Therapists in Redondo Beach, CA

Photo of Christina Calzadilla, LMFT, PMH-C, Marriage & Family Therapist
Christina Calzadilla
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, PMH-C
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
“There isn’t anyone you couldn’t love once you’ve heard their story. ” ― Mary Lou Kownacki. We usually have good reasons for feeling the way we do. With curiosity and compassion, and without judgement, I want to see the world from your eyes. Once I meet you where you are, I can help you take steps toward living a rich, full, and meaningful life. Life brings us all kinds of challenges that can leave us stuck in patterns of relating to others, creating disconnection and feeling stuck in feelings we want to escape from. What would it be like to break free of those patterns, to deal with painful thoughts and feelings effectively?
“There isn’t anyone you couldn’t love once you’ve heard their story. ” ― Mary Lou Kownacki. We usually have good reasons for feeling the way we do. With curiosity and compassion, and without judgement, I want to see the world from your eyes. Once I meet you where you are, I can help you take steps toward living a rich, full, and meaningful life. Life brings us all kinds of challenges that can leave us stuck in patterns of relating to others, creating disconnection and feeling stuck in feelings we want to escape from. What would it be like to break free of those patterns, to deal with painful thoughts and feelings effectively?
(424) 374-0352 View (424) 374-0352
Photo of Lisa Graziano, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Lisa Graziano
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Wanting to feel better but not knowing how to make that happen is something we all struggle with at one time or another. Sometimes the hardest thing we can do is admit we need some outside help. It can also be the bravest thing we can do.
Wanting to feel better but not knowing how to make that happen is something we all struggle with at one time or another. Sometimes the hardest thing we can do is admit we need some outside help. It can also be the bravest thing we can do.
(424) 384-1477 View (424) 384-1477
Photo of Susan Clayton, MA, LMFT, LPCC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Susan Clayton
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, LPCC
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
You feel frustrated that your old patterns keep repeating in new form. People tell you to love yourself first, but you have no idea how to get there. Maybe you have said or done things you are not proud of and can't let go of the feeling that you are "damaged" or "not good enough". You can see your past experiences with new perspective but can't shake the torment. You aren't sleeping well, eating well, or showing up as your best self much of the time.
You feel frustrated that your old patterns keep repeating in new form. People tell you to love yourself first, but you have no idea how to get there. Maybe you have said or done things you are not proud of and can't let go of the feeling that you are "damaged" or "not good enough". You can see your past experiences with new perspective but can't shake the torment. You aren't sleeping well, eating well, or showing up as your best self much of the time.
(424) 396-1305 View (424) 396-1305
Photo of Dana Takamoto, PsyD, Psychologist
Dana Takamoto
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277  (Online Only)
Do you feel you're struggling to reach a goal or develop satisfying relationships? We can work together to uncover where you're stuck. I can assist you to feel more empowered, authentic and at peace and to live the life your heart yearns for.
Do you feel you're struggling to reach a goal or develop satisfying relationships? We can work together to uncover where you're stuck. I can assist you to feel more empowered, authentic and at peace and to live the life your heart yearns for.
(424) 397-2670 View (424) 397-2670
Photo of Dr. Max Maisel, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Max Maisel
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
You long for a state of peace and comfort that you may not have known for years, or maybe since you were a small child. You want to experience what its like to have better control over your mind and body. You want somebody who really gets how painful anxiety is and can give you actionable steps to feel better. Anxiety is like a challenger who knows exactly what buttons to push to make you feel bad. To gain the upper hand against your anxiety, you need a true specialist who can point out the tricks and traps of your anxiety and empower you to finally make a stand against intrusive thoughts, worry, or panic with lasting results.
You long for a state of peace and comfort that you may not have known for years, or maybe since you were a small child. You want to experience what its like to have better control over your mind and body. You want somebody who really gets how painful anxiety is and can give you actionable steps to feel better. Anxiety is like a challenger who knows exactly what buttons to push to make you feel bad. To gain the upper hand against your anxiety, you need a true specialist who can point out the tricks and traps of your anxiety and empower you to finally make a stand against intrusive thoughts, worry, or panic with lasting results.
(213) 444-5218 View (213) 444-5218
Photo of Jill Gray, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jill Gray
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
9 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277  (Online Only)
Struggling to cope with a cancer or chronic illness diagnosis? Need help understanding and processing grief or loss? Having relationship issues? If the answer is yes to any of these questions, I can help! I provide a non-judgmental and compassionate space where clients can create long-term positive changes through self-exploration and the development of new perspectives, skills and confidence. In addition to specializing in cancer and illness support, I am also Certified in Thanatology through the Association of Death Education and Counseling, a distinguishing certificate for grief professionals.
