Therapists in Sacramento, CA

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Photo of Elizabeth (Betsy) Gerbert, LPCC
Elizabeth (Betsy) Gerbert
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95820
I am a licensed professional clinical counselor (LPCC) who graduated with an M.S. in clinical counseling from Chestnut Hill College in Philadelphia, PA. I have been practicing therapy for the past 15 years specializing in both individual and family therapy. I have worked with children, tweens, adolescents, and adults. My approach to therapy is tailored to you and/or your children’s needs. I approach therapy using concepts from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a family systems approach, trauma-informed care, and mindfulness-based skills.
I am a licensed professional clinical counselor (LPCC) who graduated with an M.S. in clinical counseling from Chestnut Hill College in Philadelphia, PA. I have been practicing therapy for the past 15 years specializing in both individual and family therapy. I have worked with children, tweens, adolescents, and adults. My approach to therapy is tailored to you and/or your children’s needs. I approach therapy using concepts from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a family systems approach, trauma-informed care, and mindfulness-based skills.
(916) 237-8168 View (916) 237-8168
Photo of Stewart Bloom, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Stewart Bloom
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95816
Hello, I received a Masters degree from the Boston University School of Social Work, postgraduate training in addiction, couples treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief therapy at the Harvard Medical School/Cambridge Hospital; licensed since 1990. Areas of expertise include addiction disorders, dual-diagnosis and couples therapy. I work with adults and youth experiencing anxiety, depression, mood disturbances and trauma; and utilize evidence-based interventions including cognitive-behavioral, dialectical, motivational and trauma-focused care. My goal is to help people attain wellness efficiently, thoroughly and safely.
Hello, I received a Masters degree from the Boston University School of Social Work, postgraduate training in addiction, couples treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief therapy at the Harvard Medical School/Cambridge Hospital; licensed since 1990. Areas of expertise include addiction disorders, dual-diagnosis and couples therapy. I work with adults and youth experiencing anxiety, depression, mood disturbances and trauma; and utilize evidence-based interventions including cognitive-behavioral, dialectical, motivational and trauma-focused care. My goal is to help people attain wellness efficiently, thoroughly and safely.
(916) 545-7594 View (916) 545-7594
Photo of Margaret Bezmalinovic, PsyD, Psychologist
Margaret Bezmalinovic
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sacramento, CA 95816
You have tried over and over to change without success. No matter what you try, you don't seem to make any progress. Sometimes, you think 'this is just the way it is." You may have given up hope of ever having something different. This cycle can be so discouraging. I am interested working people with who feel stuck, especially those who have a sense that there is something inside that prevents them from moving forward.
You have tried over and over to change without success. No matter what you try, you don't seem to make any progress. Sometimes, you think 'this is just the way it is." You may have given up hope of ever having something different. This cycle can be so discouraging. I am interested working people with who feel stuck, especially those who have a sense that there is something inside that prevents them from moving forward.
(916) 347-4362 View (916) 347-4362
Photo of Shacunda Rodgers, PhD, Psychologist
Shacunda Rodgers
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95831
Not accepting new clients
Once we get caught in the middle of some kind of struggle, it can be difficult to find the way out. The strategies that we once used to cope don't work anymore, and we need a little help learning a new way. That's exactly what I'm here for. I firmly believe that no one should have to suffer alone, and I value the opportunity to walk with people through their challenges. What's even better is seeing people get to the other side of their pain, having gained a greater sense of empowerment during the journey.
Once we get caught in the middle of some kind of struggle, it can be difficult to find the way out. The strategies that we once used to cope don't work anymore, and we need a little help learning a new way. That's exactly what I'm here for. I firmly believe that no one should have to suffer alone, and I value the opportunity to walk with people through their challenges. What's even better is seeing people get to the other side of their pain, having gained a greater sense of empowerment during the journey.
