience in the field of behavioral heath treatment, specializing in addiction and alcoholism. Ms. Pike holds a master accredited certification in addiction studies, conducts successful interventions nationally and internationally. Patricia is a Licensed Advance Alcohol Drug Counselor (LAADC), Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselor (CADC-II), long standing member of the Canadian Addiction Counselor Association Federation, internationally Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselor.
(415) 578-6836 View (415) 578-6836
Photo of Judit Colbert, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Judit Colbert
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901
I specialize in treating trauma, substance use, eating disorders and relationship issues. If you are in need of emotional support, please reach out: there is always a new tomorrow - are you ready?
I specialize in treating trauma, substance use, eating disorders and relationship issues. If you are in need of emotional support, please reach out: there is always a new tomorrow - are you ready?
(415) 462-4349 View (415) 462-4349
Photo of Linda Terry, LMFT, LPC, CCTP, CDHWP, Marriage & Family Therapist
Linda Terry
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LPC, CCTP, CDHWP
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901  (Online Only)
I have extensive experience working with individuals families and couples impacted by trauma, co-dependency, addiction and co-occurring disorders. Having worked in residential drug and alcohol treatment for over 10 years I bring those years of resources and compassionate experience to my work. My focus on family systems and attachment allow me to treat the entire family, offering the best possible outcomes. I am a Certified Trauma Specialist, a Gottman trained couples therapist and I am one of the few therapists working with Internet and Gaming Addiction.
I have extensive experience working with individuals families and couples impacted by trauma, co-dependency, addiction and co-occurring disorders. Having worked in residential drug and alcohol treatment for over 10 years I bring those years of resources and compassionate experience to my work. My focus on family systems and attachment allow me to treat the entire family, offering the best possible outcomes. I am a Certified Trauma Specialist, a Gottman trained couples therapist and I am one of the few therapists working with Internet and Gaming Addiction.
(415) 299-8396 View (415) 299-8396
Photo of Cassandra Beck, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Cassandra Beck
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901
I also provide individual therapy to teens and adults, specializing in substance use, codependency, and working with high achievers.
To those navigating the complexities of parenting, carrying the weight of past hurts, or striving to find harmony in their relationships, I see you. I specialize in supporting parents and caregivers concerned about their teenager's behavior and those looking to improve family relationships and reduce conflict. As a family therapist, I tackle various family challenges like addiction, disordered eating, and teen behavior. I assist with challenging transitions, supporting neurodivergent families, healing intergenerational trauma, and addressing burnout in high-achieving families.
I also provide individual therapy to teens and adults, specializing in substance use, codependency, and working with high achievers.
To those navigating the complexities of parenting, carrying the weight of past hurts, or striving to find harmony in their relationships, I see you. I specialize in supporting parents and caregivers concerned about their teenager's behavior and those looking to improve family relationships and reduce conflict. As a family therapist, I tackle various family challenges like addiction, disordered eating, and teen behavior. I assist with challenging transitions, supporting neurodivergent families, healing intergenerational trauma, and addressing burnout in high-achieving families.
(415) 450-0517 View (415) 450-0517
Photo of Kevin Lecy, PsyD, Psychologist
Kevin Lecy
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94901
My work focuses on those who are attempting to navigate through serious psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, trauma, substance abuse or living in a household with someone who struggles with substance abuse or addiction. I help teens, stuck young adults, and stressed families navigate the perilous journey to find serenity and sanity in their daily lives. Throughout my decade and a half of experience, I have learned that effective treatment starts with dignity and authenticity. These factors lay the foundation for the most important aspects of successful therapy: safety, honesty, and courageous vulnerability.
My work focuses on those who are attempting to navigate through serious psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, trauma, substance abuse or living in a household with someone who struggles with substance abuse or addiction. I help teens, stuck young adults, and stressed families navigate the perilous journey to find serenity and sanity in their daily lives. Throughout my decade and a half of experience, I have learned that effective treatment starts with dignity and authenticity. These factors lay the foundation for the most important aspects of successful therapy: safety, honesty, and courageous vulnerability.
(415) 549-9356 View (415) 549-9356
Photo of Karen Weinberger, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Karen Weinberger
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94903  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I have been helping my clients find solutions to problems of addiction, depression and difficult relationships for more than twenty-five years. I can help you feel better and make the changes you want to make. I recognize and respect what is unique about you and I don't practice "one size fits all" psychotherapy. I understand emotional pain and how a good therapeutic relationship can heal the hurt. Having better relationships, overcoming depression, or getting off the merry-go-round of addiction is possible with help, commitment and hard work.
