Adoption Therapists in San Francisco, CA

Photo of Nina Anderson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Nina Anderson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94127
Adoption Collective is committed to providing ethical and competent specialized services for all members of the adoption constellation. Nina Anderson, LCSW offers Counseling, Education, and Consultation Services in the area of Adoption and Family Formation. As the founder of Adoption Collective, Nina recognized the need for personalized support for those involved in the adoption process. Nina provides counseling to pre-adoptive and adoptive parents, expectant/birth parents, and adoptees, and supports Post Adoption Contact Relationships.
Adoption Collective is committed to providing ethical and competent specialized services for all members of the adoption constellation. Nina Anderson, LCSW offers Counseling, Education, and Consultation Services in the area of Adoption and Family Formation. As the founder of Adoption Collective, Nina recognized the need for personalized support for those involved in the adoption process. Nina provides counseling to pre-adoptive and adoptive parents, expectant/birth parents, and adoptees, and supports Post Adoption Contact Relationships.
(415) 993-6226 View (415) 993-6226
Photo of Amy Klatzkin, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Amy Klatzkin
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
Are you feeling overwhelmed, anxious, in a rut? Do you or your family have extra challenges because of adoption and pre-adoption history, insecure attachment, trauma, loss, or other complications? For adults and families touched by adoption or trauma, unconditional love and ordinary parenting skills are not always enough to prevent negative behaviors, anxiety, or depression in childhood or later in life. Finding a therapist with special training in these areas can make all the difference.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, anxious, in a rut? Do you or your family have extra challenges because of adoption and pre-adoption history, insecure attachment, trauma, loss, or other complications? For adults and families touched by adoption or trauma, unconditional love and ordinary parenting skills are not always enough to prevent negative behaviors, anxiety, or depression in childhood or later in life. Finding a therapist with special training in these areas can make all the difference.
(415) 683-7966 View (415) 683-7966
Photo of Ginny Pizzardi, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Ginny Pizzardi
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114
My areas of expertise include self-esteem, relationships, grief, parenting, adoption, trauma and addiction.
Are you struggling in your relationships or personal connections? Suffering from depression or anxiety? Experiencing loss, grief or sadness? Difficulty with work/life balance? You don't need to struggle alone. I'm a psychotherapist with over 40 years of experience, and I'm here to help. Individuals, couples and families call me when they're ready to tackle the problems that make life difficult.
My areas of expertise include self-esteem, relationships, grief, parenting, adoption, trauma and addiction.
Are you struggling in your relationships or personal connections? Suffering from depression or anxiety? Experiencing loss, grief or sadness? Difficulty with work/life balance? You don't need to struggle alone. I'm a psychotherapist with over 40 years of experience, and I'm here to help. Individuals, couples and families call me when they're ready to tackle the problems that make life difficult.
(415) 787-2980 View (415) 787-2980
Photo of Sandrah Susan Henry, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Sandrah Susan Henry
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94114
I have over 40 years of experience helping people face challenges in their lives including loss, adoption related issues, addiction, relationships/couples, life threatening illness, chronic pain, anxiety, mood and bipolar disorder, PTSD, complex trauma, divorce, and other life transitions. I am a warm and caring therapist who is also able to be direct when needed. From the moment you enter my office I do all I can to provide a safe and comfortable environment for us to work collaboratively with whatever issues you are facing in your life today. You will always be treated with respect and compassion throughout our work together.
I have over 40 years of experience helping people face challenges in their lives including loss, adoption related issues, addiction, relationships/couples, life threatening illness, chronic pain, anxiety, mood and bipolar disorder, PTSD, complex trauma, divorce, and other life transitions. I am a warm and caring therapist who is also able to be direct when needed. From the moment you enter my office I do all I can to provide a safe and comfortable environment for us to work collaboratively with whatever issues you are facing in your life today. You will always be treated with respect and compassion throughout our work together.
(415) 687-0429 View (415) 687-0429
Photo of Esther Ehrensaft, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Esther Ehrensaft
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94123
I am also specialized in the area of adoption, for adult adoptees as well as children.
Most people seek out a psychologist when they have truly done their best to resolve their difficulties on their own. When you can't see your own emotional blind spots, feeling stuck and distressed can ripple through many areas of your life. Perhaps this is your first time seeking out a therapist, or perhaps you are returning to psychotherapy for a fresh perspective. As a psychologist with over 17 years of experience, I have a seasoned understanding of what leads people to hit roadblocks in their lives, in areas including work, school, marriage, parenting, family, and intimate relationships.
I am also specialized in the area of adoption, for adult adoptees as well as children.
Most people seek out a psychologist when they have truly done their best to resolve their difficulties on their own. When you can't see your own emotional blind spots, feeling stuck and distressed can ripple through many areas of your life. Perhaps this is your first time seeking out a therapist, or perhaps you are returning to psychotherapy for a fresh perspective. As a psychologist with over 17 years of experience, I have a seasoned understanding of what leads people to hit roadblocks in their lives, in areas including work, school, marriage, parenting, family, and intimate relationships.
(415) 578-7673 View (415) 578-7673
Photo of Nathan Greene, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Nathan Greene
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94112
I am a bilingual (English and Spanish-speaking) licensed clinical psychologist who provides psychotherapy services to adults, children, adolescents families. I support clients in fostering resilience and in building more meaningful, connected relationships. In therapy, I take a supportive, curious, nonjudgemental stance. My clients struggle with issues related to depression, anxiety, loss, adoption, psychological trauma, childhood development, parenting, and everyday stressors.
