Trauma and PTSD Therapists in Orangevale, CA

Photo of Julia Richardson, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Julia Richardson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Hello, my name is Julia Richardson. I am a licensed Marriage Family Therapist in the practice of healing emotional stress. I work with individuals, couples, and families who have experienced anxiety, depression, and trauma. I have a special love for working with folks on the Autism spectrum. I enjoy working with adults who want to know about their inner Light and how to access it; to make the decisions and changes they seek. I love working with couples who are trying to salvage, rekindle, or deepen their relationship.
Hello, my name is Julia Richardson. I am a licensed Marriage Family Therapist in the practice of healing emotional stress. I work with individuals, couples, and families who have experienced anxiety, depression, and trauma. I have a special love for working with folks on the Autism spectrum. I enjoy working with adults who want to know about their inner Light and how to access it; to make the decisions and changes they seek. I love working with couples who are trying to salvage, rekindle, or deepen their relationship.
(562) 620-4977 View (562) 620-4977
Photo of Amy L Collins, LMFT, EMDR, II, Marriage & Family Therapist
Amy L Collins
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, EMDR, II
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Orangevale, CA 95662
I specialize in trauma and am EMDR certified.
Is your heart racing and you can't make a decision? Say hello to anxiety; but don't stop there. Don't let this block you from your goals. I will teach you to remove distressing feelings. Take the time to focus on "you"! Together; we will identify what is standing in your way and move it. 'Two' is better than 'one'; in making a change. Let me be the other 'one' to help you revive the authentic 'you'.
I specialize in trauma and am EMDR certified.
Is your heart racing and you can't make a decision? Say hello to anxiety; but don't stop there. Don't let this block you from your goals. I will teach you to remove distressing feelings. Take the time to focus on "you"! Together; we will identify what is standing in your way and move it. 'Two' is better than 'one'; in making a change. Let me be the other 'one' to help you revive the authentic 'you'.
(916) 778-3151 View (916) 778-3151
Photo of undefined - WisdomPath Way Institute, PhD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
WisdomPath Way Institute
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
I work with people experiencing phase of life hurdles, parent/marital conflict, post-traumatic stress, eating disorders, & depression and anxiety.
It is often when we feel the most overwhelmed __ when we have "tried everything we know" to feel better, to make changes, to break out of bad habits or unhelpful behavior patterns __ that we find ourselves the most open to growth and change. This is the purpose of psychotherapy. To provide us with the opportunity to open to the process of self-discovery __ to explore our thoughts, our feelings, and our behaviors and to find or regain our essential wholeness and sense of well-being.
I work with people experiencing phase of life hurdles, parent/marital conflict, post-traumatic stress, eating disorders, & depression and anxiety.
It is often when we feel the most overwhelmed __ when we have "tried everything we know" to feel better, to make changes, to break out of bad habits or unhelpful behavior patterns __ that we find ourselves the most open to growth and change. This is the purpose of psychotherapy. To provide us with the opportunity to open to the process of self-discovery __ to explore our thoughts, our feelings, and our behaviors and to find or regain our essential wholeness and sense of well-being.
(916) 341-9335 View (916) 341-9335
Photo of Kim Caspar, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kim Caspar
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Being a trauma survivor myself, I believe that counseling is a vital part of recovery.
As a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, my goal is to help people become the best version of themselves. No matter your past, I believe with the appropriate information, training and teaching your life can improve. I desire to help people experience transformation and restoration that will last. I have experience working with children, individuals and couples. I subscribe to a family systems approach when working with children and have found it is most beneficial to include parents and siblings in treatment. I also have a passion to help people who have experienced trauma and am trained in EMDR.
Being a trauma survivor myself, I believe that counseling is a vital part of recovery.
As a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, my goal is to help people become the best version of themselves. No matter your past, I believe with the appropriate information, training and teaching your life can improve. I desire to help people experience transformation and restoration that will last. I have experience working with children, individuals and couples. I subscribe to a family systems approach when working with children and have found it is most beneficial to include parents and siblings in treatment. I also have a passion to help people who have experienced trauma and am trained in EMDR.
(916) 619-3961 View (916) 619-3961
Photo of Nastaran Bayani-Rad, LCP, Psychologist
Nastaran Bayani-Rad
Psychologist, LCP
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662  (Online Only)
My experience is broad, but I enjoy working with clients who want to address and work through anxiety, depression, trauma, loss & grief, chronic illness, life transitions, relational stressors, women's issues, stressors within the LGBTQIA community, and the young adult population.
Hi! I am Nastaran Rad, Psy.D. (27113). My work in therapy integrates from Person-Centered, Psychodynamic, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy interventions. I focus on helping the client feel at ease to express their emotions in a non-judgmental space whilst addressing ways to alleviate their emotional discomfort. My work in therapy integrates from Person-Centered, Psychodynamic, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. I also incorporate mindfulness techniques and approach therapy with clients from a holistic and humanistic stance.
My experience is broad, but I enjoy working with clients who want to address and work through anxiety, depression, trauma, loss & grief, chronic illness, life transitions, relational stressors, women's issues, stressors within the LGBTQIA community, and the young adult population.
