Therapists in San Francisco, CA

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Photo of Marvin Berkowitz, PhD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Marvin Berkowitz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110
For me, therapy is a way of understanding what might make for more pleasure in your relationships, greater satisfaction in work and interests, and more acceptance of yourself and your ways of being. It's a collaboration in discovery. My style is warm and active. I believe laughing and crying together is better than alone. In my practice and supervision over the past 40 years, I always encourage others to become more curious about themselves. My clients have diverse backgrounds, and orientations. I avoid psychological jargon and giving advice. I give homework to try out changes. An extensive consultation is free.
For me, therapy is a way of understanding what might make for more pleasure in your relationships, greater satisfaction in work and interests, and more acceptance of yourself and your ways of being. It's a collaboration in discovery. My style is warm and active. I believe laughing and crying together is better than alone. In my practice and supervision over the past 40 years, I always encourage others to become more curious about themselves. My clients have diverse backgrounds, and orientations. I avoid psychological jargon and giving advice. I give homework to try out changes. An extensive consultation is free.
(415) 849-4932 View (415) 849-4932
Photo of Jennifer Velasquez, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jennifer Velasquez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110
Hi there, I'm Jennifer! I am a licensed clinical social worker with 6 years of experience working in the mental health field providing individual and group therapy. My specialty is in working with self-esteem issues, life transitions, grief and loss, trauma, anxiety, depression, and spiritual crisis (spiritual awakening, shadow work, “dark night of the soul”). I operate from a humanistic theoretical framework; which just means, I focus on the Individual as a whole and their existing strengths and positive behaviors. I meet you where you are at and welcome you without judgment.
Hi there, I'm Jennifer! I am a licensed clinical social worker with 6 years of experience working in the mental health field providing individual and group therapy. My specialty is in working with self-esteem issues, life transitions, grief and loss, trauma, anxiety, depression, and spiritual crisis (spiritual awakening, shadow work, “dark night of the soul”). I operate from a humanistic theoretical framework; which just means, I focus on the Individual as a whole and their existing strengths and positive behaviors. I meet you where you are at and welcome you without judgment.
(415) 707-3214 View (415) 707-3214
Photo of Alter N Bader, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Alter N Bader
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114  (Online Only)
I was raised by caring parents whose emotional maturity mirrored their upbringing. My journey to understand, navigate, and thrive beyond those experiences, including childhood trauma, has led me on a fulfilling path. I address a broad spectrum of issues including communication & boundaries, anxiety, relationships, depression, trauma, addiction, recovery, harm reduction, grief, loss, and resilience.
I was raised by caring parents whose emotional maturity mirrored their upbringing. My journey to understand, navigate, and thrive beyond those experiences, including childhood trauma, has led me on a fulfilling path. I address a broad spectrum of issues including communication & boundaries, anxiety, relationships, depression, trauma, addiction, recovery, harm reduction, grief, loss, and resilience.
(415) 237-6667 View (415) 237-6667
Photo of Amanda Lockie, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Amanda Lockie
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110
My name is Amanda Lockie, I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. I have 17 years of experience in the social work field, 4 years in clinical therapy practice. I approach therapy from a somatic experiences' focus, connecting mind-body responses to facilitate healing. I connect well with adult individuals who are experiencing adult burnout, being overwhelmed with work, parenting, health changes, or life in general. I am sensitive to sensory overwhelm and highly sensitive person.
My name is Amanda Lockie, I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. I have 17 years of experience in the social work field, 4 years in clinical therapy practice. I approach therapy from a somatic experiences' focus, connecting mind-body responses to facilitate healing. I connect well with adult individuals who are experiencing adult burnout, being overwhelmed with work, parenting, health changes, or life in general. I am sensitive to sensory overwhelm and highly sensitive person.