I am a bilingual (English and Spanish-speaking) licensed clinical psychologist who provides psychotherapy services to adults, children, adolescents families. I support clients in fostering resilience and in building more meaningful, connected relationships. In therapy, I take a supportive, curious, nonjudgemental stance. My clients struggle with issues related to depression, anxiety, loss, adoption, psychological trauma, childhood development, parenting, and everyday stressors.
(949) 577-6606 View (949) 577-6606
Photo of Cherry Jones, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Cherry Jones
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118
Adoption and Foster Care.
Is it time to take a step towards changing those old Self limiting patterns? Those preoccupying thoughts; those intense feelings; those annoying behaviours. Do you want to learn something new about yourself? Depression; anxiety; traumatic stress reactions, whether you are a child, parent, couple or individual, limit the capacity to enjoy Life. Within a therapeutic relationship of compassion, kind attention and patient nudging to risk change, you can create space for yourself, to develop and cultivate new skills. To develop the fortitude of resilience and a more fulfilling Life. Wishing you well.
Adoption and Foster Care.
Is it time to take a step towards changing those old Self limiting patterns? Those preoccupying thoughts; those intense feelings; those annoying behaviours. Do you want to learn something new about yourself? Depression; anxiety; traumatic stress reactions, whether you are a child, parent, couple or individual, limit the capacity to enjoy Life. Within a therapeutic relationship of compassion, kind attention and patient nudging to risk change, you can create space for yourself, to develop and cultivate new skills. To develop the fortitude of resilience and a more fulfilling Life. Wishing you well.
(415) 417-0843 View (415) 417-0843
Barbara Jean A Douglass
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PhD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94116  (Online Only)
My specialties include adoption issues, LGBTQ issues and women's issues.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and PhD with 15 years experience working with adults, children and youth. My goal is to help you in your path towards feeling better, and experiencing an improved sense of confidence, self-esteem and functioning in your life. My approach is one of respect, warmth, and attention to the dignity of every person. I utilize a humanistic and person-centered perspective, and maintain a psychodynamic framework for understanding my clients' emotional and therapeutic needs, to help you learn coping skills, and help you explore your options towards recovering a stronger sense of self, identity, spirituality, and balance.
My specialties include adoption issues, LGBTQ issues and women's issues.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and PhD with 15 years experience working with adults, children and youth. My goal is to help you in your path towards feeling better, and experiencing an improved sense of confidence, self-esteem and functioning in your life. My approach is one of respect, warmth, and attention to the dignity of every person. I utilize a humanistic and person-centered perspective, and maintain a psychodynamic framework for understanding my clients' emotional and therapeutic needs, to help you learn coping skills, and help you explore your options towards recovering a stronger sense of self, identity, spirituality, and balance.
(510) 949-3983 View (510) 949-3983
Photo of Sophie Bain-Tohl, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Sophie Bain-Tohl
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94102
Are you an adoptive parent or considering adoption, but you are unsure where to begin or how to navigate the unique challenges ahead? As an adoptee myself, my experience dealing with these same issues and more, led me to become a therapist.
Are you an adoptee feeling lost, misunderstood, or like you don’t quite belong? Are you curious about your birth parents but feel guilty for even wondering? Do you wrestle with conflicting emotions about your adoptive parents and your own identity?
Are you an adoptive parent or considering adoption, but you are unsure where to begin or how to navigate the unique challenges ahead? As an adoptee myself, my experience dealing with these same issues and more, led me to become a therapist.
Are you an adoptee feeling lost, misunderstood, or like you don’t quite belong? Are you curious about your birth parents but feel guilty for even wondering? Do you wrestle with conflicting emotions about your adoptive parents and your own identity?
(310) 496-2505 View (310) 496-2505
Photo of Carol Hernandez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Carol Hernandez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94122
Hello, My name is Carol Hernandez, LCSW. I am excited to be able to provide therapy services to people seeking a better version of themselves. I believe in positive psychology and practicing mindfulness. I have experience in adoption- working with both birth parents and adoptive parents. I have experience working with adoption-related issues, including the adoption triad, infertility issues, and grief and loss. I also work with clients who wish to improve their overall well-being.
Hello, My name is Carol Hernandez, LCSW. I am excited to be able to provide therapy services to people seeking a better version of themselves. I believe in positive psychology and practicing mindfulness. I have experience in adoption- working with both birth parents and adoptive parents. I have experience working with adoption-related issues, including the adoption triad, infertility issues, and grief and loss. I also work with clients who wish to improve their overall well-being.
(209) 391-1509 View (209) 391-1509
Photo of Jocelyn Barron, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Jocelyn Barron
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94127
I am a client-centered, trauma- and attachment-informed, adoption-competent (Accredited TAC-trained) clinician. I have worked with and in the child welfare system for nearly 13 years. My focus is assisting families and youth going through the adoption process and providing therapeutic support post-adoption. I work comfortably with both youth and adults and family sessions as needed.
I am a client-centered, trauma- and attachment-informed, adoption-competent (Accredited TAC-trained) clinician. I have worked with and in the child welfare system for nearly 13 years. My focus is assisting families and youth going through the adoption process and providing therapeutic support post-adoption. I work comfortably with both youth and adults and family sessions as needed.
