Therapists in San Francisco, CA

View neighborhoods in San Francisco
Photo of Robert Waska, Counselor in San Francisco, CA
Robert Waska
Counselor, LPCC, MFT, PhD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
Effective Anxiety Treatment. Psychotherapy can help you resolve the panic, self-doubt, nervousness, and insecurity. Anxiety can cripple your day-to-day happiness, your relationships, your career, and your self-worth. Obsessive thinking, compulsive behaviors, worry patterns, and social anxiety can be managed and mastered. I use research based counseling techniques to create change and lasting relief.
Effective Anxiety Treatment. Psychotherapy can help you resolve the panic, self-doubt, nervousness, and insecurity. Anxiety can cripple your day-to-day happiness, your relationships, your career, and your self-worth. Obsessive thinking, compulsive behaviors, worry patterns, and social anxiety can be managed and mastered. I use research based counseling techniques to create change and lasting relief.
(415) 689-1009 View (415) 689-1009
Photo of Taylor Langley, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Taylor Langley
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94122
I am here to help you find some peace and calm in this storm of life. Although that sounds a bit cliche, life seems to be getting more complicated by the day- I want to support you in whatever way you or your family need. My experience is with a range of issues, ages, and cultural diversities, including working through family conflict, helping with behavior modification for your young child or learning how to connect with your teen. I also work with adults dealing with job stress, relationship issues, or those struggling to find passion and drive.
I am here to help you find some peace and calm in this storm of life. Although that sounds a bit cliche, life seems to be getting more complicated by the day- I want to support you in whatever way you or your family need. My experience is with a range of issues, ages, and cultural diversities, including working through family conflict, helping with behavior modification for your young child or learning how to connect with your teen. I also work with adults dealing with job stress, relationship issues, or those struggling to find passion and drive.
(628) 209-5303 View (628) 209-5303
Photo of Jason Karageorge, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Jason Karageorge
Psychologist, PhD, MS, MPhil
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94102
Life can be incredibly hard, and there is no "manual" for how to navigate life's overwhelming situations and complex emotional experiences. During these tough times, it's common to feel "stuck" and desperately wanting solutions, while struggling to identify them on your own. At this juncture, the objectivity, support, and insight of a licensed clinical psychologist can help you to move through this time in your life. I have witnessed this process, personally, and helped many clients persevere through intense periods of conflict and pain.
Life can be incredibly hard, and there is no "manual" for how to navigate life's overwhelming situations and complex emotional experiences. During these tough times, it's common to feel "stuck" and desperately wanting solutions, while struggling to identify them on your own. At this juncture, the objectivity, support, and insight of a licensed clinical psychologist can help you to move through this time in your life. I have witnessed this process, personally, and helped many clients persevere through intense periods of conflict and pain.
(415) 347-8651 View (415) 347-8651
Photo of Jazmine Whisenant, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Jazmine Whisenant
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114  (Online Only)
My passion has always been helping individuals through challenging times. I offer a safe space for participants to express themselves, explore concerns and learn new ways to cope with stressors. Whether you are grappling with with interpersonal issues, anxiety, depression, grief, identity, or everyday stress, I’m here to meet you where you’re at with compassion, patience, laughter and zero judgment as we collaborate on your therapeutic goals. My practice is primarily psychodynamic, while incorporating elements of cognitive and behavioral therapies as needed to assist in restructuring self-defeating patterns.
My passion has always been helping individuals through challenging times. I offer a safe space for participants to express themselves, explore concerns and learn new ways to cope with stressors. Whether you are grappling with with interpersonal issues, anxiety, depression, grief, identity, or everyday stress, I’m here to meet you where you’re at with compassion, patience, laughter and zero judgment as we collaborate on your therapeutic goals. My practice is primarily psychodynamic, while incorporating elements of cognitive and behavioral therapies as needed to assist in restructuring self-defeating patterns.
(510) 890-0629 View (510) 890-0629
Photo of Sara Alexander, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Sara Alexander
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
Underneath depression, anxiety, marital conflict, eating disorders, substance abuse, and other troubles there lies a single, painful, relentless problem: self judgement. Feelings are transient, and there are not good ones or bad ones, but we are not all raised to understand that. Encouraged by our culture to appear strong and happy, we feel pressured to hide our true feelings from each other. But when we take the time and care to pay attention to our authentic experience, it is possible to grow an enormous love for ourselves and great tenderness towards others, and even deep inner peace and great humor.
Underneath depression, anxiety, marital conflict, eating disorders, substance abuse, and other troubles there lies a single, painful, relentless problem: self judgement. Feelings are transient, and there are not good ones or bad ones, but we are not all raised to understand that. Encouraged by our culture to appear strong and happy, we feel pressured to hide our true feelings from each other. But when we take the time and care to pay attention to our authentic experience, it is possible to grow an enormous love for ourselves and great tenderness towards others, and even deep inner peace and great humor.
