Therapists in San Francisco, CA

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Photo of Jan Cehn - Jan S. Cehn, LCSW,BCD, LCSW, BCD, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jan S. Cehn, LCSW,BCD
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114
I am an experienced therapist who has been working with teens, individuals, couples and families for over 30 years. I see therapy as a partnership: you enter this process with your particular issues and uniqueness and together, through building trust, being curious and using specialized techniques, you progress. My approach is based on my client's personal history and their needs and, in general, I am quite interactive. I provide short-term as well as long-term treatment.
I am an experienced therapist who has been working with teens, individuals, couples and families for over 30 years. I see therapy as a partnership: you enter this process with your particular issues and uniqueness and together, through building trust, being curious and using specialized techniques, you progress. My approach is based on my client's personal history and their needs and, in general, I am quite interactive. I provide short-term as well as long-term treatment.
(415) 889-8965 View (415) 889-8965
Photo of Jim Christrup, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jim Christrup
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94114
Are you struggling with anxiety, panic, phobias, OCD, stress, self-criticism, shyness, or excessive worry? My goal is to help you break out of old, unproductive ways of dealing with these problems and find more flexible and effective ways of responding and healing. I am an experienced and caring therapist who is supportive, engaged, and interactive. Together we focus on what matters most to you and help you move towards what you care about most deeply in your life.
Are you struggling with anxiety, panic, phobias, OCD, stress, self-criticism, shyness, or excessive worry? My goal is to help you break out of old, unproductive ways of dealing with these problems and find more flexible and effective ways of responding and healing. I am an experienced and caring therapist who is supportive, engaged, and interactive. Together we focus on what matters most to you and help you move towards what you care about most deeply in your life.
(415) 702-3775 View (415) 702-3775
Photo of Lynn R Byk, PhD, Psychologist
Lynn R Byk
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94123  (Online Only)
Welcome! You might be seeking psychotherapy as a way to improve the quality of your life and gain a greater understanding of the thoughts, feelings, experiences and relationships that are getting in the way of living the life you desire. You might be struggling with relationship issues, anxiety, depression or loss. What I bring to the therapeutic relationship is warmth, compassion and acceptance which will allow you to feel a sense of safety and emotional security. I am an active participant and we will be working together, collaboratively. Through our work together, I can help you on your journey.
Welcome! You might be seeking psychotherapy as a way to improve the quality of your life and gain a greater understanding of the thoughts, feelings, experiences and relationships that are getting in the way of living the life you desire. You might be struggling with relationship issues, anxiety, depression or loss. What I bring to the therapeutic relationship is warmth, compassion and acceptance which will allow you to feel a sense of safety and emotional security. I am an active participant and we will be working together, collaboratively. Through our work together, I can help you on your journey.
(415) 301-4359 View (415) 301-4359
Photo of Abigail K, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Abigail K
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94132  (Online Only)
We help over-achieving, perfectionist women get rid of anxiety, find inner peace and true confidence. Are you finally at a place in your life where you're no longer in survival mode? You’ve hit your career milestones? You’re checking off the bucket list items? Your friends and family think you’re doing so well… but there's still something missing? I get it. You might experience low levels of chronic depression and anxiety masked as perfectionism, people-pleasing, or work-a-holic like tendencies.
We help over-achieving, perfectionist women get rid of anxiety, find inner peace and true confidence. Are you finally at a place in your life where you're no longer in survival mode? You’ve hit your career milestones? You’re checking off the bucket list items? Your friends and family think you’re doing so well… but there's still something missing? I get it. You might experience low levels of chronic depression and anxiety masked as perfectionism, people-pleasing, or work-a-holic like tendencies.
(415) 687-4262 View (415) 687-4262
Photo of Yalith Fonfa, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Yalith Fonfa
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94102
Would you like to feel more at ease and present in your life? Are you ready to work through and move on from past experiences that are still hurting you? Are you struggling with substances or behaviors that are no longer serving you? Do you want to understand yourself better so you can live your life fully and authentically? I help my clients recover, heal and transform their lives.
Would you like to feel more at ease and present in your life? Are you ready to work through and move on from past experiences that are still hurting you? Are you struggling with substances or behaviors that are no longer serving you? Do you want to understand yourself better so you can live your life fully and authentically? I help my clients recover, heal and transform their lives.
(415) 363-6239 View (415) 363-6239
Photo of Farhad Ghodsi - Farhad Ghodsi MFT, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Farhad Ghodsi MFT
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94102  (Online Only)
Are you experiencing some roadblocks that are preventing you from getting where you want to be in life whether it be in your work, school, or relationships with others? When you’re feeling overwhelmed therapy can make the difference between feeling stuck and moving forward. I am a licensed marriage and family therapist located in San Francisco, specializing in psychotherapy for adult individuals. I’ve had the privilege of working within various multidisciplinary teams providing psychotherapy for over a decade.