(415) 849-3904 View (415) 849-3904
Photo of Kylie Svenson - Svenson Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, MSW, LCSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Svenson Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94118
If your child has experienced trauma & dissociation, they may have trouble managing their feelings, communicating their needs, or be using challenging behaviors. The world can feel scary to the traumatized child, so it's hard for them to communicate. They often cope in ways that were the best solution during the trauma, but no longer fit current circumstances, and which seem confusing or destructive. I see it as my job to help your child explore their inner world, so, through the language of play, they can learn how to express emotions, solve problems, & get needs met in healthy ways that fit the present!
If your child has experienced trauma & dissociation, they may have trouble managing their feelings, communicating their needs, or be using challenging behaviors. The world can feel scary to the traumatized child, so it's hard for them to communicate. They often cope in ways that were the best solution during the trauma, but no longer fit current circumstances, and which seem confusing or destructive. I see it as my job to help your child explore their inner world, so, through the language of play, they can learn how to express emotions, solve problems, & get needs met in healthy ways that fit the present!
(628) 227-6135 View (628) 227-6135
Photo of Tim Sasaki, LCSW, MPH, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Tim Sasaki
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MPH
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94122  (Online Only)
Hello! I believe the power of therapy lies in improving your relationship to the world, the people close to you, and ultimately to yourself. I use our relationship as our guide in your journey to heal, transform, and navigate life's challenges. While I provide therapy to people from all walks of life, I especially enjoy working with gay, lesbian, queer, trans, and nonbinary individuals and people of color. In therapy together, we will create an affirming space to understand what's going on for you, reflect on the factors contributing to your current needs, and explore ways to move forward.
Hello! I believe the power of therapy lies in improving your relationship to the world, the people close to you, and ultimately to yourself. I use our relationship as our guide in your journey to heal, transform, and navigate life's challenges. While I provide therapy to people from all walks of life, I especially enjoy working with gay, lesbian, queer, trans, and nonbinary individuals and people of color. In therapy together, we will create an affirming space to understand what's going on for you, reflect on the factors contributing to your current needs, and explore ways to move forward.
(628) 245-1796 View (628) 245-1796
Photo of Brandy Dunn - Silver Lake Psychology--San Francisco location, PsyD, Psychologist
Silver Lake Psychology--San Francisco location
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94109
Learn how to feel more connected to yourself, others and the world around you. Therapy provides all the elements of intimacy: honest communication, vulnerability and trust. Good therapy is challenging yet warm, providing both structure and empathy for your unique experience. We are a collective of therapists with a wide range of specialties. Our intake professionals will help connect you with the right therapist for your needs. We make appointments easy, offering evenings and weekends and flexibility for creative professionals who can't make the same time each week.
Learn how to feel more connected to yourself, others and the world around you. Therapy provides all the elements of intimacy: honest communication, vulnerability and trust. Good therapy is challenging yet warm, providing both structure and empathy for your unique experience. We are a collective of therapists with a wide range of specialties. Our intake professionals will help connect you with the right therapist for your needs. We make appointments easy, offering evenings and weekends and flexibility for creative professionals who can't make the same time each week.
(415) 965-0819 View (415) 965-0819
Photo of Beth Bremer, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Beth Bremer
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94115
My work is grounded in a relational and body-oriented approach to therapy. I draw on the immense resources of the body-- its rich wisdom to support the cultivation of mindful presence, internal resource, gentle self inquiry/guidance and embodiment. Creating space for you to listen to your voice and inner experience allows for both depth and breath of understanding, as well as authentic expression and acceptance.
My work is grounded in a relational and body-oriented approach to therapy. I draw on the immense resources of the body-- its rich wisdom to support the cultivation of mindful presence, internal resource, gentle self inquiry/guidance and embodiment. Creating space for you to listen to your voice and inner experience allows for both depth and breath of understanding, as well as authentic expression and acceptance.