(415) 969-7119 View (415) 969-7119
Photo of Rhea St. Julien, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Rhea St. Julien
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94102
My speciality is working with women and non-binary people who have experienced trauma. I use a range of modalities, including EMDR, Expressive Arts Therapy, and Trauma-Informed Talk Therapy, to help my patients see real change. My approach is engaged, relational, and embodied.
My speciality is working with women and non-binary people who have experienced trauma. I use a range of modalities, including EMDR, Expressive Arts Therapy, and Trauma-Informed Talk Therapy, to help my patients see real change. My approach is engaged, relational, and embodied.
(415) 858-6773 View (415) 858-6773
Photo of Victoria Storr, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Victoria Storr
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, MS
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118
Hello, I’m Victoria Storr and I guide clients towards a self-chosen life. One where they feel empowered and confident. Sounds nice right? I promise you, it feels even better. I could imagine you’re a bit skeptical. I’m sure you’re thinking that living the life of your dreams is not possible for you because of past mistakes, current circumstances, or because it hasn’t worked before. I meet all of my clients in this exact moment in their story; The specifics change but the root of the issue is often the same: people living in patterns of thoughts and actions which keep them trapped and hold them back.
Hello, I’m Victoria Storr and I guide clients towards a self-chosen life. One where they feel empowered and confident. Sounds nice right? I promise you, it feels even better. I could imagine you’re a bit skeptical. I’m sure you’re thinking that living the life of your dreams is not possible for you because of past mistakes, current circumstances, or because it hasn’t worked before. I meet all of my clients in this exact moment in their story; The specifics change but the root of the issue is often the same: people living in patterns of thoughts and actions which keep them trapped and hold them back.
(628) 201-6907 View (628) 201-6907
Photo of Rhiannon Garcia-Penning, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Francisco, CA
Rhiannon Garcia-Penning
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94103  (Online Only)
I am an Associate Marriage and Family Therapist registered with the Board of Behavioral Sciences (139350) working at Noires Somatics via telehealth. I enjoy really getting to know my clients and working together to identify goals and build a comprehensive treatment plan. This is a jumping-off point for our work, where I integrate various therapeutic styles that match your individual or relationship needs to support you or your partnership to reach your goals. I use a strengths-based approach to strengthen your current skills and build new ones. I currently work with teens, young adults, and couples.
I am an Associate Marriage and Family Therapist registered with the Board of Behavioral Sciences (139350) working at Noires Somatics via telehealth. I enjoy really getting to know my clients and working together to identify goals and build a comprehensive treatment plan. This is a jumping-off point for our work, where I integrate various therapeutic styles that match your individual or relationship needs to support you or your partnership to reach your goals. I use a strengths-based approach to strengthen your current skills and build new ones. I currently work with teens, young adults, and couples.
(415) 993-4532 View (415) 993-4532
Photo of Ian Fetterolf, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Ian Fetterolf
Psychologist, PsyD, MSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94117  (Online Only)
My ideal client is someone who is open-minded, receptive to challenge, and motivated towards enacting positive change in their life. Many of the individuals I support are referred through couples therapy and struggle with relationship challenges, physical and emotional intimacy, communication and self-expression, and establishing healthy boundaries. I collaborate closely with referring couples providers to ensure continuity of care and optimize outcomes in individual treatment. My relational style helps build trust and safety and has proven especially beneficial for clients who are hesitant or new to the therapeutic process.
My ideal client is someone who is open-minded, receptive to challenge, and motivated towards enacting positive change in their life. Many of the individuals I support are referred through couples therapy and struggle with relationship challenges, physical and emotional intimacy, communication and self-expression, and establishing healthy boundaries. I collaborate closely with referring couples providers to ensure continuity of care and optimize outcomes in individual treatment. My relational style helps build trust and safety and has proven especially beneficial for clients who are hesitant or new to the therapeutic process.
(858) 463-6733 View (858) 463-6733
Photo of Barbara C Maresca, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Barbara C Maresca
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94103
People come to see me for help with a wide range mental health and relational struggles. I view the difficulties people face not as simply disorders, but as learned behavior that serve important purposes.
People come to see me for help with a wide range mental health and relational struggles. I view the difficulties people face not as simply disorders, but as learned behavior that serve important purposes.
(415) 792-0554 View (415) 792-0554
Photo of Lindsay Repko, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Lindsay Repko
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
Your experience is worthy of exploration and I believe that we all benefit from a protected space to journey through our history, needs, thoughts, and wishes around who we've been and who we want to be. I'm also familiar with the many ways that we can feel prohibited from giving ourselves such a space.
