Therapists in San Francisco, CA

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Photo of Loryn Hicks, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Loryn Hicks
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94117  (Online Only)
I offer warmth and love created by a safe and welcoming environment. I have a passion for working with those who have been told they are “too much”. From working with teens and families to those struggling through trauma or grief, I am here. I work with intersectionality and identity, cultural explorations and difficulties, as well as difference and sensitivity. I have worked extensively with those with eating struggles. I have worked in restorative justice and enjoy working with the formerly incarcerated, Please ask me anything
I offer warmth and love created by a safe and welcoming environment. I have a passion for working with those who have been told they are “too much”. From working with teens and families to those struggling through trauma or grief, I am here. I work with intersectionality and identity, cultural explorations and difficulties, as well as difference and sensitivity. I have worked extensively with those with eating struggles. I have worked in restorative justice and enjoy working with the formerly incarcerated, Please ask me anything
(415) 831-7691 View (415) 831-7691
Photo of Wendy Skillern, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Wendy Skillern, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115  (Online Only)
Life can feel overwhelming--but it doesn't have to. If you have experienced trauma, whether recurring or as an isolated incident, even the typical stresses of a normal day can provoke anxiety, fear, anger, or withdrawal. Luckily, therapy can provide you tools to deal with life's challenges, enabling you to minimize your stress levels and continue your personal growth. I will guide you to increased happiness and well-being by supporting you in exploring and enacting lasting, positive changes in your relationships with others, and most importantly, with yourself.
Life can feel overwhelming--but it doesn't have to. If you have experienced trauma, whether recurring or as an isolated incident, even the typical stresses of a normal day can provoke anxiety, fear, anger, or withdrawal. Luckily, therapy can provide you tools to deal with life's challenges, enabling you to minimize your stress levels and continue your personal growth. I will guide you to increased happiness and well-being by supporting you in exploring and enacting lasting, positive changes in your relationships with others, and most importantly, with yourself.
(415) 202-6934 View (415) 202-6934
Photo of Susan Moore, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Susan Moore
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115
I believe that a core component of living is about learning and growing and expanding as our journeys unfold. And, I am passionately sympathetic about how hard this process can be, and how difficult it often is to be human! As an optimistic psychotherapist with over 20 years experience, I am convinced of the human capacity for tapping into a deep source of inner wisdom, and our innate capacity to heal. Each individual can develop the self-knowledge and self-acceptance they need to confront their challenges and to restore a compassionate perspective to their lives.
I believe that a core component of living is about learning and growing and expanding as our journeys unfold. And, I am passionately sympathetic about how hard this process can be, and how difficult it often is to be human! As an optimistic psychotherapist with over 20 years experience, I am convinced of the human capacity for tapping into a deep source of inner wisdom, and our innate capacity to heal. Each individual can develop the self-knowledge and self-acceptance they need to confront their challenges and to restore a compassionate perspective to their lives.
(415) 360-3599 View (415) 360-3599
Photo of Pink Moon Therapy, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Pink Moon Therapy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94115  (Online Only)
Do you tend to be hard on yourself and feel you're never good enough? Maybe you date the wrong people, stuck in old relational patterns? Or maybe you just feel unfulfilled in your life, lost on your path. Surely you’d love to feel in alignment with your life direction, owning your worth, loved by healthy humans, all while being your own best friend. As a licensed Astrotherapist, I support you in finding that life. Together we’ll explore present challenges in your life, while diving into your birth chart and identifying your unique energies in this lifetime.
Do you tend to be hard on yourself and feel you're never good enough? Maybe you date the wrong people, stuck in old relational patterns? Or maybe you just feel unfulfilled in your life, lost on your path. Surely you’d love to feel in alignment with your life direction, owning your worth, loved by healthy humans, all while being your own best friend. As a licensed Astrotherapist, I support you in finding that life. Together we’ll explore present challenges in your life, while diving into your birth chart and identifying your unique energies in this lifetime.
(415) 729-2871 View (415) 729-2871
Photo of Skye Nashelsky, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Skye Nashelsky
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94110
You have the capacity to lead a fulfilling and meaningful life! There are multiple forms and layers of oppression that impact our daily lives and self worth. I support clients in acknowledging and addressing shame, grief, trauma, and anxiety. I specialize in issues concerning gender, sexuality, intimacy, relationships, and identity. As your therapist, I act as a support working collaboratively alongside you to identify goals, action steps and interventions tailored specifically to your individual needs and identity.
You have the capacity to lead a fulfilling and meaningful life! There are multiple forms and layers of oppression that impact our daily lives and self worth. I support clients in acknowledging and addressing shame, grief, trauma, and anxiety. I specialize in issues concerning gender, sexuality, intimacy, relationships, and identity. As your therapist, I act as a support working collaboratively alongside you to identify goals, action steps and interventions tailored specifically to your individual needs and identity.