(916) 756-3022 View (916) 756-3022
Photo of Alyson Lacko, MA, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Alyson Lacko
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Sacramento, CA 95816  (Online Only)
I am an eclectic therapist, meaning I assess your unique needs and draw from several theoretical frameworks to provide the tools that will be most helpful to you. I always approach my clients with warmth, curiosity, acceptance, and understanding. I believe the relationship heals and I meet my clients with authenticity.
I am an eclectic therapist, meaning I assess your unique needs and draw from several theoretical frameworks to provide the tools that will be most helpful to you. I always approach my clients with warmth, curiosity, acceptance, and understanding. I believe the relationship heals and I meet my clients with authenticity.
(916) 587-4857 View (916) 587-4857
Photo of Peter Michael Gaffney, MD
Peter Michael Gaffney
MD
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95825
Hi everyone. I'm an analytically-trained psychiatrist with a background in family medical practice and also in Buddhism. At this point my practice is adult psychotherapy and I am no longer treating patients who need medication, nor do I treat children. Although I'm trained in psychoanalytic therapy, my approach varies according to individual needs. I see depressed or anxious patients , those struggling with losses, stress, life events, or in their relationships and other issues as well. I have a particular interest in those with severe depression. I also offer individual training in psychodynamics to adult therapists.
Hi everyone. I'm an analytically-trained psychiatrist with a background in family medical practice and also in Buddhism. At this point my practice is adult psychotherapy and I am no longer treating patients who need medication, nor do I treat children. Although I'm trained in psychoanalytic therapy, my approach varies according to individual needs. I see depressed or anxious patients , those struggling with losses, stress, life events, or in their relationships and other issues as well. I have a particular interest in those with severe depression. I also offer individual training in psychodynamics to adult therapists.
(916) 553-2864 View (916) 553-2864
Photo of Chrissy Cate - Chrissy Cate LMFT, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Chrissy Cate LMFT
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95819
Waitlist for new clients
Are you struggling to find joy again? Struggling to get over the past and move on? Cannot connect with your spouse, your children and family like you used to? Not just talk, I provide tools to better manage the relationship challenges you face. As an experienced mother, yogi and licensed marriage, child and family therapist, I can assist you to get the tools you need to feel better and have more rewarding relationships. Call me for a free consultation.
Are you struggling to find joy again? Struggling to get over the past and move on? Cannot connect with your spouse, your children and family like you used to? Not just talk, I provide tools to better manage the relationship challenges you face. As an experienced mother, yogi and licensed marriage, child and family therapist, I can assist you to get the tools you need to feel better and have more rewarding relationships. Call me for a free consultation.
(916) 621-5724 View (916) 621-5724
Photo of Katie Houston, MA, LMFT, BCBA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Katie Houston
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, BCBA
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95817
Waitlist for new clients
As an adolescent therapist, my goal is to help my clients identify their own growth opportunities, values, and needs. Living a life with purpose and connection to self can be challenging and fulfilling. I encourage my clients to learn tools, language, and thinking that will help them navigate their lives in a meaningful way. I have experience in working with children and adolescents who face challenges with anxiety, depression, neurodiversity, sexuality, identity, executive functioning, relationships, and life transitions. Let's be honest, being a teenager is difficult at times. It can make a difference to have someone to talk to.
As an adolescent therapist, my goal is to help my clients identify their own growth opportunities, values, and needs. Living a life with purpose and connection to self can be challenging and fulfilling. I encourage my clients to learn tools, language, and thinking that will help them navigate their lives in a meaningful way. I have experience in working with children and adolescents who face challenges with anxiety, depression, neurodiversity, sexuality, identity, executive functioning, relationships, and life transitions. Let's be honest, being a teenager is difficult at times. It can make a difference to have someone to talk to.
(916) 526-3843 View (916) 526-3843
Photo of Dr. Marcella Kreysa, PsyD, Psychologist
Dr. Marcella Kreysa
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95816  (Online Only)
Life can be an overwhelming experience for anyone. Things can become especially challenging when a person feels stressed by circumstances beyond their control. Individuals who come to therapy are often very capable human beings who have experienced something in their life that has left them needing some extra support. Many times people begin therapy feeling down and lost. Through a person's work in therapy, they are often able to find some light on their path to help guide them through the pain. This shift creates an opportunity for a person to improve their day-to-day functioning and overall, they FEEL BETTER!!