Hi! I am Nastaran Rad, Psy.D. (27113). My work in therapy integrates from Person-Centered, Psychodynamic, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy interventions. I focus on helping the client feel at ease to express their emotions in a non-judgmental space whilst addressing ways to alleviate their emotional discomfort. My work in therapy integrates from Person-Centered, Psychodynamic, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. I also incorporate mindfulness techniques and approach therapy with clients from a holistic and humanistic stance.
(424) 353-2150 View (424) 353-2150
Photo of Sharon Van Derwood, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sharon Van Derwood
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
You will discover tools to liberate yourself from past trauma and present stress.
Feeling overwhelmed by life challenges? Have your attempts to deal with stress left you feeling disconnected or hopeless? Maybe you are seeking alternatives to running away. Perhaps you’ve been nervous to ask for help. It’s so human to feel this way and so painful. I find it a privilege to support individuals during their hardest times and I provide a safe and secure place to be vulnerable. Meeting with a therapist can be incredibly healing and empowering. Pain is often unavoidable, but suffering is not. I will teach you how to choose joy and live with full intention.
You will discover tools to liberate yourself from past trauma and present stress.
Feeling overwhelmed by life challenges? Have your attempts to deal with stress left you feeling disconnected or hopeless? Maybe you are seeking alternatives to running away. Perhaps you’ve been nervous to ask for help. It’s so human to feel this way and so painful. I find it a privilege to support individuals during their hardest times and I provide a safe and secure place to be vulnerable. Meeting with a therapist can be incredibly healing and empowering. Pain is often unavoidable, but suffering is not. I will teach you how to choose joy and live with full intention.
(916) 292-5625 View (916) 292-5625
Photo of Rhonda Puleo, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Rhonda Puleo
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Rhonda practices Trauma Informed Therapy to allow her clients to explore how trauma has effected their brain development and to understand they can make changes in the neurobiology of their brains.
Rhonda Puleo is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who has been practicing since 2016. She graduated from Brandman University/Roseville, CA with a Master's degree in marriage and family therapy.
Rhonda practices Trauma Informed Therapy to allow her clients to explore how trauma has effected their brain development and to understand they can make changes in the neurobiology of their brains.
Rhonda Puleo is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who has been practicing since 2016. She graduated from Brandman University/Roseville, CA with a Master's degree in marriage and family therapy.
(916) 587-7711 View (916) 587-7711
Photo of Tyler Harston, LMFT, CCTP, Marriage & Family Therapist
Tyler Harston
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, CCTP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Orangevale, CA 95662
My work focuses on helping people find more understanding and fulfillment in themselves and their relationships. I often work with those suffering with shame, trauma, repressed emotions, and relational conflict. I enjoy facilitating with couples, individuals, and families by way of practical approaches, a non-judgmental ear, and perspective-lending observation. I believe precise language and nonverbal communication can be hugely impactful on relationships. Having a safe place to reflect on and identify your personal and relational dynamics can lead to more awareness, skills, and peace in your life.
My work focuses on helping people find more understanding and fulfillment in themselves and their relationships. I often work with those suffering with shame, trauma, repressed emotions, and relational conflict. I enjoy facilitating with couples, individuals, and families by way of practical approaches, a non-judgmental ear, and perspective-lending observation. I believe precise language and nonverbal communication can be hugely impactful on relationships. Having a safe place to reflect on and identify your personal and relational dynamics can lead to more awareness, skills, and peace in your life.
(916) 866-8019 View (916) 866-8019
Photo of Ashley Robin Jimenez, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Ashley Robin Jimenez
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
I believe that with patience, time, insight, awareness and understanding; progress and healing can be achieved. From my 15 years experience working with children, teens and adults -I have gained a strong passion to help individuals whom struggle with self-esteem issues, trauma, anxiety and depression. I also have a strong passion and extensive experience working with children and their behaviors, along with providing parenting support. As a mother of two small children, I understand the impact of juggling it all and the importance of support and practicing self-care. I’m here to provide insight, understanding and coping skills.
I believe that with patience, time, insight, awareness and understanding; progress and healing can be achieved. From my 15 years experience working with children, teens and adults -I have gained a strong passion to help individuals whom struggle with self-esteem issues, trauma, anxiety and depression. I also have a strong passion and extensive experience working with children and their behaviors, along with providing parenting support. As a mother of two small children, I understand the impact of juggling it all and the importance of support and practicing self-care. I’m here to provide insight, understanding and coping skills.
(279) 201-5445 View (279) 201-5445
Photo of Stephanie Fierro, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Stephanie Fierro
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Hello, my name is Stephanie Fierro-Haldorson. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I have experience working with couples, LGBTQIA+ community, adolescents, foster youth, trauma, addiction, and children ages 5-17. I have worked with so many different persons. I am comfortable working with members of the LGBTQIA+ community (adults and children), trauma, foster youth, couples, those with addiction, anxiety, and depression.
Hello, my name is Stephanie Fierro-Haldorson. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I have experience working with couples, LGBTQIA+ community, adolescents, foster youth, trauma, addiction, and children ages 5-17. I have worked with so many different persons. I am comfortable working with members of the LGBTQIA+ community (adults and children), trauma, foster youth, couples, those with addiction, anxiety, and depression.
(424) 677-2630 View (424) 677-2630