(510) 395-8008 View (510) 395-8008
Photo of Leonora Gorelik, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Leonora Gorelik
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110
Leonora Gorelik, LCSW I like to focus on your strengths & skills you already have to help you overcome life challenges on your journey towards healing, growth & self-empowerment. I believe everyone is capable of gaining insight & introspection to live a happier life. I prefer a person-centered, supportive environment. I'm here to assist you on your journey towards understanding your emotions, restructured thoughts, and self-compassion. I want to help you heal challenging past experiences while creating room for growth and change in your life.
Leonora Gorelik, LCSW I like to focus on your strengths & skills you already have to help you overcome life challenges on your journey towards healing, growth & self-empowerment. I believe everyone is capable of gaining insight & introspection to live a happier life. I prefer a person-centered, supportive environment. I'm here to assist you on your journey towards understanding your emotions, restructured thoughts, and self-compassion. I want to help you heal challenging past experiences while creating room for growth and change in your life.
(415) 891-0253 View (415) 891-0253
Photo of Fawzia Campana, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Fawzia Campana
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94103
If you are experiencing issues related to depression, anxiety, relationship problems, work concerns, if you want to experience a more positive sense of yourself, I can support you in addressing your concerns while learning the skills necessary to create a more fulfilling life.
If you are experiencing issues related to depression, anxiety, relationship problems, work concerns, if you want to experience a more positive sense of yourself, I can support you in addressing your concerns while learning the skills necessary to create a more fulfilling life.
(415) 562-6421 View (415) 562-6421
Photo of Sterling Walker, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Francisco, CA
Sterling Walker
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114
Throughout our lives, we all have experienced feelings of depression, anxiety, and anger. These emotions leave you feeling insecure, shameful, lonely, unworthy and stuck in unhealthy patterns of behavior. Trauma can have negative emotional and physical effects and can lead to family/relationship issues. I specialize in solution-focused brief therapy, motivational interviewing, mindfulness and CBT. These approaches allow me to work with the client to decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression and other health/behavioral issues.
Throughout our lives, we all have experienced feelings of depression, anxiety, and anger. These emotions leave you feeling insecure, shameful, lonely, unworthy and stuck in unhealthy patterns of behavior. Trauma can have negative emotional and physical effects and can lead to family/relationship issues. I specialize in solution-focused brief therapy, motivational interviewing, mindfulness and CBT. These approaches allow me to work with the client to decrease symptoms of anxiety and depression and other health/behavioral issues.
(415) 840-3997 View (415) 840-3997
Photo of Dae'Jah Foster, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in San Francisco, CA
Dae'Jah Foster
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94114  (Online Only)
Are you tired of working hard and still feeling anxious, overwhelmed, or depressed? Do you give everything you have only to feel like you continually come up short? Are you constantly repeating the same mistakes over and over in your relationships and friendships? You don't have to struggle alone. I'm here to support you and help you find self-acceptance, discover your worth, and embrace your whole self. Together we will work to identify your innate talents, optimize your coping skills so you can better deal with life's stressors, and remove the barriers that hold you back from happiness and fulfillment.
Are you tired of working hard and still feeling anxious, overwhelmed, or depressed? Do you give everything you have only to feel like you continually come up short? Are you constantly repeating the same mistakes over and over in your relationships and friendships? You don't have to struggle alone. I'm here to support you and help you find self-acceptance, discover your worth, and embrace your whole self. Together we will work to identify your innate talents, optimize your coping skills so you can better deal with life's stressors, and remove the barriers that hold you back from happiness and fulfillment.
(415) 991-4552 View (415) 991-4552
Photo of Luanna Rodgers, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Luanna Rodgers
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94122
I am a caring, empathetic, and experienced therapist with more than 20 years in practice. I can assist you to find your unique life's path, overcome obstacles such as difficult emotions and past trauma, and expand your potential for happiness. I work with individuals, families, and people in many sorts of relationships, especially in the areas of anxiety and stress management, trauma and post-traumatic stress, depression, self worth and self-actualization, gender identity, sexuality and intimacy, and life transitions.
I am a caring, empathetic, and experienced therapist with more than 20 years in practice. I can assist you to find your unique life's path, overcome obstacles such as difficult emotions and past trauma, and expand your potential for happiness. I work with individuals, families, and people in many sorts of relationships, especially in the areas of anxiety and stress management, trauma and post-traumatic stress, depression, self worth and self-actualization, gender identity, sexuality and intimacy, and life transitions.