Life can be an overwhelming experience for anyone. Things can become especially challenging when a person feels stressed by circumstances beyond their control. Individuals who come to therapy are often very capable human beings who have experienced something in their life that has left them needing some extra support. Many times people begin therapy feeling down and lost. Through a person's work in therapy, they are often able to find some light on their path to help guide them through the pain. This shift creates an opportunity for a person to improve their day-to-day functioning and overall, they FEEL BETTER!!
(916) 764-3544 View (916) 764-3544
Photo of Marisa Ronquillo, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Marisa Ronquillo
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95825
Are you looking for answers, purpose, or support through a difficult time in life? You may be feeling sadness, rage, fear, or even empty and numb. You may feel disconnected from the people you love or things that normally bring you joy, but more importantly you feel disconnected from yourself. You may crave connection and closeness. You are not alone in this struggle; you are here for a reason. I'm a holistic therapist passionate about helping people break the cycle of feeling stuck. I help my clients unravel the root cause of their suffering to live a fulfilled life.
Are you looking for answers, purpose, or support through a difficult time in life? You may be feeling sadness, rage, fear, or even empty and numb. You may feel disconnected from the people you love or things that normally bring you joy, but more importantly you feel disconnected from yourself. You may crave connection and closeness. You are not alone in this struggle; you are here for a reason. I'm a holistic therapist passionate about helping people break the cycle of feeling stuck. I help my clients unravel the root cause of their suffering to live a fulfilled life.
(279) 529-5740 View (279) 529-5740
Photo of Rene' Reis, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Rene' Reis
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sacramento, CA 95816
Not accepting new clients
I have been providing therapy for over 20 years with individuals, couples, families and groups. My areas of interest and specialty are developmental, emotional and physical trauma and/or abuse, sexuality and gender identity and grief. My style is to support while challenging people. My passion and mission statement is to validate: emotions, thoughts and behaviors are normal; what we decide to do with these daily experiences is what allows us to be happy and enjoy life and our relationships.
I have been providing therapy for over 20 years with individuals, couples, families and groups. My areas of interest and specialty are developmental, emotional and physical trauma and/or abuse, sexuality and gender identity and grief. My style is to support while challenging people. My passion and mission statement is to validate: emotions, thoughts and behaviors are normal; what we decide to do with these daily experiences is what allows us to be happy and enjoy life and our relationships.
(916) 571-0566 View (916) 571-0566
Photo of William Schneider, LAADC, ICADC, Drug & Alcohol Counselor
William Schneider
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, LAADC, ICADC
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95816
I understand the fear, anxiety, hopelessness, and discouragement of repeating the same cycle over and over again. Drinking too much and embarrassing or humiliating yourself often feels like it is damaging your soul. You keep trying to make changes but don't feel like you can let yourself down anymore. It's time to break this vicious cycle and you don't have to do it alone. I have been helping good people just like you make positive changes with their substance use for over a decade. You can break free and give yourself and your family the life you deserve. Stop letting substances hold you back from achieving your potential.
I understand the fear, anxiety, hopelessness, and discouragement of repeating the same cycle over and over again. Drinking too much and embarrassing or humiliating yourself often feels like it is damaging your soul. You keep trying to make changes but don't feel like you can let yourself down anymore. It's time to break this vicious cycle and you don't have to do it alone. I have been helping good people just like you make positive changes with their substance use for over a decade. You can break free and give yourself and your family the life you deserve. Stop letting substances hold you back from achieving your potential.