Struggling to cope with a cancer or chronic illness diagnosis? Need help understanding and processing grief or loss? Having relationship issues? If the answer is yes to any of these questions, I can help! I provide a non-judgmental and compassionate space where clients can create long-term positive changes through self-exploration and the development of new perspectives, skills and confidence. In addition to specializing in cancer and illness support, I am also Certified in Thanatology through the Association of Death Education and Counseling, a distinguishing certificate for grief professionals.
(310) 872-1833 View (310) 872-1833
Photo of Crystal Quarry, PsyD, MA, Psychologist
Crystal Quarry
Psychologist, PsyD, MA
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
One of the most important aspects in therapy is for patients to feel heard, respected, and understood. Given that each individual is unique, and no one issue is ever the same among different people, my approach is integrative and tailored to meet the needs of the person, not the "problem". I strive to create a compassionate, non-judgemental environment for patients to learn, grow, explore, challenge, and to live the life they want to be living. I specialize in working with adults - individual, couples, and family - with anxiety, depression, PTSD/trauma, relationship problems, substance abuse, ADD/ADHD, and LGBTQ issues.
One of the most important aspects in therapy is for patients to feel heard, respected, and understood. Given that each individual is unique, and no one issue is ever the same among different people, my approach is integrative and tailored to meet the needs of the person, not the "problem". I strive to create a compassionate, non-judgemental environment for patients to learn, grow, explore, challenge, and to live the life they want to be living. I specialize in working with adults - individual, couples, and family - with anxiety, depression, PTSD/trauma, relationship problems, substance abuse, ADD/ADHD, and LGBTQ issues.
(424) 347-1691 View (424) 347-1691
Photo of Andria Allison Bibler, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Andria Allison Bibler
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277  (Online Only)
My first priority is helping you feel comfortable. Research has shown that the number one most helpful aspect of therapy is having a strong therapeutic relationship where you feel supported, heard, and understood. I strive to meet you where you're at in your life process. My style is client-centered, and I tailor my services to you, focusing on what you decide you want and need to gain from therapy. I am strength-based in my approach; together we will identify what's working in your life and what strengths we can build on to help you achieve your goals, strengthen your relationships, and feel your best.
My first priority is helping you feel comfortable. Research has shown that the number one most helpful aspect of therapy is having a strong therapeutic relationship where you feel supported, heard, and understood. I strive to meet you where you're at in your life process. My style is client-centered, and I tailor my services to you, focusing on what you decide you want and need to gain from therapy. I am strength-based in my approach; together we will identify what's working in your life and what strengths we can build on to help you achieve your goals, strengthen your relationships, and feel your best.
(323) 375-3532 View (323) 375-3532
Photo of Dana Zienert Kind, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dana Zienert Kind
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90278
I am committed to, and very passionate about, working with people to help them find deeper meaning and fulfillment in their lives. I feel therapy is a place where you can feel safe to openly express yourself, as you work side-by-side with someone who will assist you in building self-awareness, promote change, and ultimately improve the relationships and your life.
I am committed to, and very passionate about, working with people to help them find deeper meaning and fulfillment in their lives. I feel therapy is a place where you can feel safe to openly express yourself, as you work side-by-side with someone who will assist you in building self-awareness, promote change, and ultimately improve the relationships and your life.
(424) 403-1639 View (424) 403-1639
Photo of Colleen Woodall, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Colleen Woodall
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Hello there and congrats on taking the first step looking into therapy! My name is Colleen Woodall, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in San Diego, California with the ability to work virtually with clients all over California. My focus is mainly kids, teens, young adult women, and mothers experiencing life changes, stress, or anxiety. client’s needs, however, I always take a humanistic, strengths based, and client centered approach. Meaning I focus on each client’s strengths and how to utilize them and place high value on client discovery and self-love.
Hello there and congrats on taking the first step looking into therapy! My name is Colleen Woodall, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in San Diego, California with the ability to work virtually with clients all over California. My focus is mainly kids, teens, young adult women, and mothers experiencing life changes, stress, or anxiety. client’s needs, however, I always take a humanistic, strengths based, and client centered approach. Meaning I focus on each client’s strengths and how to utilize them and place high value on client discovery and self-love.
(424) 799-0845 View (424) 799-0845
Photo of Paula March (Van Doren), LCSW, BCD, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Paula March (Van Doren)
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Would you like to transform your life by gaining new insights into what makes you tick and what barriers prevent you from moving forward? My practice focuses on healthy relationships with ourselves, our partners, children, family co-workers, and others around us. Relationships are so essential to our well being that they often influence our moods. They can be the basis of our feelings of safety, pleasure and satisfaction or the source of anger, bitterness and sadness. Often we are ambivalent and both positive and negative feelings exist at the same time.