(415) 697-3853 View (415) 697-3853
Photo of Pietro Peter Carnini, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Pietro Peter Carnini
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114
Hi! My name is Peter Carnini (he, him, his), and I'm a licensed psychotherapist providing direct, interactive, authentic counseling and psychotherapy for gay, queer, and bisexual men in the San Francisco Bay Area. Counseling and psychotherapy are all about intentionally creating change, and it can be a profoundly empowering experience. Unfortunately, when we're struggling and need help, it can be difficult to know where to turn or what questions to ask, and far too many people end up picking a therapist based only on a referral, or from a list of names provided by an insurance company, or based on how many degrees a therapist has.
Hi! My name is Peter Carnini (he, him, his), and I'm a licensed psychotherapist providing direct, interactive, authentic counseling and psychotherapy for gay, queer, and bisexual men in the San Francisco Bay Area. Counseling and psychotherapy are all about intentionally creating change, and it can be a profoundly empowering experience. Unfortunately, when we're struggling and need help, it can be difficult to know where to turn or what questions to ask, and far too many people end up picking a therapist based only on a referral, or from a list of names provided by an insurance company, or based on how many degrees a therapist has.
(415) 941-0845 View (415) 941-0845
Photo of Mariam Tahiry, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Mariam Tahiry
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
I have experience working with a diverse population including individuals with different cultural backgrounds. My approach to therapy is to provide compassionate and nonjudgmental support. I respect that clients are the experts of themselves and work collaboratively with clients to help problem solve and teach new skills.
I have experience working with a diverse population including individuals with different cultural backgrounds. My approach to therapy is to provide compassionate and nonjudgmental support. I respect that clients are the experts of themselves and work collaboratively with clients to help problem solve and teach new skills.
(310) 928-9772 View (310) 928-9772
Mark Sexton
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118
Thank you for your interest in my practice. I am a Clinical Psychologist and Psychoanalyst. I specialize in helping patients to resolve conflictual or unsatisfying relationship patterns, problems with a sense of identify or low self-worth, and difficulties arising from navigating life challenges such as loss, divorce, or illness. I put an emphasis on establishing a trusting working relationship and typically see patients multiple times per week. This more intensive treatment approach is useful for resolving long-standing issues that may not have been addressed by past therapies.
Thank you for your interest in my practice. I am a Clinical Psychologist and Psychoanalyst. I specialize in helping patients to resolve conflictual or unsatisfying relationship patterns, problems with a sense of identify or low self-worth, and difficulties arising from navigating life challenges such as loss, divorce, or illness. I put an emphasis on establishing a trusting working relationship and typically see patients multiple times per week. This more intensive treatment approach is useful for resolving long-standing issues that may not have been addressed by past therapies.
(650) 741-3521 View (650) 741-3521
Photo of Mara Romanak, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Mara Romanak
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115  (Online Only)
I particularly enjoy working with young adults who are going through a difficult time navigating the transition from early to mature adulthood, perhaps wrestling with issues around relationships, work, family, self-identity and performance; struggling with chronic feelings of anxiety, depression, or low self-esteem; or feeling they don't have the tools they need to manage life. I have over 25 years of experience working with both women and men; all are welcome.
I particularly enjoy working with young adults who are going through a difficult time navigating the transition from early to mature adulthood, perhaps wrestling with issues around relationships, work, family, self-identity and performance; struggling with chronic feelings of anxiety, depression, or low self-esteem; or feeling they don't have the tools they need to manage life. I have over 25 years of experience working with both women and men; all are welcome.
(415) 408-7963 View (415) 408-7963
Photo of Jacqueline De Lon, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Jacqueline De Lon
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118
To put it simply, I help people with relationship troubles, be they with significant others, children, siblings, parents, employees, employers or with one's self. I was trained first as a Marriage & Family Therapist and later as a Psychoanalyst. Both inform my approach to the work, focusing on the complex landscape of relationships within oneself and with others. Both recognize and inform the special role of the therapeutic relationship in the work of healing. My extensive studies have been personalized and humanized by over 30 years of clinical experience with the people I work with.
To put it simply, I help people with relationship troubles, be they with significant others, children, siblings, parents, employees, employers or with one's self. I was trained first as a Marriage & Family Therapist and later as a Psychoanalyst. Both inform my approach to the work, focusing on the complex landscape of relationships within oneself and with others. Both recognize and inform the special role of the therapeutic relationship in the work of healing. My extensive studies have been personalized and humanized by over 30 years of clinical experience with the people I work with.
(415) 997-2293 View (415) 997-2293
Photo of Dr. Joanna Renee Fassl, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Dr. Joanna Renee Fassl
Marriage & Family Therapist, Joanna Fassl, LMFT, DC, MA
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94117
My clients are looking for a different type of therapy. They wish for a more enlivened and interactive approach that engages beyond words and captures the heart of one's struggle and yearning to break free. My clients oftentimes feel lost, plagued with chronic anxiety, depression or anger, and stuck in a rigidified experience of themselves. They toggle between a tired set of coping mechanisms; and the fear and distrust of branching out into the new. My work cradles the middle: lovingly chipping away at the hardened barriers while welcoming in steady, free, authentic expression. All held in grace and awe for this precious life.
