Therapists in San Francisco, CA

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Photo of Mal Godha - Expansive Therapy, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in San Francisco, CA
Mal Godha - Expansive Therapy
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114
I strive to create a safe, healing space where you can explore your thoughts, emotions, and life experiences. I am a trained mindfulness meditation instructor and view mental health from an integrated, holistic lens. I am here to empower you in discovering and embracing your authentic self. My specialties include trauma, stress, anxiety, interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, depression, and chronic health conditions.
I strive to create a safe, healing space where you can explore your thoughts, emotions, and life experiences. I am a trained mindfulness meditation instructor and view mental health from an integrated, holistic lens. I am here to empower you in discovering and embracing your authentic self. My specialties include trauma, stress, anxiety, interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, depression, and chronic health conditions.
(415) 903-0826 View (415) 903-0826
Photo of Colin Fyfe, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Francisco, CA
Colin Fyfe
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94114
Human connection is the catalyst needed to explore any underlining psychic distress. In my psychotherapy practice, I prioritize fostering a collaborative relationship to provide emotional and personal safety, allowing you to dive beneath the surface to better understand the underlying causes of your personal distress. The goal is, through exploration, to create opportunities for you to become more self-aware of your own thoughts and feelings, empowering you to re-create new ways of connecting to yourself and loved ones
Human connection is the catalyst needed to explore any underlining psychic distress. In my psychotherapy practice, I prioritize fostering a collaborative relationship to provide emotional and personal safety, allowing you to dive beneath the surface to better understand the underlying causes of your personal distress. The goal is, through exploration, to create opportunities for you to become more self-aware of your own thoughts and feelings, empowering you to re-create new ways of connecting to yourself and loved ones
(415) 484-9466 View (415) 484-9466
Photo of Laurie Fields, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Laurie Fields
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94110  (Online Only)
Warm, experienced, down-to-earth, effective... I am a clinical psychologist providing individual therapy for adults in California. I think good therapy calls for sensitivity, genuineness, open-mindedness, honesty, and having your best interests at heart. During our work together, I will listen deeply to your struggles and help clarify aspects that you may not be aware of. I can help you to move forward from painful places, uncover your full potential, feel better about yourself, improve your relationships with others, and navigate your life according to your values.
Warm, experienced, down-to-earth, effective... I am a clinical psychologist providing individual therapy for adults in California. I think good therapy calls for sensitivity, genuineness, open-mindedness, honesty, and having your best interests at heart. During our work together, I will listen deeply to your struggles and help clarify aspects that you may not be aware of. I can help you to move forward from painful places, uncover your full potential, feel better about yourself, improve your relationships with others, and navigate your life according to your values.
(415) 749-9352 View (415) 749-9352
Photo of Jill E Hartman, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Jill E Hartman
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MA
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110
When life feels overwhelming, finding meaning and connection can feel elusive. Layer on the struggles inherent in our current world—family dynamics, life transitions, climate anxiety—you name it, and it’s no wonder it can feel impossible. In my work, I help people navigate life’s murky waters, and the feelings of inertia that can come with the territory. Helping people connect with, and stay true to, their authentic selves is what makes my work meaningful. I work particularly well with clients who struggle in relationships (including with adult family members), as well as adults with ADHD or those who suspect they might have ADHD.
When life feels overwhelming, finding meaning and connection can feel elusive. Layer on the struggles inherent in our current world—family dynamics, life transitions, climate anxiety—you name it, and it’s no wonder it can feel impossible. In my work, I help people navigate life’s murky waters, and the feelings of inertia that can come with the territory. Helping people connect with, and stay true to, their authentic selves is what makes my work meaningful. I work particularly well with clients who struggle in relationships (including with adult family members), as well as adults with ADHD or those who suspect they might have ADHD.
(510) 913-9384 View (510) 913-9384
Photo of Laura Domash, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Laura Domash
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94123  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My work is ultimately about mindful, skillful, and balanced living. Life is short-- I want my clients to enjoy the process regardless of what life throws at them. I help people move beyond difficulties such as substance abuse/other compulsions, excessive self-criticism, symptoms of depression and anxiety, difficulties with relationships, trauma, and other human struggles. My approach is authentic and warm yet exceptionally direct. I'll help identify inadequate coping patterns so you can replace them with proven skills that lead to higher quality living. Our work will be results driven and customized to you.