Photo of Andrew Lee, Marriage & Family Therapist Intern
Andrew Lee
Marriage & Family Therapist Intern
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Waitlist for new clients
We all struggle at different times in our lives. Whether it’s with depression, anxiety, trauma, or relationship issues… I want you to know that you don't have to do this alone. Maybe you have a need for clarity and a plan to navigate this chapter of your life. Maybe you're feeling stuck and are uncertain where to turn. Whatever challenges you are encountering, it would be my honor to walk with you through them, increase your resilience, and help you become the best version of you.
We all struggle at different times in our lives. Whether it’s with depression, anxiety, trauma, or relationship issues… I want you to know that you don't have to do this alone. Maybe you have a need for clarity and a plan to navigate this chapter of your life. Maybe you're feeling stuck and are uncertain where to turn. Whatever challenges you are encountering, it would be my honor to walk with you through them, increase your resilience, and help you become the best version of you.
(916) 827-1553 View (916) 827-1553
Photo of undefined - Raya Prívate Psychotherapy Practice , MS, LPCC, Counselor
Raya Prívate Psychotherapy Practice
Counselor, MS, LPCC
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
I am certified as a Brainspotting practitioner, and highly trained in EMDR and other trauma-recovery modalities, I use CBT, DBT, Solution - Focused, Psychodynamic therapy, Client-Centered, and Systemic approaches in a contextual framework with emphasis on improving the existing dynamics of relationships with individuals, families, and at the work settings.
When people undergo traumatic events, it is common for them to feel as if everything is falling apart. Traumatic events can leave us with feelings of sadness, anxiousness, and other types of negative emotions that can be accurately traced back to a source of central incident or series of events for recovery process. Finding this source is important because it allows safe access to reduce unwanted impulses and promotes healing of emotional and physiological responses. As a therapist, I use a variety of techniques helping people to reconnect their mind-body balance, promote authentic completeness, and gain comfort of being yourself.
I am certified as a Brainspotting practitioner, and highly trained in EMDR and other trauma-recovery modalities, I use CBT, DBT, Solution - Focused, Psychodynamic therapy, Client-Centered, and Systemic approaches in a contextual framework with emphasis on improving the existing dynamics of relationships with individuals, families, and at the work settings.
When people undergo traumatic events, it is common for them to feel as if everything is falling apart. Traumatic events can leave us with feelings of sadness, anxiousness, and other types of negative emotions that can be accurately traced back to a source of central incident or series of events for recovery process. Finding this source is important because it allows safe access to reduce unwanted impulses and promotes healing of emotional and physiological responses. As a therapist, I use a variety of techniques helping people to reconnect their mind-body balance, promote authentic completeness, and gain comfort of being yourself.
(530) 270-3266 View (530) 270-3266
Photo of Christina Ann Cremo, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Christina Ann Cremo
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662  (Online Only)
I’m trained in trauma treatments such as EMDR and Trauma-Focus CBT.
Life’s struggles and uncertainties can feel overwhelming and inescapable. Do you experience anxiety? Are you feeling depressed? Are you struggling with parenting or relationships? I’m here to tell you there is hope. I take a client centered approach to therapy to ensure that you feel heard and understood.
I’m trained in trauma treatments such as EMDR and Trauma-Focus CBT.
Life’s struggles and uncertainties can feel overwhelming and inescapable. Do you experience anxiety? Are you feeling depressed? Are you struggling with parenting or relationships? I’m here to tell you there is hope. I take a client centered approach to therapy to ensure that you feel heard and understood.
(916) 237-9946 View (916) 237-9946
Photo of Nastacia Parham, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Nastacia Parham
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662  (Online Only)
This can often present in the form of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
My name is Nastacia Parham, and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) based in the greater Sacramento County area in CA, and I work with clients statewide via telehealth. I work with adults (18+) and specialize in individual therapy treating diverse populations experiencing anxiety, depression, stress, and trauma using an integrated approach of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Multicultural Therapy to help find their inner strength to overcome adversity and find ways to cope and build long-term resiliency.
This can often present in the form of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
My name is Nastacia Parham, and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT) based in the greater Sacramento County area in CA, and I work with clients statewide via telehealth. I work with adults (18+) and specialize in individual therapy treating diverse populations experiencing anxiety, depression, stress, and trauma using an integrated approach of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Multicultural Therapy to help find their inner strength to overcome adversity and find ways to cope and build long-term resiliency.
(925) 732-5754 View (925) 732-5754
Photo of Kristin Roberts, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kristin Roberts
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Hi, I'm Kristin Roberts. I'm a licensed marriage and family therapist in Northern California. I see individual adults, couples, families, and minors (14-17). I specialize in treating trauma and use EMDR and brainspotting. I'm also IFS informed and use that modality to heal client's inner adult/child parts of self. I treat anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, grief, relationship distress in friendships, family dynamics, and with couples.
Hi, I'm Kristin Roberts. I'm a licensed marriage and family therapist in Northern California. I see individual adults, couples, families, and minors (14-17). I specialize in treating trauma and use EMDR and brainspotting. I'm also IFS informed and use that modality to heal client's inner adult/child parts of self. I treat anxiety, depression, emotional dysregulation, grief, relationship distress in friendships, family dynamics, and with couples.
(831) 666-0175 View (831) 666-0175
