Chronic Illness Therapists in Oakland, CA

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Photo of Cathy Swift Nagel, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Oakland, CA
Cathy Swift Nagel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94609  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
As a Licensed Clinical Social Worker since 2001, I am deeply committed to supporting the well-being of each client, providing culturally competent services and helping clients improve their quality of life.  I see older and disabled adults, often dealing with chronic illness or a new diagnosis.  I have an extensive history working in medical settings and am also available to assist caregivers with navigating the health care system. I believe that positive change is possible at any age and at any juncture in a person's life.  I believe you can have a more fulfilling life, and I can help you.
As a Licensed Clinical Social Worker since 2001, I am deeply committed to supporting the well-being of each client, providing culturally competent services and helping clients improve their quality of life.  I see older and disabled adults, often dealing with chronic illness or a new diagnosis.  I have an extensive history working in medical settings and am also available to assist caregivers with navigating the health care system. I believe that positive change is possible at any age and at any juncture in a person's life.  I believe you can have a more fulfilling life, and I can help you.
(415) 715-1807 View (415) 715-1807
Photo of Talia Chanoff, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Oakland, CA
Talia Chanoff
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
Oakland, CA 94602
I also hold vast experience supporting individuals experiencing PTSD, chronic illness, chronic pain, eating disorders and those struggling with a complicated relationship with food.
I am here to be present with you as you explore and process how the vast injustices in the world may be affecting your internal states. Together we can examine the question: Is there something “wrong” with me as an individual, or do we live in an inequitable society that causes emotional and often generational trauma? Our trauma can lead to behaviors that do not ultimately serve us or align with our core values—but there is room to heal. Your ancestral roots, intersecting identities, and cultural practices are an honor for me to make space for in our work together.
I also hold vast experience supporting individuals experiencing PTSD, chronic illness, chronic pain, eating disorders and those struggling with a complicated relationship with food.
I am here to be present with you as you explore and process how the vast injustices in the world may be affecting your internal states. Together we can examine the question: Is there something “wrong” with me as an individual, or do we live in an inequitable society that causes emotional and often generational trauma? Our trauma can lead to behaviors that do not ultimately serve us or align with our core values—but there is room to heal. Your ancestral roots, intersecting identities, and cultural practices are an honor for me to make space for in our work together.
(415) 319-9235 View (415) 319-9235
Photo of Angela M. Anderson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Oakland, CA
Angela M. Anderson, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MA
Verified
Oakland, CA 94602
I am trained in EMDR and EFT which can be very helpful in processing symptoms related to depression, anxiety, chronic illness and difficult life experiences.
Do you struggle with feeling overwhelmed by your feelings and thoughts? Do you have trouble creating and maintaining relationships? Do you feel stuck? The answers we are looking for are not found in isolation but by coming together. My role is to facilitate the healing process for my clients by creating an open, nonjudgmental, and safe space to explore. Clients gain self-awareness, self-acceptance, and the skills they need to continue to heal and grow in connection with others.
I am trained in EMDR and EFT which can be very helpful in processing symptoms related to depression, anxiety, chronic illness and difficult life experiences.
Do you struggle with feeling overwhelmed by your feelings and thoughts? Do you have trouble creating and maintaining relationships? Do you feel stuck? The answers we are looking for are not found in isolation but by coming together. My role is to facilitate the healing process for my clients by creating an open, nonjudgmental, and safe space to explore. Clients gain self-awareness, self-acceptance, and the skills they need to continue to heal and grow in connection with others.
(510) 257-9468 View (510) 257-9468
Photo of Kamla Fennimore, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Oakland, CA
Kamla Fennimore
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
I specialize in working with individuals dealing with the complexities of chronic illness, bereavement, and faith transitions.
Feeling stuck in the messy middle? Finding yourself on an unexpected life path? Do you feel misunderstood, judged, or alone in your suffering? Looking for insight and growth? Over the last 20 years I have worked with a variety of clients who have diverse life experiences and various intersecting identities. I have a warm, supportive, empathetic and collaborative approach.
I specialize in working with individuals dealing with the complexities of chronic illness, bereavement, and faith transitions.
Feeling stuck in the messy middle? Finding yourself on an unexpected life path? Do you feel misunderstood, judged, or alone in your suffering? Looking for insight and growth? Over the last 20 years I have worked with a variety of clients who have diverse life experiences and various intersecting identities. I have a warm, supportive, empathetic and collaborative approach.