My work is ultimately about mindful, skillful, and balanced living. Life is short-- I want my clients to enjoy the process regardless of what life throws at them. I help people move beyond difficulties such as substance abuse/other compulsions, excessive self-criticism, symptoms of depression and anxiety, difficulties with relationships, trauma, and other human struggles. My approach is authentic and warm yet exceptionally direct. I'll help identify inadequate coping patterns so you can replace them with proven skills that lead to higher quality living. Our work will be results driven and customized to you.
(408) 837-0274 View (408) 837-0274
Photo of Mackenzie Studebaker, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Francisco, CA
Mackenzie Studebaker
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
3 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94110  (Online Only)
Welcome! As a holistic psychotherapist, I am dedicated to creating a safe environment for you to show up just as you are and feel held and supported in your process. In the therapeutic space, all aspects of yourself are welcomed - even the parts that challenge you. I bring humility, curiosity, reverence and a sense of humor to this work. I believe you are the expert of your experience and I am here to support you every step of the way. My clinical approach is enriched and informed by 10+ years of teaching yoga and meditation in private practice.
Welcome! As a holistic psychotherapist, I am dedicated to creating a safe environment for you to show up just as you are and feel held and supported in your process. In the therapeutic space, all aspects of yourself are welcomed - even the parts that challenge you. I bring humility, curiosity, reverence and a sense of humor to this work. I believe you are the expert of your experience and I am here to support you every step of the way. My clinical approach is enriched and informed by 10+ years of teaching yoga and meditation in private practice.
(415) 881-5703 View (415) 881-5703
Photo of Melinda Joyner, Associate Clinical Social Worker in San Francisco, CA
Melinda Joyner
Associate Clinical Social Worker, ACSW
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94109
Are you stuck with no direction? Maybe you need to refocus from the external and internal distractions. Therapy is a great opportunity to explore, refocus and refresh. Do not give up before investing in yourself. You are worth a 2nd, 3rd, 4th chance to live the life you always dreamed of. It is never too late. Together we can begin to put the pieces back together.
Are you stuck with no direction? Maybe you need to refocus from the external and internal distractions. Therapy is a great opportunity to explore, refocus and refresh. Do not give up before investing in yourself. You are worth a 2nd, 3rd, 4th chance to live the life you always dreamed of. It is never too late. Together we can begin to put the pieces back together.
(415) 797-0262 View (415) 797-0262
Photo of Andrew G Law, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Andrew G Law
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110
I offer Down to Earth, Jargon Free Counseling. I will meet you with warmth and curiosity, humor and heart, right where you are. I'm here to help as you gather the courage to change what you can and find the grace to accept what you can't. I have spent my entire adult life exploring the different sub-cultures of the Bay Area, so I am quite good at working with men, women, and couples who don't quite fit inside the box. I especially want to hear from you if you've never considered therapy before. Even if I'm not your best fit, I'm happy to help you think through and navigate your options. Get in touch via my website!
I offer Down to Earth, Jargon Free Counseling. I will meet you with warmth and curiosity, humor and heart, right where you are. I'm here to help as you gather the courage to change what you can and find the grace to accept what you can't. I have spent my entire adult life exploring the different sub-cultures of the Bay Area, so I am quite good at working with men, women, and couples who don't quite fit inside the box. I especially want to hear from you if you've never considered therapy before. Even if I'm not your best fit, I'm happy to help you think through and navigate your options. Get in touch via my website!
(510) 491-0709 View (510) 491-0709
Photo of Levana Adato, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Levana Adato
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
I became a therapist because I believe in making the world a better place, helping one person at a time. From a very young age, I learned the value of social justice and helping others from my family. I volunteered a lot growing up, helping the elderly and my community. My therapy style includes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness, Solution Focused, culturally sensitive, Family Systems, grief, humanistic, integrative, interpersonal, life coaching, multicultural, person-centered, reality therapy, Strength-Based, and Trauma-Focused.
I became a therapist because I believe in making the world a better place, helping one person at a time. From a very young age, I learned the value of social justice and helping others from my family. I volunteered a lot growing up, helping the elderly and my community. My therapy style includes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness, Solution Focused, culturally sensitive, Family Systems, grief, humanistic, integrative, interpersonal, life coaching, multicultural, person-centered, reality therapy, Strength-Based, and Trauma-Focused.
(415) 851-6896 View (415) 851-6896
Photo of Kim Jones, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Kim Jones
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94122
There usually comes a time in life where we feel stuck, lost, anxious, or depressed. You may be struggling in your relationships with family, friends, partner, or work, or feeling anxious about building the life you want. You may have tried various solutions on your own before acknowledging that you could use the support of another person. However you may be feeling, I believe that your symptoms are there to get your attention, and therapy can be a helpful tool.
There usually comes a time in life where we feel stuck, lost, anxious, or depressed. You may be struggling in your relationships with family, friends, partner, or work, or feeling anxious about building the life you want. You may have tried various solutions on your own before acknowledging that you could use the support of another person. However you may be feeling, I believe that your symptoms are there to get your attention, and therapy can be a helpful tool.