(916) 794-7942 View (916) 794-7942
Photo of Anita Shadduck, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Anita Shadduck
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95825  (Online Only)
Showing up for therapy takes courage and vulnerability. I take a Strengths-Based, collaborative, and culturally-humble approach to my therapeutic process. Together we will uncover your innate resilience and resolve. We will establish realistic goals and an individualized road map to reach them. I am committed to taking a holistic view of the human person; a perspective that includes one’s environment, influencing systems, culture, values, history, and beliefs. Empowering each individual that seeks therapy is my goal and you can expect a warm and empathic therapeutic style as we take this journey together.
Showing up for therapy takes courage and vulnerability. I take a Strengths-Based, collaborative, and culturally-humble approach to my therapeutic process. Together we will uncover your innate resilience and resolve. We will establish realistic goals and an individualized road map to reach them. I am committed to taking a holistic view of the human person; a perspective that includes one’s environment, influencing systems, culture, values, history, and beliefs. Empowering each individual that seeks therapy is my goal and you can expect a warm and empathic therapeutic style as we take this journey together.
(424) 500-4027 View (424) 500-4027
Photo of Kathy Campbell, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kathy Campbell
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95825
I often work with people who grapple with hard questions to which there is no one "right" answer. I offer a non-judegmental atmosphere in which each person can seek his or her own answers. Therapy is a co-creation. I work with each person to find what "speaks" to him / her. That may include talking, mindfulness practices, or creative arts therapies. Using these methods accesses parts of the brain that can't be reached through words alone, and puts people in the flow of their wisdom and creativity, from which solutions to problems can emerge.
I often work with people who grapple with hard questions to which there is no one "right" answer. I offer a non-judegmental atmosphere in which each person can seek his or her own answers. Therapy is a co-creation. I work with each person to find what "speaks" to him / her. That may include talking, mindfulness practices, or creative arts therapies. Using these methods accesses parts of the brain that can't be reached through words alone, and puts people in the flow of their wisdom and creativity, from which solutions to problems can emerge.
(916) 550-5065 View (916) 550-5065
Photo of Kristina Holt-Reber, PsyD, Psychologist
Kristina Holt-Reber
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sacramento, CA 95816
Are you looking for a safe space to explore and work on making changes (big or small)? My name is Dr. Kristina Holt-Reber and I want to help you move toward change to create a life where you feel like you can be your best self. Collaboratively we will create a treatment plan and use a self-compassionate, empathetic, person-centered and open approach while utilizing various therapeutic, evidence based tools to help you meet your goals!
Are you looking for a safe space to explore and work on making changes (big or small)? My name is Dr. Kristina Holt-Reber and I want to help you move toward change to create a life where you feel like you can be your best self. Collaboratively we will create a treatment plan and use a self-compassionate, empathetic, person-centered and open approach while utilizing various therapeutic, evidence based tools to help you meet your goals!
(916) 546-7976 View (916) 546-7976
Photo of Ned Butler, MFT, PhD, Marriage & Family Therapist
Ned Butler
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, PhD
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95814
I specialize in relationships. Does your mate cause you to suffer? Is your relationship one of intolerable conflict or quiet desperation? People with such suffering often rush to breakup or divorce. Don't. Back away slowly instead. In leaving, not only do you waste the chance to save this relationship but also the chance to know yourself better. If you rush, you will likely repeat these problems in the next relationship.
I specialize in relationships. Does your mate cause you to suffer? Is your relationship one of intolerable conflict or quiet desperation? People with such suffering often rush to breakup or divorce. Don't. Back away slowly instead. In leaving, not only do you waste the chance to save this relationship but also the chance to know yourself better. If you rush, you will likely repeat these problems in the next relationship.
(916) 678-0941 View (916) 678-0941
Photo of Brett Collins, MA, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Brett Collins
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Sacramento, CA 95821  (Online Only)
Hi! I’m Brett (she/her) and I help people to change or improve their relationships. I am licensed in California and New Mexico and serve clients exclusively via Telehealth. My style is relaxed and collaborative. Common goals of my clients are to heal from trauma, to build or strengthen coping skills, and/or to explore their identities. As a Social Worker, I believe that therapy can be a tool for social justice and welcome clients who want to examine their privilege and/or who seek liberation from controlling relationships and oppressive environments.