(714) 364-8034 View (714) 364-8034
Photo of Jessica Yu Psyd, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Jessica Yu Psyd
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94127  (Online Only)
I also offer psychological assessments for adults (Workers' Compensation; International Adoption; Immigration Legal).
I know sometimes we may feel alone with our own problems. We may feel stuck. We may have a hard time settling down. We may not know who to talk to. It happens to everybody and it is wise to reach out to someone and talk about possible solutions. I'd like to help you.
I also offer psychological assessments for adults (Workers' Compensation; International Adoption; Immigration Legal).
I know sometimes we may feel alone with our own problems. We may feel stuck. We may have a hard time settling down. We may not know who to talk to. It happens to everybody and it is wise to reach out to someone and talk about possible solutions. I'd like to help you.
(415) 301-4748 View (415) 301-4748
Photo of Rob Dean, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Francisco, CA
Rob Dean
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114  (Online Only)
I enjoy working with individuals, couples, parents, and teens with a special interest in masculinity, adoption, and life transitions/initiations.
Welcome, glad you're here. Let's be honest, life often is messy and can feel like a struggle. And yet, what if beneath trauma, disappointments, frustrations, or seemingly poor life choices lie seeds of growth that just need some watering? What if you already contain the ingredients essential for thriving? Might your relationships as well? In my view therapy provides a sacred like opportunity where one is offered a chance to experience renewed vitality, meaning, and an invigorated sense of mind, body, spirit, and soul. A space where the genius in you or perhaps the potentials lying in relationships and parenting roles can emerge.
I enjoy working with individuals, couples, parents, and teens with a special interest in masculinity, adoption, and life transitions/initiations.
Welcome, glad you're here. Let's be honest, life often is messy and can feel like a struggle. And yet, what if beneath trauma, disappointments, frustrations, or seemingly poor life choices lie seeds of growth that just need some watering? What if you already contain the ingredients essential for thriving? Might your relationships as well? In my view therapy provides a sacred like opportunity where one is offered a chance to experience renewed vitality, meaning, and an invigorated sense of mind, body, spirit, and soul. A space where the genius in you or perhaps the potentials lying in relationships and parenting roles can emerge.
(510) 901-3796 View (510) 901-3796
Photo of Carrie Johnson, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Carrie Johnson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94114
I have specialties in working with attachment/trauma, risky and oppositional behaviors stemming from multiple diagnoses or disorders, the complex issues that arise in foster care or post-adoption, and using a family systems treatment approach.
Is your family navigating significant changes, transitions, or a recent diagnosis or identified learning difference? Is your child struggling with self-esteem, behavior challenges, or anxiety and depression? Do you want to break a cycle of blame and resentment in your intimate relationship, or need a couples tune-up? Are you searching for more fulfillment and less stress in your busy life? These are just a few of the issues I am experienced in treating as a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT79984). I offer psychotherapy for children, adolescents, families, couples, and individuals.
I have specialties in working with attachment/trauma, risky and oppositional behaviors stemming from multiple diagnoses or disorders, the complex issues that arise in foster care or post-adoption, and using a family systems treatment approach.
Is your family navigating significant changes, transitions, or a recent diagnosis or identified learning difference? Is your child struggling with self-esteem, behavior challenges, or anxiety and depression? Do you want to break a cycle of blame and resentment in your intimate relationship, or need a couples tune-up? Are you searching for more fulfillment and less stress in your busy life? These are just a few of the issues I am experienced in treating as a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT79984). I offer psychotherapy for children, adolescents, families, couples, and individuals.
(415) 969-9429 View (415) 969-9429
Photo of Amy Cole, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Amy Cole
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, NTP
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94123
In my practice I work with a range of issues, including depression, anxiety, relationship concerns, fertility and adoption, self-esteem, communication, career changes and life transitions.
I offer psychotherapy for individuals and couples. I provide personalized, thoughtful support and guidance to help you create more satisfaction and success in your life. I work with people of diverse backgrounds, ages and lifestyles. Many people find that taking the first steps to begin therapy are the scariest. It may be the first time where you are attempting to make positive and healthful changes in your life. A trusting, secure relationship is important for your therapy. I am happy to discuss any concerns you may have and will answer your questions about therapy.
In my practice I work with a range of issues, including depression, anxiety, relationship concerns, fertility and adoption, self-esteem, communication, career changes and life transitions.
I offer psychotherapy for individuals and couples. I provide personalized, thoughtful support and guidance to help you create more satisfaction and success in your life. I work with people of diverse backgrounds, ages and lifestyles. Many people find that taking the first steps to begin therapy are the scariest. It may be the first time where you are attempting to make positive and healthful changes in your life. A trusting, secure relationship is important for your therapy. I am happy to discuss any concerns you may have and will answer your questions about therapy.
(415) 347-6952 View (415) 347-6952
Photo of Estelle Rubenstein, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Estelle Rubenstein
Marriage & Family Therapist
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94102  (Online Only)
Welcome. I know that choosing a therapist can be hard. How can a therapist help you? How can you find the right therapist? I hope the information here helps. I work with all age groups - and especially well with clients whose challenges include gender identity and sexuality, life transitions, alcohol and drug addiction, foster care and adoption issues, parenting, ageing, depression, anxiety, veterans and active duty military, relationships, grief, loss, and trauma. I can work within short-term and long-term frameworks, depending on your goals and expectations. I am kink-, gender-, and ENM/poly-affirming.