(628) 227-6082 View (628) 227-6082
Photo of Stephen Keenan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Stephen Keenan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94109
Hello. My name is Stephen Keenan. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in CA. I have worked with a wide range of clients, from poverty-stricken to affluent, depressed and suicidal to angry and homicidal, geriatric to pediatric. I can help with anxiety, coping skills, depression, psychosis, and more. I use a humanistic, strengths based, supportive therapy approach for solution focused results. Of course, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is key to reframe and see things from a different lens, i.e. "I never thought if it that way." Therapy is about getting you the help you need and helping you reach your goals in treatment.
Hello. My name is Stephen Keenan. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in CA. I have worked with a wide range of clients, from poverty-stricken to affluent, depressed and suicidal to angry and homicidal, geriatric to pediatric. I can help with anxiety, coping skills, depression, psychosis, and more. I use a humanistic, strengths based, supportive therapy approach for solution focused results. Of course, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is key to reframe and see things from a different lens, i.e. "I never thought if it that way." Therapy is about getting you the help you need and helping you reach your goals in treatment.
(415) 792-0504 View (415) 792-0504
Photo of Alison Murphy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Alison Murphy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94103
Whether you're trying to fight anxiety and depression, beat addictions or if you have struggled through a traumatic experience, there are techniques that can provide relief from symptoms and challenge negative ways of thinking, improve your relationships and your experiences at work. If you are ready to develop new skills and strategies to break free from what is holding you back from your goals, then let me use my professional experience to partner with you in realizing your potential for healing and growth.
Whether you're trying to fight anxiety and depression, beat addictions or if you have struggled through a traumatic experience, there are techniques that can provide relief from symptoms and challenge negative ways of thinking, improve your relationships and your experiences at work. If you are ready to develop new skills and strategies to break free from what is holding you back from your goals, then let me use my professional experience to partner with you in realizing your potential for healing and growth.
(415) 650-4926 View (415) 650-4926
Photo of Leila Kakunda, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Leila Kakunda
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114  (Online Only)
Hi there and welcome! I am Leila, a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist located in San Francisco. Over the last several years, I have supported my clients with anxiety, depression, parenting challenges, relationship issues, trauma and life's transitions. My style of therapy is relational, strength based and integrative. Through the therapeutic relationship and collaborating on practices like self-compassion, body-mind integration, and boundary-setting, I support my clients on their paths to finding relief from their symptoms and building a sense of empowerment.
Hi there and welcome! I am Leila, a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist located in San Francisco. Over the last several years, I have supported my clients with anxiety, depression, parenting challenges, relationship issues, trauma and life's transitions. My style of therapy is relational, strength based and integrative. Through the therapeutic relationship and collaborating on practices like self-compassion, body-mind integration, and boundary-setting, I support my clients on their paths to finding relief from their symptoms and building a sense of empowerment.
(415) 660-9615 View (415) 660-9615
Photo of Dr. Jaime Bercuson, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Dr. Jaime Bercuson
Psychologist, PsyD, MS, BA
Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115  (Online Only)
Dr. Jaime Bercuson is a licensed clinical psychologist in California, Florida, and Utah. With more than 15 years of experience, Dr. Bercuson's compassionate and non-judgmental approach to addressing anxiety, depression, coping with life changes and stressors at work and at home will help you get to where you want to be. Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy, along with supportive listening and reflection, Dr. Bercuson is ready to work with you to meet your goals. She is happy to connect with you for a free consult to learn more about you and what you are hoping to achieve in you work together.
Dr. Jaime Bercuson is a licensed clinical psychologist in California, Florida, and Utah. With more than 15 years of experience, Dr. Bercuson's compassionate and non-judgmental approach to addressing anxiety, depression, coping with life changes and stressors at work and at home will help you get to where you want to be. Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy, along with supportive listening and reflection, Dr. Bercuson is ready to work with you to meet your goals. She is happy to connect with you for a free consult to learn more about you and what you are hoping to achieve in you work together.
(415) 366-3596 View (415) 366-3596
Photo of Shannon Gallina, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Shannon Gallina
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
I am passionate about helping people feel better. I am trained to treat a variety of issues, but I have an emphasis on treating anxiety. Other common issues that I treat are relationship issues, OCD, depression, life transitions, family conflict, co-dependency, and self-esteem. My personal style is warm, supportive, and direct. I am solution-focused and like to give my clients specific coping strategies to use.