(510) 680-2149 View (510) 680-2149
Photo of Audrey L. Franklin, Psychologist in Oakland, CA
Audrey L. Franklin
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Oakland, CA 94618  (Online Only)
Are you feeling anxious or depressed, living with a chronic illness, going through a life transition or experiencing other challenging circumstances? As a licensed psychologist with 30 years of experience, I help people navigate difficult times with openness, curiosity and compassion. Together we can identify your particular needs and forge a path to best meet them. You may be struggling with difficulties from the past. You may want to transform repetitive thought and behavior patterns that are affecting your relationships and your job success. In our work, you can develop inner resources and skills to face life's challenges with greater freedom and resilience.
Are you feeling anxious or depressed, living with a chronic illness, going through a life transition or experiencing other challenging circumstances? As a licensed psychologist with 30 years of experience, I help people navigate difficult times with openness, curiosity and compassion. Together we can identify your particular needs and forge a path to best meet them. You may be struggling with difficulties from the past. You may want to transform repetitive thought and behavior patterns that are affecting your relationships and your job success. In our work, you can develop inner resources and skills to face life's challenges with greater freedom and resilience.
(415) 417-1392 View (415) 417-1392
Photo of Brandy Gadson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Oakland, CA
Brandy Gadson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94602
I work with individuals facing depression, chronic illness, anxiety, guilt, grief/loss, or who have endured physical, emotional or spiritual trauma.
My practice is rooted in the belief that there is power in knowing and telling your own story. Who are you? Where did you come from? What's important to you? Let's work together to untangle your story, identify your strengths, goals, passions, and barriers; and make you the author of what comes next. I work with people who want to make positive changes, but feel paralyzed by stress, fear, indecision, or old habits. I can also help you learn concrete strategies for managing uncomfortable thoughts, emotions, transitions, health conditions or problematic relationships.
I work with individuals facing depression, chronic illness, anxiety, guilt, grief/loss, or who have endured physical, emotional or spiritual trauma.
My practice is rooted in the belief that there is power in knowing and telling your own story. Who are you? Where did you come from? What's important to you? Let's work together to untangle your story, identify your strengths, goals, passions, and barriers; and make you the author of what comes next. I work with people who want to make positive changes, but feel paralyzed by stress, fear, indecision, or old habits. I can also help you learn concrete strategies for managing uncomfortable thoughts, emotions, transitions, health conditions or problematic relationships.
(510) 901-3757 View (510) 901-3757
Photo of Deep Insight Psychology , Psychologist in Oakland, CA
Deep Insight Psychology
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94601
In my work over the past several years, I have found that empowering individuals to explore themselves and the impact of their social, cultural, and inner world helps them navigate their own growth. It also empowers them to direct their healing. My experience of treatment ranges from depression, anxiety, trauma, chronic illness, and psychosomatic disorders to integral work in self-esteem, patterned behaviors, relational issues, and work-life balance issues tied to the symptoms experienced.
In my work over the past several years, I have found that empowering individuals to explore themselves and the impact of their social, cultural, and inner world helps them navigate their own growth. It also empowers them to direct their healing. My experience of treatment ranges from depression, anxiety, trauma, chronic illness, and psychosomatic disorders to integral work in self-esteem, patterned behaviors, relational issues, and work-life balance issues tied to the symptoms experienced.
(530) 454-8680 View (530) 454-8680
Photo of Gillian E Gillette, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Oakland, CA
Gillian E Gillette
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MS, AMFT, APCC
Verified
Oakland, CA 94618
Are you an individual or couple seeking a (Spanish/English) bilingual therapist to understand and explore your unique communication issues that come from cross-cultural coupledom? You may be a new parent with prenatal and postpartum issues such as fear, stress, depression, anxiety around birth, new roles, and family adjustment who needs help and support as you navigate your new family configuration. Individuals or families struggling with chronic illness issues and caretaking are under stress and may feel depression and anxiety around the Diagnosis trauma or may be experiencing anticipatory grief.
Are you an individual or couple seeking a (Spanish/English) bilingual therapist to understand and explore your unique communication issues that come from cross-cultural coupledom? You may be a new parent with prenatal and postpartum issues such as fear, stress, depression, anxiety around birth, new roles, and family adjustment who needs help and support as you navigate your new family configuration. Individuals or families struggling with chronic illness issues and caretaking are under stress and may feel depression and anxiety around the Diagnosis trauma or may be experiencing anticipatory grief.
(510) 398-4935 View (510) 398-4935
Photo of Cassandra Falby, Marriage & Family Therapist in Oakland, CA
Cassandra Falby
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94610  (Online Only)
I appreciate the opportunity to work with LGBTQIA folks, children of immigrants, folks in tech, and those living with a chronic illness (cancer, lupus, MS).