Welcome. I know that choosing a therapist can be hard. How can a therapist help you? How can you find the right therapist? I hope the information here helps. I work with all age groups - and especially well with clients whose challenges include gender identity and sexuality, life transitions, alcohol and drug addiction, foster care and adoption issues, parenting, ageing, depression, anxiety, veterans and active duty military, relationships, grief, loss, and trauma. I can work within short-term and long-term frameworks, depending on your goals and expectations. I am kink-, gender-, and ENM/poly-affirming.
(415) 639-3834 View (415) 639-3834
Photo of Lark Nierenberg, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Lark Nierenberg
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94115  (Online Only)
I also offer caregiving and family support; areas of care might include family conflict, adoption, and family creation.
I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with a therapeutic focus on gender and sexuality, early trauma, and family and relationship dynamics. My approach is empathic, warm, and thoughtful. My clients often wish to understand their identities more deeply; seek support staying true to themselves in their relationships and community; and pursue healing and meaning-making following trauma. Through our work, you can develop new insights and coping skills to manage overwhelm, anxiety, depression, or life transitions. I'm particularly dedicated to working with queer, transgender, non-binary, and kink communities.
I also offer caregiving and family support; areas of care might include family conflict, adoption, and family creation.
I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with a therapeutic focus on gender and sexuality, early trauma, and family and relationship dynamics. My approach is empathic, warm, and thoughtful. My clients often wish to understand their identities more deeply; seek support staying true to themselves in their relationships and community; and pursue healing and meaning-making following trauma. Through our work, you can develop new insights and coping skills to manage overwhelm, anxiety, depression, or life transitions. I'm particularly dedicated to working with queer, transgender, non-binary, and kink communities.
(415) 851-8370 View (415) 851-8370
Photo of Charles Brinamen, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Charles Brinamen
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94103
I also focus on parenting and adoption.
My work is relationally based. I believe that development throughout our lives is formed through our relationships. The therapeutic relationship we share will be an important factor in understanding, improving, establishing, and responding to those relationships. Even when things are particularly tough or uncomfortable, creating and tolerating change can be daunting. It’s easy for individuals and families to get stuck in old patterns that no longer meet their needs. We’ll look at those patterns: how they developed, how they affect you, and how to take steps toward freeing you and your family.
I also focus on parenting and adoption.
My work is relationally based. I believe that development throughout our lives is formed through our relationships. The therapeutic relationship we share will be an important factor in understanding, improving, establishing, and responding to those relationships. Even when things are particularly tough or uncomfortable, creating and tolerating change can be daunting. It’s easy for individuals and families to get stuck in old patterns that no longer meet their needs. We’ll look at those patterns: how they developed, how they affect you, and how to take steps toward freeing you and your family.
(415) 237-4412 View (415) 237-4412
Photo of Tamara Hagy-Lopez, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Tamara Hagy-Lopez
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110
I feel comfortable working with are depression, women's life challenges, life transitions, mid-life problems, interpersonal issues, PTSD, trauma, anxiety, parenting, mood disorders, anger management, blended families, adoption, and underserved population.
Tamara Hagy-Lopez is a Licensed Marriage Family Therapist with over 20 years of experience working with children, teens, parents, adults, and families in a variety of clinical and school settings. Tamara's focus is on building a safe and validating environment that allows families and individuals to increase self-awareness and helps them create a narrative that supports their growth.
I feel comfortable working with are depression, women's life challenges, life transitions, mid-life problems, interpersonal issues, PTSD, trauma, anxiety, parenting, mood disorders, anger management, blended families, adoption, and underserved population.
Tamara Hagy-Lopez is a Licensed Marriage Family Therapist with over 20 years of experience working with children, teens, parents, adults, and families in a variety of clinical and school settings. Tamara's focus is on building a safe and validating environment that allows families and individuals to increase self-awareness and helps them create a narrative that supports their growth.
(415) 870-3873 View (415) 870-3873
Photo of Dima Dashevsky, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Dima Dashevsky
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94102  (Online Only)
Cross-cultural couples therapy, non-monogamous relationships, adoption, immigration, major life transitions, conscious parenting, spiritual growth and support while navigating spiritual crises.
Starting therapy for the first time or returning after a long break can feel intimidating. You might have even had bad experiences before. I'm here to help. We will go at your pace because your experience is important to me. I believe that lasting change and healing can only happen when our whole selves are seen and welcomed. I provide a safe healing space and bring a strong, grounded presence so that you can begin to cultivate more love and compassion for yourself, connect with your inner wisdom and become more whole and authentic in your relationship with others.
Cross-cultural couples therapy, non-monogamous relationships, adoption, immigration, major life transitions, conscious parenting, spiritual growth and support while navigating spiritual crises.
Starting therapy for the first time or returning after a long break can feel intimidating. You might have even had bad experiences before. I'm here to help. We will go at your pace because your experience is important to me. I believe that lasting change and healing can only happen when our whole selves are seen and welcomed. I provide a safe healing space and bring a strong, grounded presence so that you can begin to cultivate more love and compassion for yourself, connect with your inner wisdom and become more whole and authentic in your relationship with others.
(831) 900-4916 View (831) 900-4916