Are you experiencing some roadblocks that are preventing you from getting where you want to be in life whether it be in your work, school, or relationships with others? When you’re feeling overwhelmed therapy can make the difference between feeling stuck and moving forward. I am a licensed marriage and family therapist located in San Francisco, specializing in psychotherapy for adult individuals. I’ve had the privilege of working within various multidisciplinary teams providing psychotherapy for over a decade.
(415) 996-1861 View (415) 996-1861
Photo of Caitlin Torres Graham, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Caitlin Torres Graham
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Life can feel like a big knot of different colored threads that can include overcoming trauma, life transitions, relationship issues and identity. My goal is to work with you to untangle that knot to improve your sense of wellbeing, insight, self-compassion and coping techniques. I know that doing this self work can be overwhelming, so I value a transparent, trusting and collaborative relationship with my clients. I have extensive experience working with trauma, intergenerational family dynamics and trauma, ethnic identity issues, self esteem, body image issues, grief, loss, anxiety, depression, and life transitions.
Life can feel like a big knot of different colored threads that can include overcoming trauma, life transitions, relationship issues and identity. My goal is to work with you to untangle that knot to improve your sense of wellbeing, insight, self-compassion and coping techniques. I know that doing this self work can be overwhelming, so I value a transparent, trusting and collaborative relationship with my clients. I have extensive experience working with trauma, intergenerational family dynamics and trauma, ethnic identity issues, self esteem, body image issues, grief, loss, anxiety, depression, and life transitions.
(415) 754-7843 View (415) 754-7843
Photo of Sandra Dimery, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sandra Dimery
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94103  (Online Only)
Compassion, assertiveness, and transparency are qualities that create healthy relationships. My 20 yrs. working with those who encountered abuse enhanced those qualities, in addition to acknowledging the power of positive self-talk. My believe is “Be patient with yourself, forgive yourself, and love yourself.” That's when true change begins.
Compassion, assertiveness, and transparency are qualities that create healthy relationships. My 20 yrs. working with those who encountered abuse enhanced those qualities, in addition to acknowledging the power of positive self-talk. My believe is “Be patient with yourself, forgive yourself, and love yourself.” That's when true change begins.
(510) 937-3063 View (510) 937-3063
Photo of Adam Jelloian, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Adam Jelloian
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
In the room with me, you can expect my full attention, understanding, and collaboration as we work together to empower and encourage you to be the person you want to be. Together we will customize a plan that will meet your needs and most importantly your wants and desires for your life. I believe you have the inner strength to overcome what is holding you back, therefore I will be your guide to better understand yourself. Having mutual trust and understanding is crucial, and knowing that you decided to invest in yourself with me is very brave.
In the room with me, you can expect my full attention, understanding, and collaboration as we work together to empower and encourage you to be the person you want to be. Together we will customize a plan that will meet your needs and most importantly your wants and desires for your life. I believe you have the inner strength to overcome what is holding you back, therefore I will be your guide to better understand yourself. Having mutual trust and understanding is crucial, and knowing that you decided to invest in yourself with me is very brave.
(415) 873-4930 View (415) 873-4930
Photo of Alison McKleroy, MA, LMFT , Marriage & Family Therapist
Alison McKleroy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115  (Online Only)
It takes more than just talking to create lasting changes. I offer evidence-based methods from CBT to untwist negative thinking patterns so anxiety spirals and self-criticism loops stop derailing your life. I'm a therapist of nearly twenty years certified in cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness. With powerful tools and practice, you can experience a huge shift in your mood and habits. I'm the author of two self-help books and contribute regularly as a mental expert to The Guardian, TIME, Verywell Mind, DailyOm, USA Today, The Knot, and more.
It takes more than just talking to create lasting changes. I offer evidence-based methods from CBT to untwist negative thinking patterns so anxiety spirals and self-criticism loops stop derailing your life. I'm a therapist of nearly twenty years certified in cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness. With powerful tools and practice, you can experience a huge shift in your mood and habits. I'm the author of two self-help books and contribute regularly as a mental expert to The Guardian, TIME, Verywell Mind, DailyOm, USA Today, The Knot, and more.
(415) 877-5353 View (415) 877-5353
Photo of Cera Mae Arthur-Carmody, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Cera Mae Arthur-Carmody
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Feeling stuck? Struggling to navigate transitions and change? Want to set healthy boundaries in your relationships? I'm here to support you in your journey ahead! I specialize in supporting teens, young adults, and adults navigate change, embrace new beginnings, and build healthier relationships. Let's partner together to explore how your unique gifts can guide you towards a life aligned with your values!