I have been helping my clients find solutions to problems of addiction, depression and difficult relationships for more than twenty-five years. I can help you feel better and make the changes you want to make. I recognize and respect what is unique about you and I don't practice "one size fits all" psychotherapy. I understand emotional pain and how a good therapeutic relationship can heal the hurt. Having better relationships, overcoming depression, or getting off the merry-go-round of addiction is possible with help, commitment and hard work.
(415) 799-8787 View (415) 799-8787
Photo of Dylan Kersh, MA, MEd, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dylan Kersh
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MEd, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94903  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I've discovered that I have a unique ability to work with men, especially those struggling with depression, anxiety, and/or addiction.
Through authenticity and a wide range of clinical experience, I have cultivated a unique therapeutic style that has helped many of my clients to heal and thrive. It is my mission to create a private practice accessible to everyone in our community where clients feel safe to open up, take risks, be vulnerable, explore themselves, and grow. I've worked with individuals, families, and couples from a diverse spectrum of backgrounds and found that with an open heart, a sincere desire to connect, and clinical integrity, I can affect real change in my clients' lives.
I've discovered that I have a unique ability to work with men, especially those struggling with depression, anxiety, and/or addiction.
Through authenticity and a wide range of clinical experience, I have cultivated a unique therapeutic style that has helped many of my clients to heal and thrive. It is my mission to create a private practice accessible to everyone in our community where clients feel safe to open up, take risks, be vulnerable, explore themselves, and grow. I've worked with individuals, families, and couples from a diverse spectrum of backgrounds and found that with an open heart, a sincere desire to connect, and clinical integrity, I can affect real change in my clients' lives.
(510) 901-3771 View (510) 901-3771
Photo of Nancy Freitas Lambert, PsyD, Psychologist
Nancy Freitas Lambert
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901
Waitlist for new clients
I am a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of trauma and addiction.
I work with Individuals and Couples who are hoping to obtain a deeper understanding about themselves and their past experiences. I believe therapy can be an opportunity for people to change unhealthy patterns of relating to themselves and others. These patterns often continue to cause pain and suffering. I hope to create an environment for people to explore what aspects of their past may be getting in the way of their present and future. I work in a collaborative fashion, hoping to help people find the freedom to live their own lives.
I am a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of trauma and addiction.
I work with Individuals and Couples who are hoping to obtain a deeper understanding about themselves and their past experiences. I believe therapy can be an opportunity for people to change unhealthy patterns of relating to themselves and others. These patterns often continue to cause pain and suffering. I hope to create an environment for people to explore what aspects of their past may be getting in the way of their present and future. I work in a collaborative fashion, hoping to help people find the freedom to live their own lives.
(415) 799-8679 View (415) 799-8679
Photo of Raya Smail, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Raya Smail
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901
If you have made your way to this page, you are probably struggling with a "relationship problem"--either with someone else, or with yourself. This is likely causing you significant emotional pain. Your predicament may have been triggered by a recent event, such as loss or trauma, or may have lingered and festered for years. Your symptoms may vary--you may experience persistent discontent, loneliness, emptiness...; have difficulty finding or sustaining a relationship, or have a spouse who wants you to get "fixed".You may be battling addiction or a destructive behavior that is thwarting your life, but impossible to give up, despite endless attempts.
If you have made your way to this page, you are probably struggling with a "relationship problem"--either with someone else, or with yourself. This is likely causing you significant emotional pain. Your predicament may have been triggered by a recent event, such as loss or trauma, or may have lingered and festered for years. Your symptoms may vary--you may experience persistent discontent, loneliness, emptiness...; have difficulty finding or sustaining a relationship, or have a spouse who wants you to get "fixed".You may be battling addiction or a destructive behavior that is thwarting your life, but impossible to give up, despite endless attempts.
(415) 766-0949 View (415) 766-0949
Photo of Carolyn B Cooper, MS, LMFT, SEP, SAP, EMDR, Marriage & Family Therapist
Carolyn B Cooper
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT, SEP, SAP, EMDR
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94903
Substance use compounds the recovery process.
Somatic Experiencing (SE) takes healing to a deeper level. Combined with 'top-down' approaches, SE helps identify strengths and intentions beneath painful survival patterns. Shame, fear and anger transform into vital life energy. Surviving becomes thriving. As a private practice psychotherapist based in SF & Marin, I primarily work with adults, but also love to assist children in the healing process.
Substance use compounds the recovery process.
Somatic Experiencing (SE) takes healing to a deeper level. Combined with 'top-down' approaches, SE helps identify strengths and intentions beneath painful survival patterns. Shame, fear and anger transform into vital life energy. Surviving becomes thriving. As a private practice psychotherapist based in SF & Marin, I primarily work with adults, but also love to assist children in the healing process.