Your experience is worthy of exploration and I believe that we all benefit from a protected space to journey through our history, needs, thoughts, and wishes around who we've been and who we want to be. I'm also familiar with the many ways that we can feel prohibited from giving ourselves such a space.
(415) 630-6296 View (415) 630-6296
Photo of Moses Simmons, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Moses Simmons
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94103  (Online Only)
As a Licensed Clinical Social Worker, I provide individual psychotherapy for adults, bringing extensive experience in community mental health to our sessions. Over the years, I've supported individuals facing a range of challenges, including addiction and substance use, psychosis, depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety disorders, and OCD. Through this journey, I've developed a deep appreciation for the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in addressing severe mental health conditions, while also recognizing its value as a transformative tool for those seeking stability amidst life's challenges.
As a Licensed Clinical Social Worker, I provide individual psychotherapy for adults, bringing extensive experience in community mental health to our sessions. Over the years, I've supported individuals facing a range of challenges, including addiction and substance use, psychosis, depression, suicidal ideation, generalized anxiety disorders, and OCD. Through this journey, I've developed a deep appreciation for the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in addressing severe mental health conditions, while also recognizing its value as a transformative tool for those seeking stability amidst life's challenges.
(415) 966-0216 View (415) 966-0216
Photo of Jermaine L Dictado, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Jermaine L Dictado
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94123
I work with adults (18+) who are having difficulties with negative self-talk, emotion regulation, and conflicts in relationships. These difficulties can often look like depression, anxiety, intense stress, anger, poor self-esteem, self-harm, suicidal thoughts and more. I also work with couples who are having difficulties with communication, connecting with each other, and resolving conflicts. I am here to support you with these challenges. Looking for a therapist can especially be difficult in addition to facing current struggles in our life. Feel free to call for a free 15-minute consultation to see how I may be able to help.
I work with adults (18+) who are having difficulties with negative self-talk, emotion regulation, and conflicts in relationships. These difficulties can often look like depression, anxiety, intense stress, anger, poor self-esteem, self-harm, suicidal thoughts and more. I also work with couples who are having difficulties with communication, connecting with each other, and resolving conflicts. I am here to support you with these challenges. Looking for a therapist can especially be difficult in addition to facing current struggles in our life. Feel free to call for a free 15-minute consultation to see how I may be able to help.
(619) 292-0452 View (619) 292-0452
Photo of Doris Lai-Ming Tang, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Doris Lai-Ming Tang
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94122  (Online Only)
Doris is a licensed therapist who has extensive experience working with a diverse population, including children, young adults, older adults, and Asian clients. She speaks Cantonese and conversational Mandarin. Her approach is warm, collaborative, and person-centered.
Doris is a licensed therapist who has extensive experience working with a diverse population, including children, young adults, older adults, and Asian clients. She speaks Cantonese and conversational Mandarin. Her approach is warm, collaborative, and person-centered.
(415) 723-1813 View (415) 723-1813
Photo of Ashley Hamilton, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Ashley Hamilton
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114
Do you feel anxious in your relationships? I can help. I specialize in anxiety, relationships, and in attachment-based, relational trauma, informed by neuroscience and the nervous-system. From heart-break and dating, to recognizing a secure partner, or healing yourself and past relationships, I work with clients who want to develop more confidence, security and clarity in themselves, their relationships and the world. We'll be looking at your self, in your current relationships, and diving into your past to uncover the patterns that keep you stuck. We'll be noticing your strengths, and honoring your authentic feelings and needs.
Do you feel anxious in your relationships? I can help. I specialize in anxiety, relationships, and in attachment-based, relational trauma, informed by neuroscience and the nervous-system. From heart-break and dating, to recognizing a secure partner, or healing yourself and past relationships, I work with clients who want to develop more confidence, security and clarity in themselves, their relationships and the world. We'll be looking at your self, in your current relationships, and diving into your past to uncover the patterns that keep you stuck. We'll be noticing your strengths, and honoring your authentic feelings and needs.
(415) 915-7610 View (415) 915-7610
Photo of Wendy Von Wiederhold, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Wendy Von Wiederhold
Psychologist, PhD
Not Verified Not Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115
Emotions can sometimes be difficult to bear-sadness, worries about yourself and others, fears, painful recurrent interactions and relationships. Working with an understanding professional to explore feelings and expectations about yourself and your relationships can be the key to clarifying troubling emotional states. These feelings can cause recurrent painful states, or push us toward repetitive or self-destructive behaviors. Exploring these feelings in a safe relationship can cause feelings about yourself and others to shift, opening to new ways of thinking and behaving. This allows for greater flexibility, enhanced creativity, a better relationship with yourself, and better connections and relationships.