Would you like to transform your life by gaining new insights into what makes you tick and what barriers prevent you from moving forward? My practice focuses on healthy relationships with ourselves, our partners, children, family co-workers, and others around us. Relationships are so essential to our well being that they often influence our moods. They can be the basis of our feelings of safety, pleasure and satisfaction or the source of anger, bitterness and sadness. Often we are ambivalent and both positive and negative feelings exist at the same time.
(424) 570-2062 View (424) 570-2062
Photo of Allison Adamovic, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Allison Adamovic
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Are you a new mom and feeling inadequate? Frustrated with your relationship? Your anxiety feel all-consuming? Trauma triggering impairing your daily life? My specialties are Maternal Mental Health / Women's Issues, Grief & Loss, Relationships (including Pre-marital counseling), and EMDR for Trauma & Self-Esteem issues. I often use CBT tools, Psychodynamic approach, and Solution-focused techniques as well. My goal is to support and empower you during life's changing tides. Life never seems to go quite as expected. It's time to put your needs first.
Are you a new mom and feeling inadequate? Frustrated with your relationship? Your anxiety feel all-consuming? Trauma triggering impairing your daily life? My specialties are Maternal Mental Health / Women's Issues, Grief & Loss, Relationships (including Pre-marital counseling), and EMDR for Trauma & Self-Esteem issues. I often use CBT tools, Psychodynamic approach, and Solution-focused techniques as well. My goal is to support and empower you during life's changing tides. Life never seems to go quite as expected. It's time to put your needs first.
(562) 352-2806 View (562) 352-2806
Photo of Rolan Dillard, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Rolan Dillard
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Hi. I am Rolan Dillard. I am an Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW), board certified in the states of California and Texas. What is an LCSW and what can I do for you? I am a mental health professional authorized to assess, diagnose, and treat individuals of all ages and economic groups who may be experiencing mental, emotional, and behavioral issues. I use a person centered, holistic, approach to therapy which views the individual as a part of their environment, and which also relies on education and advocacy to help remove the stigma of mental illness as the individual moves along their path of change.
Hi. I am Rolan Dillard. I am an Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW), board certified in the states of California and Texas. What is an LCSW and what can I do for you? I am a mental health professional authorized to assess, diagnose, and treat individuals of all ages and economic groups who may be experiencing mental, emotional, and behavioral issues. I use a person centered, holistic, approach to therapy which views the individual as a part of their environment, and which also relies on education and advocacy to help remove the stigma of mental illness as the individual moves along their path of change.
(424) 655-3718 View (424) 655-3718
Photo of Laurie Williams, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Laurie Williams
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90278  (Online Only)
Hello and welcome—I commend you for taking your first steps in starting therapy! I am a licensed therapist and I have been working in the field for over 20 years. I specialize in working with adults and teens ages 15 and up. I am here to help you develop tools to cope, feel empowered and supported. Together, we can work towards improving your sleep, feeling less worried and anxious, improve self-esteem, and have healthier friendships and relationships.
Hello and welcome—I commend you for taking your first steps in starting therapy! I am a licensed therapist and I have been working in the field for over 20 years. I specialize in working with adults and teens ages 15 and up. I am here to help you develop tools to cope, feel empowered and supported. Together, we can work towards improving your sleep, feeling less worried and anxious, improve self-esteem, and have healthier friendships and relationships.
(424) 252-3611 View (424) 252-3611
Photo of Celynna Harnetiaux, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Celynna Harnetiaux
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Hello and welcome. I help teens, women and couples who are feeling overwhelmed, stressed, disconnected, and struggling in their relationships. Many of my clients reach out because they are struggling with anxiety, loneliness, low self-esteem, dating frustration, and loss of motivation. If you are struggling with these symptoms, I believe you deserve a space that allows you to feel safe, accepted and understood. Together we work as a team to better understand emotions and help you cope with life's stressors. I use Gottman Couples therapy training to help identify problems in communication in my work with individuals and couples.
Hello and welcome. I help teens, women and couples who are feeling overwhelmed, stressed, disconnected, and struggling in their relationships. Many of my clients reach out because they are struggling with anxiety, loneliness, low self-esteem, dating frustration, and loss of motivation. If you are struggling with these symptoms, I believe you deserve a space that allows you to feel safe, accepted and understood. Together we work as a team to better understand emotions and help you cope with life's stressors. I use Gottman Couples therapy training to help identify problems in communication in my work with individuals and couples.
(424) 353-5269 View (424) 353-5269
Photo of Kelly Spagnuolo, MA, LMFT, BSP, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kelly Spagnuolo
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, BSP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Kelly Spagnuolo is devoted to helping her clients tap into their unique ability to heal, assisting them in accessing their unlimited potential. Through her unconditional positive regard and compassionate attunement, Kelly is masterful at providing a safe space for healing to occur. Kelly knows first-hand how to heal the wounded parts inside. As a result, she is able to guide her clients on their journey to Self-Discovery, Self-Empowerment, and gracefully facilitates a re-connection to the Authentic Self. Kelly is able to assist her clients with healing on all levels of Consciousness; Physical, Mental, Emotional, and Spiritual.