(415) 483-7117 View (415) 483-7117
Photo of Marisol Cendejas, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Marisol Cendejas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94105  (Online Only)
I am a bilingual therapist who cares about creating safer spaces to empower mental health and wellness in BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and people of color). I take a holistic and trauma-informed approach.
I am a bilingual therapist who cares about creating safer spaces to empower mental health and wellness in BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and people of color). I take a holistic and trauma-informed approach.
(415) 949-2397 View (415) 949-2397
Photo of Amber Leshan, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Amber Leshan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94114
I aim to bring heart, presence, connection, and meaningful guidance to all who choose to work with me. Some of my main areas of focus with clients are navigating relationship issues, building healthy self esteem, anxiety and stress management, and working through trauma. I also have specialized experience working with LGBTQ+ clients, individuals and couples navigating polyamory and open relationships, gender identity (non binary and transgender), sexuality and sacred sexuality, and non traditional spiritual practices. I enjoy working with clients who have a general interest and motivation towards self-reflection and personal growth.
I aim to bring heart, presence, connection, and meaningful guidance to all who choose to work with me. Some of my main areas of focus with clients are navigating relationship issues, building healthy self esteem, anxiety and stress management, and working through trauma. I also have specialized experience working with LGBTQ+ clients, individuals and couples navigating polyamory and open relationships, gender identity (non binary and transgender), sexuality and sacred sexuality, and non traditional spiritual practices. I enjoy working with clients who have a general interest and motivation towards self-reflection and personal growth.
(415) 879-8077 View (415) 879-8077
Photo of Ken Gladstone, Psychologist
Ken Gladstone
Psychologist
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94103
In my practice, I enjoy meeting with a range of people in terms of age, demographics, and psychological needs. In addition to extensive training, I have many years of experience providing care for those in need here in the Bay Area. I also have specific expertise in the areas of trauma, substance abuse, anxiety, and relationship difficulties. I incorporate the well-researched areas of psychodynamic, family systems, and cognitive-behavioral therapies into my work. As each person is different, I carefully tailor our work to your needs and your goals.
In my practice, I enjoy meeting with a range of people in terms of age, demographics, and psychological needs. In addition to extensive training, I have many years of experience providing care for those in need here in the Bay Area. I also have specific expertise in the areas of trauma, substance abuse, anxiety, and relationship difficulties. I incorporate the well-researched areas of psychodynamic, family systems, and cognitive-behavioral therapies into my work. As each person is different, I carefully tailor our work to your needs and your goals.
(628) 222-4325 View (628) 222-4325
Photo of Cassandra (Cassie) Najarian, MA, LMFT , Marriage & Family Therapist
Cassandra (Cassie) Najarian
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118
Therapy is a space where you can learn to understand, love, and express your authentic self, and as a therapist, my role is to support you in this journey. I believe that collaboration is essential and that by working together, we can find ways to enhance your growth, build your resilience, and promote your strengths. I also tend to bring humor and playfulness into the therapy space as appropriate – life is about many moods and expressions. I specialize in working with sexual and gender diversity, multiculturalism, anxiety, improving communication and relationships, life transitions, and personal and career growth/identity.
Therapy is a space where you can learn to understand, love, and express your authentic self, and as a therapist, my role is to support you in this journey. I believe that collaboration is essential and that by working together, we can find ways to enhance your growth, build your resilience, and promote your strengths. I also tend to bring humor and playfulness into the therapy space as appropriate – life is about many moods and expressions. I specialize in working with sexual and gender diversity, multiculturalism, anxiety, improving communication and relationships, life transitions, and personal and career growth/identity.
(415) 578-6506 View (415) 578-6506
Photo of Suzanne Dito, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Suzanne Dito
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94123
Blending my Masters degree in Counseling Psychology from the California Institute of Integral Studies with certifications in Yoga, Interactive Guided Imagery, Qi Gong, and meditation, I meld a variety of proven techniques to individualize your therapy based on focused objectives. I empower women, couples and families with the tools they need to face the challenges in their lives that arise authentically and self-sufficiently. I specialize in grief/loss, parenting issues and anxiety. My free time is spent with friends, watching movies or hiking in nature as well as exploring the Bay Area.