Photo of Rahel Schmid-Price, LCP, Psychologist
Rahel Schmid-Price
Psychologist, LCP
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Hi, I am Dr. Rahel Price, a licensed clinical psychologist with over 20 years of experience providing mental health services to diverse populations in a variety of community and forensic settings. The main focus areas of my current practice include trauma, stress, PTSD, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and self-harm. I work collaboratively with my clients to help them identify the goals they want to work towards in therapy. These goals can shift and be built on throughout the therapy process.
Hi, I am Dr. Rahel Price, a licensed clinical psychologist with over 20 years of experience providing mental health services to diverse populations in a variety of community and forensic settings. The main focus areas of my current practice include trauma, stress, PTSD, depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and self-harm. I work collaboratively with my clients to help them identify the goals they want to work towards in therapy. These goals can shift and be built on throughout the therapy process.
(323) 593-4830 View (323) 593-4830
Photo of Iris Pachler, PhD, Psychologist
Iris Pachler
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662  (Online Only)
I am invested in working with individuals who are healing trauma, overcoming a crisis, moving through the trauma of divorce, battling relationship issues, and grieving the loss of a loved one.
I understand how complicated life can become, leading to such challenges as divorce, struggles raising children, blended families, difficult relationships, trauma, and loss. The ways you have adapted to those challenges may no longer work for you and we can discover new strengths and interactional patterns that can make life easier and simpler. I have helped individuals deal with anxiety and depression, and move through times of loss and trauma. I approach people with authenticity, honesty and openness.
I am invested in working with individuals who are healing trauma, overcoming a crisis, moving through the trauma of divorce, battling relationship issues, and grieving the loss of a loved one.
I understand how complicated life can become, leading to such challenges as divorce, struggles raising children, blended families, difficult relationships, trauma, and loss. The ways you have adapted to those challenges may no longer work for you and we can discover new strengths and interactional patterns that can make life easier and simpler. I have helped individuals deal with anxiety and depression, and move through times of loss and trauma. I approach people with authenticity, honesty and openness.
(530) 903-4538 View (530) 903-4538
Photo of Alyssa Brooks-Dowty, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Alyssa Brooks-Dowty
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Orangevale, CA 95662  (Online Only)
I specialize in attachment and trauma, including religious trauma, for neurodivergent teens and adults.
In the words of my hero, Mr. Rogers, I like you just the way you are. As an autistic therapist, I know what it's like to feel like the rest of the world is in a group text that you somehow missed. It's very important to me that you can bring your whole self to therapy - stims, interests, communication style and all. I'm a very collaborative therapist with an informal style, so I want to work together with you to make therapy accessible and affirming.
I specialize in attachment and trauma, including religious trauma, for neurodivergent teens and adults.
In the words of my hero, Mr. Rogers, I like you just the way you are. As an autistic therapist, I know what it's like to feel like the rest of the world is in a group text that you somehow missed. It's very important to me that you can bring your whole self to therapy - stims, interests, communication style and all. I'm a very collaborative therapist with an informal style, so I want to work together with you to make therapy accessible and affirming.
(916) 510-0517 View (916) 510-0517
Photo of Jacqueline Niedzwiecki, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jacqueline Niedzwiecki
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Hello! My name is Jacqueline Niedzwiecki and I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT). I currently live in Tennessee, but do most of my work via telehealth with California residents (where I use to live!). My specialties and interests are supporting and empowering mothers having difficulty with pre- and postpartum, parenting transitions, new baby care, parenting challenges with toddlers/teens, or adapting to a child's new diagnosis. I also have a lot of experience with trauma-informed care, anxiety, and depression within the adult population.
Hello! My name is Jacqueline Niedzwiecki and I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT). I currently live in Tennessee, but do most of my work via telehealth with California residents (where I use to live!). My specialties and interests are supporting and empowering mothers having difficulty with pre- and postpartum, parenting transitions, new baby care, parenting challenges with toddlers/teens, or adapting to a child's new diagnosis. I also have a lot of experience with trauma-informed care, anxiety, and depression within the adult population.
(209) 255-5425 View (209) 255-5425
Photo of Misty Utter, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Misty Utter
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Orangevale, CA 95662
Hello! I'm Misty Utter, LMFT 117901. My background is working with couples, young adults, and teens. I enjoy using the DBT or CBT approach. I am also trained is TF-CBT. I look forward to working with you and achieving your goals. My approach to therapy utilizes CBT, Dialectical (DBT), Trauma Focused, and Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT). I have worked with various couples, young adults, and teens who suffer from Anxiety, Borderline Personality, Codependency, Coping Skills, Depression, Domestic Violence, Grief, Stress, Suicidal Ideation, Trauma and PTSD, Women's Issues, Adolescents/Teens, and Sexual Orientation.
Hello! I'm Misty Utter, LMFT 117901. My background is working with couples, young adults, and teens. I enjoy using the DBT or CBT approach. I am also trained is TF-CBT. I look forward to working with you and achieving your goals. My approach to therapy utilizes CBT, Dialectical (DBT), Trauma Focused, and Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT). I have worked with various couples, young adults, and teens who suffer from Anxiety, Borderline Personality, Codependency, Coping Skills, Depression, Domestic Violence, Grief, Stress, Suicidal Ideation, Trauma and PTSD, Women's Issues, Adolescents/Teens, and Sexual Orientation.
(760) 935-9967 View (760) 935-9967