(415) 342-5196 View (415) 342-5196
Photo of Bria Milicevic, PhD, Psychologist
Bria Milicevic
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94901
Are you looking to make a shift in your life, find your North star, free yourself from an addiction, decrease anxiety, or improve your relationship with others and live a life that is most meaningful for you? I believe therapy is a way for individuals to connect and access their own wisdom to make the necessary changes for a life that is most aspiring and fulfilling to them. I invite people to explore areas that may be affecting them and make a transition from where they are to where they would like to be. I use a treatment approach that is warm, relational, accepting and authentic, and am action-oriented and solution-focused.
Are you looking to make a shift in your life, find your North star, free yourself from an addiction, decrease anxiety, or improve your relationship with others and live a life that is most meaningful for you? I believe therapy is a way for individuals to connect and access their own wisdom to make the necessary changes for a life that is most aspiring and fulfilling to them. I invite people to explore areas that may be affecting them and make a transition from where they are to where they would like to be. I use a treatment approach that is warm, relational, accepting and authentic, and am action-oriented and solution-focused.
(415) 429-7010 View (415) 429-7010
Photo of Jean Hayes, PhD, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jean Hayes
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, MFT
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901  (Online Only)
As an addictions specialist, I conduct interventions, educating family members about addiction and co-dependency, to develop new, sober Lifestyles.
I successfully treat relationship breakdowns, alcohol, drug, eating problems, depression, dual-diagnosis, anxiety, trauma, bariatric surgery patients. Individuals and couples address how the misuse of substances impacts their lives in negative and unproductive ways. We seek solutions together to more satisfying lifestyles and relationships. I work with couples and individuals having difficulties in relationships, wanting to resolve problems rather than separating or divorcing as their only solution. I work to separate past hurts from present reality. As an Equine Therapist, I use horses and exotic farm animals as requested.
As an addictions specialist, I conduct interventions, educating family members about addiction and co-dependency, to develop new, sober Lifestyles.
I successfully treat relationship breakdowns, alcohol, drug, eating problems, depression, dual-diagnosis, anxiety, trauma, bariatric surgery patients. Individuals and couples address how the misuse of substances impacts their lives in negative and unproductive ways. We seek solutions together to more satisfying lifestyles and relationships. I work with couples and individuals having difficulties in relationships, wanting to resolve problems rather than separating or divorcing as their only solution. I work to separate past hurts from present reality. As an Equine Therapist, I use horses and exotic farm animals as requested.
(415) 574-0967 View (415) 574-0967
Photo of Robin Glantz, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Robin Glantz
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Rafael, CA 94901  (Online Only)
Some focal points of my work include end of life and grief support with individuals, couples and families; addiction and recovery from addiction; support through life transitions; trauma recovery; and cognitive tracking.
Maybe you are stuck in patterns that do not serve you. Maybe experiences and relationships that should give you pleasure leave you wanting. Or find yourself ruminating about the past or worrying about the future rather than living expansively, now. While many people can identify "the problem": alcohol and drugs; the death of a loved one; the end of a marriage, etc. Sometimes our inability to live fully confuses us. Together we can look at what is getting in the way. As a guide and companion I can help you heal past wounds and open to the joy and possibilities your life has to offer.
Some focal points of my work include end of life and grief support with individuals, couples and families; addiction and recovery from addiction; support through life transitions; trauma recovery; and cognitive tracking.
Maybe you are stuck in patterns that do not serve you. Maybe experiences and relationships that should give you pleasure leave you wanting. Or find yourself ruminating about the past or worrying about the future rather than living expansively, now. While many people can identify "the problem": alcohol and drugs; the death of a loved one; the end of a marriage, etc. Sometimes our inability to live fully confuses us. Together we can look at what is getting in the way. As a guide and companion I can help you heal past wounds and open to the joy and possibilities your life has to offer.
(415) 944-4221 View (415) 944-4221
Photo of Ronald Max Allen Yusim, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ronald Max Allen Yusim
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Rafael, CA 94901
The majority of my therapy practice is as an Addiction Couple's Therapist. I offer Private Intensive Weekend Retreats. These are 16-hour workshops that take place in my office in Mill Valley on one reserved weekend. We work privately (just the 3 of us) for two and a half days breaking down your communication issues and learning how to repair and resolve conflicts.
The majority of my therapy practice is as an Addiction Couple's Therapist. I offer Private Intensive Weekend Retreats. These are 16-hour workshops that take place in my office in Mill Valley on one reserved weekend. We work privately (just the 3 of us) for two and a half days breaking down your communication issues and learning how to repair and resolve conflicts.
(415) 877-6907 View (415) 877-6907
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Addiction Therapists