Blending my Masters degree in Counseling Psychology from the California Institute of Integral Studies with certifications in Yoga, Interactive Guided Imagery, Qi Gong, and meditation, I meld a variety of proven techniques to individualize your therapy based on focused objectives. I empower women, couples and families with the tools they need to face the challenges in their lives that arise authentically and self-sufficiently. I specialize in grief/loss, parenting issues and anxiety. My free time is spent with friends, watching movies or hiking in nature as well as exploring the Bay Area.
(650) 910-2893 View (650) 910-2893
Photo of Michael Barbee, PsyD, Psychologist
Michael Barbee
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110  (Online Only)
I enjoy working with individuals who are negotiating changes, difficulties, or losses in their lives and trying to understand their experience. I believe it is up to each of us to make sense of our lives, and psychotherapy is often a valuable place to explore this in an open and non-judgmental way. It is often turning points or changing phases of life that call us to question things, confront us with important decisions, and challenge us to decide what is meaningful. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, or events such as illness, trauma and loss can call into question our beliefs, values and goals in life.
I enjoy working with individuals who are negotiating changes, difficulties, or losses in their lives and trying to understand their experience. I believe it is up to each of us to make sense of our lives, and psychotherapy is often a valuable place to explore this in an open and non-judgmental way. It is often turning points or changing phases of life that call us to question things, confront us with important decisions, and challenge us to decide what is meaningful. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, or events such as illness, trauma and loss can call into question our beliefs, values and goals in life.
(628) 245-1533 View (628) 245-1533
Photo of Christine Mark-Griffin - Spark All Wellness, LCSW, MSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Spark All Wellness
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94115
Specializing in Trauma Therapy for Children, Teens, Families, and Maternal Mental Health at Spark All Wellness, we understand the profound impact trauma can have on individuals and families. Our mission is to provide compassionate and effective support to help you and your loved ones heal and shine. Our dedicated team of experienced therapists specializes in evidence-based trauma therapies tailored to meet the unique needs of children, teens, families, and mothers.
Specializing in Trauma Therapy for Children, Teens, Families, and Maternal Mental Health at Spark All Wellness, we understand the profound impact trauma can have on individuals and families. Our mission is to provide compassionate and effective support to help you and your loved ones heal and shine. Our dedicated team of experienced therapists specializes in evidence-based trauma therapies tailored to meet the unique needs of children, teens, families, and mothers.
(831) 264-1323 View (831) 264-1323
Photo of Dr. Mariel Barcebal, PsyD, Psychologist
Dr. Mariel Barcebal
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94102  (Online Only)
And the day came when the risk to remain tight in a bud was more painful than the risk it took to blossom - Anais Nin. You are feeling the internal push to make a change, and especially in areas of your life that no longer feel sustainable. You might identify as a people pleaser, often shrinking yourself and prioritizing others' needs over your own. You may long to cultivate a deep sense of self-connection and address longstanding emotional patterns at their source while releasing yourself from cycles of intergenerational trauma passed down through your lineage. You seek to live your life with authenticity, clarity, and intention.
And the day came when the risk to remain tight in a bud was more painful than the risk it took to blossom - Anais Nin. You are feeling the internal push to make a change, and especially in areas of your life that no longer feel sustainable. You might identify as a people pleaser, often shrinking yourself and prioritizing others' needs over your own. You may long to cultivate a deep sense of self-connection and address longstanding emotional patterns at their source while releasing yourself from cycles of intergenerational trauma passed down through your lineage. You seek to live your life with authenticity, clarity, and intention.