Therapy is one of few spaces that is dedicated to you and YOUR experiences. It is a non-judgmental space where you can explore issues that have gotten in the way of living with greater ease and comfort. Only you are the keeper of your truth and your story. I can support you in exploring how to hold difficult feelings in more helpful ways whether they be worry, shame, hurt, or pride. What would it be like to increase your emotional buoyancy as you create a path to healing and deeper self-knowledge? What kind of life might that give you?
I appreciate the opportunity to work with LGBTQIA folks, children of immigrants, folks in tech, and those living with a chronic illness (cancer, lupus, MS).
Therapy is one of few spaces that is dedicated to you and YOUR experiences. It is a non-judgmental space where you can explore issues that have gotten in the way of living with greater ease and comfort. Only you are the keeper of your truth and your story. I can support you in exploring how to hold difficult feelings in more helpful ways whether they be worry, shame, hurt, or pride. What would it be like to increase your emotional buoyancy as you create a path to healing and deeper self-knowledge? What kind of life might that give you?
(510) 924-0808 View (510) 924-0808
Photo of Wisdom of Mind and Body, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Oakland, CA
Wisdom of Mind and Body
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Oakland, CA 94611
We all want the same things. To be understood, recognized, treated with kindness and respect. To feel like we belong. We share the same path to growth through self-effort in overcoming challenges in our life’s journey. Are you mastering the game of life? You are more powerful than your past or stories. Truth be told, “life is simply what you create it to mean.” Imagine yourself as the eagle that soars up into the sky with Wisdom as a compass. I can help you with self-esteem, family, career, trauma, grief, chronic illness, depression, anxiety, womens’ empowerment, life transitions, relationships, death/dying, and pet loss.
We all want the same things. To be understood, recognized, treated with kindness and respect. To feel like we belong. We share the same path to growth through self-effort in overcoming challenges in our life’s journey. Are you mastering the game of life? You are more powerful than your past or stories. Truth be told, “life is simply what you create it to mean.” Imagine yourself as the eagle that soars up into the sky with Wisdom as a compass. I can help you with self-esteem, family, career, trauma, grief, chronic illness, depression, anxiety, womens’ empowerment, life transitions, relationships, death/dying, and pet loss.
(925) 255-7552 View (925) 255-7552
Photo of Dr. Aviva Wilcox, Psychologist in Oakland, CA
Dr. Aviva Wilcox
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Oakland, CA 94602  (Online Only)
I support folks in navigating anxiety, depression, grief, chronic illness, and life transitions, including divorce, identity exploration, and responding to the impacts of discrimination.
The single most consistent predictor of success in therapy is the relationship between therapist and client. I prioritize creating a trusting relationship. My approach is collaborative, relational, and interactive. I balance listening deeply with gently challenging clients to make meaningful change. I am not a therapist who sits back silently. I also do not presume that any given technique or my own experience hold all the answers in our journey together. Rather, I draw on evidence-based, relational practices, more than a decade of clinical practice, and your lived experience, cultural and personal practices, beliefs, and values.
I support folks in navigating anxiety, depression, grief, chronic illness, and life transitions, including divorce, identity exploration, and responding to the impacts of discrimination.
The single most consistent predictor of success in therapy is the relationship between therapist and client. I prioritize creating a trusting relationship. My approach is collaborative, relational, and interactive. I balance listening deeply with gently challenging clients to make meaningful change. I am not a therapist who sits back silently. I also do not presume that any given technique or my own experience hold all the answers in our journey together. Rather, I draw on evidence-based, relational practices, more than a decade of clinical practice, and your lived experience, cultural and personal practices, beliefs, and values.
(510) 902-1335 View (510) 902-1335
Photo of Camille Bien, Marriage & Family Therapist in Oakland, CA
Camille Bien
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, EMDR
Verified
Oakland, CA 94609
During this phase in life, you may be diagnosed with a chronic illness, raising a child, or losing a parent.
Do you feel hopelessly stuck, frustrated, depressed, or anxious due to childhood trauma? Do you feel distant in your relationships with others? I’m here to help you find meaningful connections and balance the constant changes in life. In therapy, I can provide you a safe and warm environment for you to process your trauma or triggers. I will assist you in discovering your own strengths and developing new tools to manage negative feelings and thoughts.
During this phase in life, you may be diagnosed with a chronic illness, raising a child, or losing a parent.
Do you feel hopelessly stuck, frustrated, depressed, or anxious due to childhood trauma? Do you feel distant in your relationships with others? I’m here to help you find meaningful connections and balance the constant changes in life. In therapy, I can provide you a safe and warm environment for you to process your trauma or triggers. I will assist you in discovering your own strengths and developing new tools to manage negative feelings and thoughts.