What is the best therapy for addiction?

Addiction treatment will be tailored to the individual. People seeking help for addiction—whether with a psychotherapist, in an outpatient clinic, or in a residential program—should expect to engage in multiple types of treatments, sometimes including medication. For anyone recovering from addiction, avoiding situations in which one has typically used a substance is essential, as is the support of close connections. Since substance use disorders tend to co-occur with underlying mental health conditions such as anxiety or depression, those must also be addressed as part of any recovery plan.

How long does therapy for addiction take?

There is no set timeline for recovery from addiction. Patients and their families should expect the work to last several months, if not longer. Residential treatment programs may be based on a stay of 30, 60, or 90 days, with continuing work after release, but only about 1 percent of people are treated in such facilities. Ceasing use is just the first step; therapy to help maintain abstinence and effect behavior change must follow. The process of recovery, neuroscience has shown, involves brain cells recovering the capacity to respond to natural sources of reward and restore control over the impulse to use. Another definition of recovery is restoring voluntary control over one’s substance use and retaking all of one’s previous responsibilities.

How effective is drug addiction treatment?

Substance use disorders are treatable and remission is achievable for many who seek recovery; by some estimates, more than three-quarters of people who become addicted to alcohol or drugs recover. But that success rarely occurs quickly or on a set timeline; relapse is not only common, but many therapists and clinicians view it as a normal part of the process—not always a sign that a person has returned to addiction, but a signal that their treatment should be adjusted to help them regain control. Overall, research suggests, five years after the end of substance use, one’s risk of relapse is no greater than that of others who had not faced addiction. Other experts believe that complete abstinence is not the only measure of recovery, and that, through effective treatment, many people can learn to control their use.

How can you get addiction treatment for someone?

The most important factor in recovery from addiction is widely understood to be an individual’s commitment to change. For that reason,“interventions” in which friends and family gather to urge or force someone to begin immediate treatment often backfire; even when such efforts do lead someone to begin treatment, they may be less likely to stay than those who are self-driven. Still, family members can play an important role in supporting an individual who seeks help and can take part in family therapy as one element of a loved one’s treatment.