Kelly Spagnuolo is devoted to helping her clients tap into their unique ability to heal, assisting them in accessing their unlimited potential. Through her unconditional positive regard and compassionate attunement, Kelly is masterful at providing a safe space for healing to occur. Kelly knows first-hand how to heal the wounded parts inside. As a result, she is able to guide her clients on their journey to Self-Discovery, Self-Empowerment, and gracefully facilitates a re-connection to the Authentic Self. Kelly is able to assist her clients with healing on all levels of Consciousness; Physical, Mental, Emotional, and Spiritual.
(310) 751-7037 View (310) 751-7037
Photo of undefined - Kelli McLean, LMFT , MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kelli McLean, LMFT
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277  (Online Only)
Psychotherapy is unique & takes courage. It's fulfilling-yet challenging. Using empathy, collaboration, intuition, open mindedness & humor, we will identify automatic ways of thinking, & behaving- that show up as internal conflict, self sabotage, low self esteem, depression, relationship struggles & anxiety. I have a wide array of experience, working with diverse populations, including POC, people diagnosed with personality disorders, those experiencing psychosis, queer identified folks, folks with learning differences, & students with achievement struggles and imposter syndrome. My practice is trauma informed.
Psychotherapy is unique & takes courage. It's fulfilling-yet challenging. Using empathy, collaboration, intuition, open mindedness & humor, we will identify automatic ways of thinking, & behaving- that show up as internal conflict, self sabotage, low self esteem, depression, relationship struggles & anxiety. I have a wide array of experience, working with diverse populations, including POC, people diagnosed with personality disorders, those experiencing psychosis, queer identified folks, folks with learning differences, & students with achievement struggles and imposter syndrome. My practice is trauma informed.
(424) 370-0778 View (424) 370-0778
Photo of Michele L Blume, MA, PsyD, Psychologist
Michele L Blume
Psychologist, MA, PsyD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
In my work with you, I am invested in establishing a safe, supportive and truthful connection aimed at working through underlying psychological issues that have caused you emotional pain, perpetuated self-defeating behaviors, and trapped you in inauthentic roles. From your commitment to the therapeutic process, you can come to experience deeper intimacy in relationships, increased self-esteem and confidence, and greater joy and pleasure in living.
In my work with you, I am invested in establishing a safe, supportive and truthful connection aimed at working through underlying psychological issues that have caused you emotional pain, perpetuated self-defeating behaviors, and trapped you in inauthentic roles. From your commitment to the therapeutic process, you can come to experience deeper intimacy in relationships, increased self-esteem and confidence, and greater joy and pleasure in living.
(714) 357-6500 View (714) 357-6500
Photo of Olivia Wills, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Olivia Wills
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Redondo Beach, CA 90278  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Sometimes we find ourselves wishing that things could be better. We may not know exactly how we want things to change or how to enact that change, but there is a part of us that hopes that things will improve. I consider my role as a therapist to be offering a safe, supportive, nonjudgmental space where we can understand your challenges and strengths in order to create positive change in your life.
Sometimes we find ourselves wishing that things could be better. We may not know exactly how we want things to change or how to enact that change, but there is a part of us that hopes that things will improve. I consider my role as a therapist to be offering a safe, supportive, nonjudgmental space where we can understand your challenges and strengths in order to create positive change in your life.
(424) 587-2629 View (424) 587-2629
Photo of Mary T Braheny, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Mary T Braheny
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
Redondo Beach, CA 90277
Assisting you in the transformation of issues that keep you from a healthy and satisfying life is my goal and passion. We will build on your unique strengths and wisdom, and will use nurturing supportive exploration, and modalities suited for you. I will help you in identifying and clarifying the changes you wish to achieve in your life along with understanding and changing the negative patterns that get in the way. I combine the knowledge and experience of 30 years in the field of mental health.
Assisting you in the transformation of issues that keep you from a healthy and satisfying life is my goal and passion. We will build on your unique strengths and wisdom, and will use nurturing supportive exploration, and modalities suited for you. I will help you in identifying and clarifying the changes you wish to achieve in your life along with understanding and changing the negative patterns that get in the way. I combine the knowledge and experience of 30 years in the field of mental health.
(424) 254-1182 View (424) 254-1182

See more therapy options for Redondo Beach

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Redondo Beach, CA

500+

Average cost per session

$195

Therapists in Redondo Beach, CA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
90% Depression
78% Relationship Issues
73% Self Esteem
68% Grief
67% Stress
64% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

65% Aetna
55% Cigna and Evernorth
52% Anthem | Elevance

How Therapists in Redondo Beach, CA see their clients

71% In Person and Online
29% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
16% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Redondo Beach?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.