See more therapy options for Orangevale

Trauma and PTSD Therapists

When should I seek treatment for trauma?

Not everyone who undergoes trauma needs therapy to heal, but many do. If, after experiencing a traumatic event, you find yourself struggling with symptoms such as nightmares, dissociation, irritability, or emotional numbness—especially if these symptoms last more than a month and are severe enough to interfere with your daily functioning—you may benefit from seeking out therapy with a trauma-informed provider.

How long does trauma therapy take?

Different types of therapy for trauma unfold on different timelines. Prolonged exposure therapy and cognitive processing therapy, for example, each take about three months, while trauma-informed CBT may last anywhere from 8 to 25 sessions. Other approaches, especially those that are less structured or that incorporate elements from multiple modalities, may be more open-ended, though many patients report feeling better within the first few months of treatment.

What happens if trauma is left untreated?

Unaddressed trauma can have serious—even devastating—effects on relationships, career, and day-to-day functioning. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can lead people to distrust or lash out at others, making it difficult to maintain intimate relationships; it can also trigger symptoms such as flashbacks or hyperreactivity that can interfere with a person’s ability to function effectively, personally and/or professionally. Some sufferers turn to drugs to find relief. Symptoms may lessen on their own with time, but there is no guarantee that PTSD will resolve on its own.

Can PTSD come back after treatment?

It is possible for PTSD symptoms to recur months or years after successful treatment. This is because, like most mental health disorders, it is not possible to “cure” PTSD, and stressful life events may cause symptoms to recur in even the most resilient individuals. There is no shame in re-experiencing PTSD symptoms nor in returning to therapy when such relapses occur; indeed, many forms of trauma therapy explicitly encourage periodic “maintenance sessions” to reinforce coping skills and ensure that symptoms stay manageable.