Emotions can sometimes be difficult to bear-sadness, worries about yourself and others, fears, painful recurrent interactions and relationships. Working with an understanding professional to explore feelings and expectations about yourself and your relationships can be the key to clarifying troubling emotional states. These feelings can cause recurrent painful states, or push us toward repetitive or self-destructive behaviors. Exploring these feelings in a safe relationship can cause feelings about yourself and others to shift, opening to new ways of thinking and behaving. This allows for greater flexibility, enhanced creativity, a better relationship with yourself, and better connections and relationships.
(415) 322-0318 View (415) 322-0318
Photo of Lynda Paulson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Lynda Paulson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
I seek to be of service to you as you explore therapy as a path to heal and thrive. Taking this step to engage in therapy can feel like a daunting task and I am here to take that step with you. Throughout my practice I have focused on the importance of identifying all aspects of my clients’ lives that impact their well-being (support systems, cultural, work/ school environment, physical health, life experience, faith/spirituality) to provide treatment through a holistic person-in- environment perspective. I offer myself as a partner to support you on your life journey through building connection, bonding and trust.
I seek to be of service to you as you explore therapy as a path to heal and thrive. Taking this step to engage in therapy can feel like a daunting task and I am here to take that step with you. Throughout my practice I have focused on the importance of identifying all aspects of my clients’ lives that impact their well-being (support systems, cultural, work/ school environment, physical health, life experience, faith/spirituality) to provide treatment through a holistic person-in- environment perspective. I offer myself as a partner to support you on your life journey through building connection, bonding and trust.
(415) 881-4254 View (415) 881-4254
Photo of Sandra Berger Psychotherapy, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Sandra Berger Psychotherapy
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94123  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Therapy with me will help you to gain better understanding of yourself and hopefully will affect positively in your family and your relationships. I work well with adults and adolescents who experience difficult childhood/family relationships, anxiety/depression, single parenting, life transitions and co-dependence/addiction issues. I can help you with coping tools you can use in the first session.
Therapy with me will help you to gain better understanding of yourself and hopefully will affect positively in your family and your relationships. I work well with adults and adolescents who experience difficult childhood/family relationships, anxiety/depression, single parenting, life transitions and co-dependence/addiction issues. I can help you with coping tools you can use in the first session.
(415) 650-1025 View (415) 650-1025
Photo of Sherry M Freeman, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Sherry M Freeman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94115
Therapy is about how you can feel better, how to make your life rich and satisfying. What is in your way? What stops you from being the person you want to be, from living the life you want to live? I see people of all ages, in all walks of life and help them overcome obstacles to acheiving their goals, whether that be happiness and peace or something concrete. Often it is inner blocks like anxiety and depression, that stand in your way. Other times there are experiences you've had that make it hard to feel free. Therapy can help you sort it all out, and take positive steps towards a new start.
Therapy is about how you can feel better, how to make your life rich and satisfying. What is in your way? What stops you from being the person you want to be, from living the life you want to live? I see people of all ages, in all walks of life and help them overcome obstacles to acheiving their goals, whether that be happiness and peace or something concrete. Often it is inner blocks like anxiety and depression, that stand in your way. Other times there are experiences you've had that make it hard to feel free. Therapy can help you sort it all out, and take positive steps towards a new start.
(650) 385-8707 View (650) 385-8707
Photo of Rhonda Felzmann, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Rhonda Felzmann
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94117
Sometimes life presents challenges that are too difficult to manage on one's own and therapy can be an excellent choice to address those obstacles. Therapy provides a conversation that is not available in any other relationship. I invite people to explore and clarify what they want and together we identify the barriers and create attainable goals. We will work together to understand what really matters to you. My treatment style is warm, direct, humorous and deeply respectful While each individual client requires something unique to them, in general, I offer practical solutions while also using an insight-orientated approach.
Sometimes life presents challenges that are too difficult to manage on one's own and therapy can be an excellent choice to address those obstacles. Therapy provides a conversation that is not available in any other relationship. I invite people to explore and clarify what they want and together we identify the barriers and create attainable goals. We will work together to understand what really matters to you. My treatment style is warm, direct, humorous and deeply respectful While each individual client requires something unique to them, in general, I offer practical solutions while also using an insight-orientated approach.
(415) 689-1019 View (415) 689-1019

See more therapy options for San Francisco

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in San Francisco, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$189

Therapists in San Francisco, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress
66% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

69% Aetna
55% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
53% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in San Francisco, CA see their clients

55% In Person and Online
45% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
23% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in San Francisco?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.