See more therapy options for San Francisco

Adoption Therapists

Does my adopted child need therapy?

Not every adopted child needs therapy. However, many can benefit from seeing an adoption-informed therapist, especially if they were victims of abuse or neglect, appear withdrawn or disconnected, have behavioral or developmental issues (which may or may not be related to their adoption), are struggling with feelings of grief or loss surrounding their birth parents, or find it difficult to establish an identity, a challenge that often becomes most apparent during adolescence.

When should adoptive parents seek therapy?

Prospective parents can benefit from therapy even before an adoption—for example, to voice worries and fears; to reconcile infertility struggles, if relevant; or simply to prepare themselves for parenthood. After the adoption, parents who are struggling to bond with their child; are unsure how to talk about adoption or related issues, such as race; or whose child is dealing with developmental, behavioral, or psychiatric concerns can address these and other issues with the help of an adoption-competent therapist.

Is family therapy appropriate for adoptive families?

Family therapy can be invaluable for strengthening the bond between adoptive parents and children, helping the latter feel more secure in their place in the family. Family therapy can also help adoptive families navigate complex communication issues—for example, parents who feel uncomfortable discussing race with their child, who in turn feels invalidated by their silence, or a child who has questions about his birth parents but avoids asking them out of fear of hurting his adoptive parents’ feelings.

What therapy is not appropriate for adoption issues?

A discredited therapy known as “attachment therapy” (sometimes called “holding therapy” or “rebirthing therapy”) should not be used to treat adopted and foster children, though it was largely designed for this population. Attachment therapy involves restraining, coercing, and punishing the child in order for them to “release” negative emotions and attach to their new caregivers—techniques that are abusive and dangerous and have even proven fatal in some cases.