Feeling stuck? Struggling to navigate transitions and change? Want to set healthy boundaries in your relationships? I'm here to support you in your journey ahead! I specialize in supporting teens, young adults, and adults navigate change, embrace new beginnings, and build healthier relationships. Let's partner together to explore how your unique gifts can guide you towards a life aligned with your values!
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Photo of Leland van den Daele, MS, PhD, FACP, Psychologist
Leland van den Daele
Psychologist, MS, PhD, FACP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115
My clients seek self-knowledge, firm identity, clear purpose, and meaning in life. They wonder “What’s it all about?”, "Is this all there is?", "How do I find a way?" They avoid cookie-cutter formulas and truisms. They seek authenticity, freedom from self-blame, doubt, anxiety, and depression, confidence during life changes, clarity of purpose, and dignity in a confused and often shallow culture. They are willing to invest in themselves to find themselves. They seek understanding of their attachment style, repressed emotions, unconscious patterns, fixations, blind spots, and defenses.
My clients seek self-knowledge, firm identity, clear purpose, and meaning in life. They wonder “What’s it all about?”, "Is this all there is?", "How do I find a way?" They avoid cookie-cutter formulas and truisms. They seek authenticity, freedom from self-blame, doubt, anxiety, and depression, confidence during life changes, clarity of purpose, and dignity in a confused and often shallow culture. They are willing to invest in themselves to find themselves. They seek understanding of their attachment style, repressed emotions, unconscious patterns, fixations, blind spots, and defenses.
(628) 210-3285 View (628) 210-3285
Photo of Cynthia Cohn, MFA, PsyD, Psychologist
Cynthia Cohn
Psychologist, MFA, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94104
For 17 years, I have worked successfully w/individuals and couples who want to feel better/create change in their lives. Whether relationship difficulty; anxiety or depression; work stress; life transition; trauma, loss, insecurity; you seek direction, deeper connection, a more creative/fulfilling life, or just feel lost or stuck - I tailor the treatment to your unique needs. Good therapy can transform - lead to feeling more alive, true to yourself, capable. We'll work together to alleviate your suffering, challenge old patterns of thinking/relating/behavior behind your distress, find new perspective, achieve your goals.
For 17 years, I have worked successfully w/individuals and couples who want to feel better/create change in their lives. Whether relationship difficulty; anxiety or depression; work stress; life transition; trauma, loss, insecurity; you seek direction, deeper connection, a more creative/fulfilling life, or just feel lost or stuck - I tailor the treatment to your unique needs. Good therapy can transform - lead to feeling more alive, true to yourself, capable. We'll work together to alleviate your suffering, challenge old patterns of thinking/relating/behavior behind your distress, find new perspective, achieve your goals.
(415) 820-1688 View (415) 820-1688
Photo of Rachel Goldstein, PsyD, CEDS, Psychologist
Rachel Goldstein
Psychologist, PsyD, CEDS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
Hello and welcome to my practice! I believe very strongly in each person's capacity for growth and change. Therapy can be a place to gain practical skills and confidence needed to face life's challenges and to harness the resources that you already have. As a licensed clinical psychologist, I specialize in the treatment of eating disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, relationship issues, emotional disturbances, and life transitions.
Hello and welcome to my practice! I believe very strongly in each person's capacity for growth and change. Therapy can be a place to gain practical skills and confidence needed to face life's challenges and to harness the resources that you already have. As a licensed clinical psychologist, I specialize in the treatment of eating disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, relationship issues, emotional disturbances, and life transitions.
(415) 578-9793 View (415) 578-9793
Photo of Alissa DiFranco, MFT, CFRC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Alissa DiFranco
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, CFRC
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94131  (Online Only)
My style of working is thoughtful and direct. I am committed to helping people discover and enhance their emotional capacity in order to create more satisfying lives. Through the transformative experience of being deeply understood by another in an authentic, safe and honest relationship, people can transform destructive patterns into more satisfying expressions of self.
My style of working is thoughtful and direct. I am committed to helping people discover and enhance their emotional capacity in order to create more satisfying lives. Through the transformative experience of being deeply understood by another in an authentic, safe and honest relationship, people can transform destructive patterns into more satisfying expressions of self.
(415) 237-4360 View (415) 237-4360
Photo of Koo Im Robbins, JD, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Koo Im Robbins
Marriage & Family Therapist, JD, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94111  (Online Only)
Relationships are core to our identity and play a fundamental role in the quality of our life, shaping who we are, and how we perceive ourselves. Relationships are endowed with our heart’s deepest longings: to be seen, loved and accepted for ourselves, to find healing and wholeness, and to reach our greatest potential. It is no wonder that relational conflicts can, at times, feel so gut-wrenching, heartbreaking, and terrible.