My clients are looking for a different type of therapy. They wish for a more enlivened and interactive approach that engages beyond words and captures the heart of one's struggle and yearning to break free. My clients oftentimes feel lost, plagued with chronic anxiety, depression or anger, and stuck in a rigidified experience of themselves. They toggle between a tired set of coping mechanisms; and the fear and distrust of branching out into the new. My work cradles the middle: lovingly chipping away at the hardened barriers while welcoming in steady, free, authentic expression. All held in grace and awe for this precious life.
(415) 484-3881 View (415) 484-3881
Photo of Julie Moore, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Julie Moore
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
I utilize evidence-based interventions to help clients reach their therapy goals quickly and effectively. As a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist, I help clients identify and shift maladaptive patterns of thinking and behavior to affect change and decrease distress. After learning and practicing new ways to move through your distress, we'll work towards engaging in exposure to the very situations and contexts that you've been avoiding. While avoidance may seem effective for preventing discomfort in the short term, it maintains distress over time and often lends to missing out on enriching life experiences.
I utilize evidence-based interventions to help clients reach their therapy goals quickly and effectively. As a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist, I help clients identify and shift maladaptive patterns of thinking and behavior to affect change and decrease distress. After learning and practicing new ways to move through your distress, we'll work towards engaging in exposure to the very situations and contexts that you've been avoiding. While avoidance may seem effective for preventing discomfort in the short term, it maintains distress over time and often lends to missing out on enriching life experiences.
(424) 855-0725 View (424) 855-0725
Photo of Gina Poelke, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Gina Poelke
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94102
Hello. I am a licensed psychologist with over 15 years of experience working with adults. I provide treatment for a host of issues including anxiety, panic, stress, depression, trauma, life transitions, grief, substance use, and severe mental illness. I will help and support you by providing brief psychotherapy to address specific problems, or provide longer term treatment to address multiple issues or long standing difficulties.
Hello. I am a licensed psychologist with over 15 years of experience working with adults. I provide treatment for a host of issues including anxiety, panic, stress, depression, trauma, life transitions, grief, substance use, and severe mental illness. I will help and support you by providing brief psychotherapy to address specific problems, or provide longer term treatment to address multiple issues or long standing difficulties.
(415) 408-7786 View (415) 408-7786
Photo of Lynn E O'Connor, Psychologist in San Francisco, CA
Lynn E O'Connor
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94114
My practice, Prosocial Consulting, Counseling, & Psychotherapy, specializes in helping other mental health providers and coaches, offering clinical and research consultation, along with psychotherapy. My approach is relational, integrative, and case-specific. My research and clinical work have been focused on empathy, compassion, guilt, pathological altruism, and psychological problems. Using skills and experience derived from 25 years teaching doctoral students how to conduct research and write, along with training in Allen's Getting Things Done (GTD) and Forte's Building a Second Brain have led to a specialty in productivity.
My practice, Prosocial Consulting, Counseling, & Psychotherapy, specializes in helping other mental health providers and coaches, offering clinical and research consultation, along with psychotherapy. My approach is relational, integrative, and case-specific. My research and clinical work have been focused on empathy, compassion, guilt, pathological altruism, and psychological problems. Using skills and experience derived from 25 years teaching doctoral students how to conduct research and write, along with training in Allen's Getting Things Done (GTD) and Forte's Building a Second Brain have led to a specialty in productivity.
(415) 236-2981 View (415) 236-2981
Photo of Britney Spell, Marriage & Family Therapist in San Francisco, CA
Britney Spell
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
I work collaboratively with clients to assist them in moving towards healing and integration, acknowledging and validating the struggles along the way while also reorienting clients towards their strengths. I create the time and space in session for you to be your authentic self, acknowledging how all aspects of self, including ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and disabilities, play a role in how you move through the world, humbly seeking to provide culturally competent services. I strongly believe each individual is filled with potential for growth and joy.
I work collaboratively with clients to assist them in moving towards healing and integration, acknowledging and validating the struggles along the way while also reorienting clients towards their strengths. I create the time and space in session for you to be your authentic self, acknowledging how all aspects of self, including ethnicity, gender, sexuality, and disabilities, play a role in how you move through the world, humbly seeking to provide culturally competent services. I strongly believe each individual is filled with potential for growth and joy.
(415) 966-3992 View (415) 966-3992

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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in San Francisco, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$189

Therapists in San Francisco, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress
66% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

69% Aetna
55% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
54% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in San Francisco, CA see their clients

55% In Person and Online
45% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
23% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in San Francisco?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.