Hi! I’m Brett (she/her) and I help people to change or improve their relationships. I am licensed in California and New Mexico and serve clients exclusively via Telehealth. My style is relaxed and collaborative. Common goals of my clients are to heal from trauma, to build or strengthen coping skills, and/or to explore their identities. As a Social Worker, I believe that therapy can be a tool for social justice and welcome clients who want to examine their privilege and/or who seek liberation from controlling relationships and oppressive environments.
(916) 237-9303 View (916) 237-9303
Photo of Prof. Jasmine S Ali, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Prof. Jasmine S Ali
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95816  (Online Only)
I believe in working with my clients to develop collaborative goals that will allow us to utilize evidence-based, culturally-responsive and faith-based interventions, as desired. My methods incorporate both eastern and western healing interventions and always begin with a holistic life assessment. Too often clinicians work to make the symptoms feel more manageable. I like to do things differently. I work alongside my clients to discover the root causes of their struggles and witness my clients empowering themselves to unravel those unhealthy habits and replace them with healthy ones. Together we can learn how to heal and thrive.
I believe in working with my clients to develop collaborative goals that will allow us to utilize evidence-based, culturally-responsive and faith-based interventions, as desired. My methods incorporate both eastern and western healing interventions and always begin with a holistic life assessment. Too often clinicians work to make the symptoms feel more manageable. I like to do things differently. I work alongside my clients to discover the root causes of their struggles and witness my clients empowering themselves to unravel those unhealthy habits and replace them with healthy ones. Together we can learn how to heal and thrive.
(530) 464-1927 View (530) 464-1927
Photo of Sara Gilbert, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Sara Gilbert
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95823
Hi! My name is Sara Gilbert, and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist based in California. I work with adults and adolescents via Telehealth and specialize in relationship issues, anxiety, grief/loss, and increasing self-empowerment. I use Strength-based, Humanistic, and Mindfulness approaches to help you to create an inner union and learn a deeper sense of freedom and joy.
Hi! My name is Sara Gilbert, and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist based in California. I work with adults and adolescents via Telehealth and specialize in relationship issues, anxiety, grief/loss, and increasing self-empowerment. I use Strength-based, Humanistic, and Mindfulness approaches to help you to create an inner union and learn a deeper sense of freedom and joy.
(916) 461-7234 View (916) 461-7234
Photo of Michelle Stevens, PhD, Psychologist
Michelle Stevens
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Sacramento, CA 95826  (Online Only)
I have been helping people heal, learn, and grow for more than 20 years. I am a psychotherapist, coach, teacher, and author of the best-selling book, Scared Selfless, which explores the aftereffects of child abuse and how to heal from it. My greatest gift as a therapist is my well-founded optimism. I know that no matter how bad things may currently seem, my clients can overcome obstacles, process pain, and move on to happier, healthier, more purposeful lives. I believe that all people have an innate capacity to grow into their authentic selves; they simply need the right conditions.
I have been helping people heal, learn, and grow for more than 20 years. I am a psychotherapist, coach, teacher, and author of the best-selling book, Scared Selfless, which explores the aftereffects of child abuse and how to heal from it. My greatest gift as a therapist is my well-founded optimism. I know that no matter how bad things may currently seem, my clients can overcome obstacles, process pain, and move on to happier, healthier, more purposeful lives. I believe that all people have an innate capacity to grow into their authentic selves; they simply need the right conditions.
(424) 392-6437 View (424) 392-6437
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Sacramento, CA

2,000+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Sacramento, CA who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
86% Depression
71% Relationship Issues
69% Self Esteem
67% Stress
65% Trauma and PTSD
65% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

72% Aetna
65% Cigna and Evernorth
60% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Sacramento, CA see their clients

65% In Person and Online
35% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
20% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Sacramento?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.