Relationships are core to our identity and play a fundamental role in the quality of our life, shaping who we are, and how we perceive ourselves. Relationships are endowed with our heart’s deepest longings: to be seen, loved and accepted for ourselves, to find healing and wholeness, and to reach our greatest potential. It is no wonder that relational conflicts can, at times, feel so gut-wrenching, heartbreaking, and terrible.
(415) 625-6180 View (415) 625-6180
Photo of Robyn L Stukalin, MS, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Robyn L Stukalin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MS, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94102
I view psychotherapy as a joint venture in which we work collaboratively to reach your goals. My style is direct, transparent and positive, warm, interactive and nonjudgemental. I create the safety needed to allow us to explore the issues that underlie depression, anxiety, loneliness, lack of fulfillment and other concerns. As a therapist I follow your lead. With over two decades of experience I work diligently to understand each individual, employing elements of psychoanalytic, mindfulness and cognitive behavioral theories to create an approach that best suits the unique individuals and relationships with whom I am working.
I view psychotherapy as a joint venture in which we work collaboratively to reach your goals. My style is direct, transparent and positive, warm, interactive and nonjudgemental. I create the safety needed to allow us to explore the issues that underlie depression, anxiety, loneliness, lack of fulfillment and other concerns. As a therapist I follow your lead. With over two decades of experience I work diligently to understand each individual, employing elements of psychoanalytic, mindfulness and cognitive behavioral theories to create an approach that best suits the unique individuals and relationships with whom I am working.
(415) 360-2471 View (415) 360-2471
Photo of Samantha Adame, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Samantha Adame
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94132  (Online Only)
Do you feel like you can never live up to the cultural and family expectations placed on you? These experiences may have you reflecting on your childhood and processing the way trauma has impacted your life—you may have family members denying these experiences happened. Due to these experiences you may be struggling with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Therapy can be a place to process these experiences and reduce the symptoms that are impacting your life, I’m here to provide a safe and non-judgmental space for you.
Do you feel like you can never live up to the cultural and family expectations placed on you? These experiences may have you reflecting on your childhood and processing the way trauma has impacted your life—you may have family members denying these experiences happened. Due to these experiences you may be struggling with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Therapy can be a place to process these experiences and reduce the symptoms that are impacting your life, I’m here to provide a safe and non-judgmental space for you.
(341) 895-6909 View (341) 895-6909
Photo of Taylor Eva Simon, AMFT, APCC, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Taylor Eva Simon
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT, APCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
I work with individuals who have been harmed by toxic family dynamics and are seeking their authentic self. I want to acknowledge that beginning your journey may be an intimidating prospect. Maybe you don't know what your needs are, don't feel permission to be yourself, or feel worthy of your boundaries. Perhaps you leave family interactions with conflicting feelings of guilt, anger and shame and feel powerless to change things. I'm here to support you as you re-align with your authenticity and self-expression, processing and shedding the stories of who you are that are told by people in your life that have never truly seen you.
I work with individuals who have been harmed by toxic family dynamics and are seeking their authentic self. I want to acknowledge that beginning your journey may be an intimidating prospect. Maybe you don't know what your needs are, don't feel permission to be yourself, or feel worthy of your boundaries. Perhaps you leave family interactions with conflicting feelings of guilt, anger and shame and feel powerless to change things. I'm here to support you as you re-align with your authenticity and self-expression, processing and shedding the stories of who you are that are told by people in your life that have never truly seen you.
(415) 938-5543 View (415) 938-5543
Photo of Audrey Martin - Audrey Martin, Psychotherapist, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Audrey Martin, Psychotherapist
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94117
I am an experienced psychotherapist with offices in both San Francisco and Berkeley. I provide therapy for adults and adolescents as my primary focus. I meet with individuals, couples, and families to help them overcome areas of emotional and relational difficulties. I have an active, open way of working and am curious, engaged, honest, and direct. I take people's need for change very seriously, and am an advocate for finding ways to help people live with greater depth, satisfaction, and choice. While this can involve diligence, resilience, and perseverance, play and creativity are also integral in the process.
I am an experienced psychotherapist with offices in both San Francisco and Berkeley. I provide therapy for adults and adolescents as my primary focus. I meet with individuals, couples, and families to help them overcome areas of emotional and relational difficulties. I have an active, open way of working and am curious, engaged, honest, and direct. I take people's need for change very seriously, and am an advocate for finding ways to help people live with greater depth, satisfaction, and choice. While this can involve diligence, resilience, and perseverance, play and creativity are also integral in the process.
(415) 360-6323 View (415) 360-6323

See more therapy options for San Francisco

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in San Francisco, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$189

Therapists in San Francisco, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress
66% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Aetna
55% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
54% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in San Francisco, CA see their clients

55% In Person and Online
45% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
23% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in San Francisco?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.