(213) 335-2236 View (213) 335-2236
Photo of Christine Tomasello | Therapist For Highly Sensitive People, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Christine Tomasello | Therapist For Highly Sensitive People
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94110  (Online Only)
DAYTIME & EVENING appointments available. I am a sensitivity expert who specializes in working with Highly Sensitive People, empaths, and other sensitive types. My work helps individuals move past painful emotions like shame, low self-esteem, and self-judgment to cultivate self-compassion, learn how to honor their needs in relationships, and discover the gifts that lie within their sensitivity. I also specialize in grief and loss, major life transitions, and therapy for fellow therapists, and am passionate about supporting people who are struggling in the tender intersection between sensitivity and grief.
DAYTIME & EVENING appointments available. I am a sensitivity expert who specializes in working with Highly Sensitive People, empaths, and other sensitive types. My work helps individuals move past painful emotions like shame, low self-esteem, and self-judgment to cultivate self-compassion, learn how to honor their needs in relationships, and discover the gifts that lie within their sensitivity. I also specialize in grief and loss, major life transitions, and therapy for fellow therapists, and am passionate about supporting people who are struggling in the tender intersection between sensitivity and grief.
(707) 402-1593 View (707) 402-1593
Photo of Melanie Richards Horn, PhD, Psychologist
Melanie Richards Horn
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118  (Online Only)
You may be seeking help with a difficult relationship, a painful loss, anxiety, depression, or a sense of feeling "stuck" in some way. The goal of therapy is to increase your ability to face life's challenges with greater confidence, energy and creativity. Psychotherapy can help you develop a greater sense of your potential. My approach invites an engaging dialogue geared to your needs and goals.
You may be seeking help with a difficult relationship, a painful loss, anxiety, depression, or a sense of feeling "stuck" in some way. The goal of therapy is to increase your ability to face life's challenges with greater confidence, energy and creativity. Psychotherapy can help you develop a greater sense of your potential. My approach invites an engaging dialogue geared to your needs and goals.
(415) 876-4321 View (415) 876-4321
Photo of Nicole O'Connor, MFT, ATR, Marriage & Family Therapist
Nicole O'Connor
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, ATR
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
San Francisco, CA 94114
An area of focus in my practice is working with parents, couples and families in times of adjustment and transition, particularly in the early years of parenthood. Parenthood can be very demanding especially when you're trying to maintain a career and relationships with your partner, family and friends. I work with clients to give them communication tools and self-care strategies as well as increasing self-awareness and personal insight.
An area of focus in my practice is working with parents, couples and families in times of adjustment and transition, particularly in the early years of parenthood. Parenthood can be very demanding especially when you're trying to maintain a career and relationships with your partner, family and friends. I work with clients to give them communication tools and self-care strategies as well as increasing self-awareness and personal insight.
(415) 787-4454 View (415) 787-4454
Photo of Sara Daniel, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Sara Daniel
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
San Francisco, CA 94118
Sara Daniel is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who is passionate about assisting clients in reaching their highest potential. She received her Master's in Psychology, with a concentration in Marriage and Family Counseling, from Argosy University, previously located in Ontario, Ca. Throughout Sara's career, she has provided crisis intervention to adults, children, and their families from diverse cultures, ages, and backgrounds, resulting in her intuition to provide excellent care to those hurting.
Sara Daniel is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who is passionate about assisting clients in reaching their highest potential. She received her Master's in Psychology, with a concentration in Marriage and Family Counseling, from Argosy University, previously located in Ontario, Ca. Throughout Sara's career, she has provided crisis intervention to adults, children, and their families from diverse cultures, ages, and backgrounds, resulting in her intuition to provide excellent care to those hurting.
(415) 612-6754 View (415) 612-6754
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in San Francisco, CA

3,000+

Average cost per session

$189

Therapists in San Francisco, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
75% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress
66% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% Aetna
55% Cigna and Evernorth
55% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in San Francisco, CA see their clients

55% In Person and Online
45% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
23% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in San Francisco?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.