I am passionate about helping people feel better. I am trained to treat a variety of issues, but I have an emphasis on treating anxiety. Other common issues that I treat are relationship issues, OCD, depression, life transitions, family conflict, co-dependency, and self-esteem. My personal style is warm, supportive, and direct. I am solution-focused and like to give my clients specific coping strategies to use.
(415) 915-3092 View (415) 915-3092
Photo of Erin Hartley, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Erin Hartley
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94102  (Online Only)
I help clients experiencing anxiety, low self-esteem, perfectionism/over-functioning, work burnout, depression or unresolved childhood trauma. Each of my clients is an expert in their own experience, and my role is to help you understand the obstacles holding you back from making positive change in key areas of your life - like in relationships, your career, or in building a healthier self-esteem.
I help clients experiencing anxiety, low self-esteem, perfectionism/over-functioning, work burnout, depression or unresolved childhood trauma. Each of my clients is an expert in their own experience, and my role is to help you understand the obstacles holding you back from making positive change in key areas of your life - like in relationships, your career, or in building a healthier self-esteem.
(415) 630-6553 View (415) 630-6553
Photo of Caitlin Davis, Associate Clinical Social Worker in San Francisco, CA
Caitlin Davis
Associate Clinical Social Worker, ASW
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
Are you feeling overwhelmed by the challenges of life? Seeking support can be a transformative step towards well-being. As an Associate Clinical Social Worker, I am here to guide you on your journey to a more balanced and fulfilling life. I specialize in working with adult individuals facing various life challenges. Whether it’s navigating work or school-related stress, managing burnout, coping with life transitions, supporting young adults (18+) navigating the complexities of "adulting," or addressing anxiety and ADHD, I am committed to providing a safe space for exploration and healing.
Are you feeling overwhelmed by the challenges of life? Seeking support can be a transformative step towards well-being. As an Associate Clinical Social Worker, I am here to guide you on your journey to a more balanced and fulfilling life. I specialize in working with adult individuals facing various life challenges. Whether it’s navigating work or school-related stress, managing burnout, coping with life transitions, supporting young adults (18+) navigating the complexities of "adulting," or addressing anxiety and ADHD, I am committed to providing a safe space for exploration and healing.
(415) 301-6221 View (415) 301-6221
Photo of Susan Jager, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Susan Jager
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94109
Are you experiencing anxiety, depression, grief, or other issues within yourself, relationships or life path? You do not have to keep struggling alone. As capable as we are in many areas of our lives, difficult times can unearth complex feelings, unhelpful coping, addictions and past traumas.
Are you experiencing anxiety, depression, grief, or other issues within yourself, relationships or life path? You do not have to keep struggling alone. As capable as we are in many areas of our lives, difficult times can unearth complex feelings, unhelpful coping, addictions and past traumas.
(415) 683-7903 View (415) 683-7903
Photo of Michelanne Baker, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Michelanne Baker
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94117  (Online Only)
My approach to therapy is interactive and relational. I believe that the relationship between the therapist and client is what is most healing and helpful in therapy. I strive to create a comfortable and supportive atmosphere where difficult issues can be addressed. When people feel supported and understood; they are often more able to face challenges. I also help clients become more aware of the obstacles which prevent them from leading more satisfying lives. Sometimes that may involve exploring past experiences and relationships or it may involve learning new coping skills.
My approach to therapy is interactive and relational. I believe that the relationship between the therapist and client is what is most healing and helpful in therapy. I strive to create a comfortable and supportive atmosphere where difficult issues can be addressed. When people feel supported and understood; they are often more able to face challenges. I also help clients become more aware of the obstacles which prevent them from leading more satisfying lives. Sometimes that may involve exploring past experiences and relationships or it may involve learning new coping skills.
(415) 766-0973 View (415) 766-0973
Photo of Simi Cassil, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Simi Cassil
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified
San Francisco, CA 94123
You have the right to exist in the world just as you are. If you're here, something within you may be initiating growth. Maybe you're tired of feeling 'stuck', maybe there are questions you have yet to voice or maybe there is a dissatisfaction with your life or your relationships, most importantly the relationship you have with yourself.
You have the right to exist in the world just as you are. If you're here, something within you may be initiating growth. Maybe you're tired of feeling 'stuck', maybe there are questions you have yet to voice or maybe there is a dissatisfaction with your life or your relationships, most importantly the relationship you have with yourself.
(415) 980-6112 View (415) 980-6112

See more therapy options for San Francisco

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in San Francisco, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$187

Therapists in San Francisco, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
82% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress
66% Grief

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

67% Aetna
56% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
51% Optum

How Therapists in San Francisco, CA see their clients

56% In Person and Online
44% Online Only

Gender breakdown

76% Female
22% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in San Francisco?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.