(415) 306-8603 View (415) 306-8603
Photo of Neda Nguyen Baraghani, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Oakland, CA
Neda Nguyen Baraghani
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
I am passionate about working with those who struggle with relationships and boundary setting, particularly those who struggle with balancing differing sets of expectations due to cultural, physical, or mental factors. I work well with people from diverse cultural backgrounds, immigrant and first and second generation individuals and families, mixed race or multicultural individuals, and those who are struggling with chronic illness.
I am passionate about working with those who struggle with relationships and boundary setting, particularly those who struggle with balancing differing sets of expectations due to cultural, physical, or mental factors. I work well with people from diverse cultural backgrounds, immigrant and first and second generation individuals and families, mixed race or multicultural individuals, and those who are struggling with chronic illness.
(510) 800-2874 View (510) 800-2874
Photo of Helga Cohen, Marriage & Family Therapist in Oakland, CA
Helga Cohen
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
The current pandemic, environmental conditions, and political situation are overwhelming. Psychotherapy is helpful and transformative in dealing with the challenges that affect our social interactions and emotional well-being. I work with people dealing with depression, anxiety, life transitions, grief, and chronic illness. We set goals to redefine personal and professional directions.
The current pandemic, environmental conditions, and political situation are overwhelming. Psychotherapy is helpful and transformative in dealing with the challenges that affect our social interactions and emotional well-being. I work with people dealing with depression, anxiety, life transitions, grief, and chronic illness. We set goals to redefine personal and professional directions.
(510) 858-2940 View (510) 858-2940
Photo of Deanne Samuels, Psychologist in Oakland, CA
Deanne Samuels
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Oakland, CA 94605
Is stress, anxiety, chronic illness, or pain affecting your life? Does imposter syndrome reduce enjoyment of your achievements. I can help. I specialize in stress management, health anxiety / hypochondria, pain management, panic, smoking cessation, and support for those living with chronic illness (e.g., cancer). I am trained in techniques for those experiencing imposter syndrome. I utilize short-term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation /meditation, mindfulness, and cognitive restructuring techniques to get you back to living your life. Phone / video sessions only for CALIFORNIA residents and FLORIDA residents.
Is stress, anxiety, chronic illness, or pain affecting your life? Does imposter syndrome reduce enjoyment of your achievements. I can help. I specialize in stress management, health anxiety / hypochondria, pain management, panic, smoking cessation, and support for those living with chronic illness (e.g., cancer). I am trained in techniques for those experiencing imposter syndrome. I utilize short-term cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), relaxation /meditation, mindfulness, and cognitive restructuring techniques to get you back to living your life. Phone / video sessions only for CALIFORNIA residents and FLORIDA residents.
(628) 222-4058 View (628) 222-4058
Photo of Alli Yates, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Oakland, CA
Alli Yates
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified
Oakland, CA 94609
I welcome themes related to belonging, grief and loss, queer and trans community dynamics, non-monogamy, BDSM/kink, chronic illness and disability, and loneliness/isolation.
As a therapist with a focus on developmental trauma and working with queer and trans adults and teens, I believe that early life experiences and ongoing structural contexts immensely inform our relationship to ourselves and each other. I hold this framework with my background in somatic psychotherapy, which considers the ways our bodies and nervous systems relate to our emotions and experiences. There is no one way to relate to the past, embody our feelings, or find healing. In therapy, we find a way for you together. My role is to hold consistent curiosity, rigor, and care throughout the process of your own self-discovery.
I welcome themes related to belonging, grief and loss, queer and trans community dynamics, non-monogamy, BDSM/kink, chronic illness and disability, and loneliness/isolation.
As a therapist with a focus on developmental trauma and working with queer and trans adults and teens, I believe that early life experiences and ongoing structural contexts immensely inform our relationship to ourselves and each other. I hold this framework with my background in somatic psychotherapy, which considers the ways our bodies and nervous systems relate to our emotions and experiences. There is no one way to relate to the past, embody our feelings, or find healing. In therapy, we find a way for you together. My role is to hold consistent curiosity, rigor, and care throughout the process of your own self-discovery.
(510) 288-3582 View (510) 288-3582
Photo of Lynn C Welch, Marriage & Family Therapist in Oakland, CA
Lynn C Welch
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified
Oakland, CA 94618
I view therapy as a collaborative process that helps you gain access to a healthier and more creative life. I have a deep appreciation for the spontaneous moments - both joyful and poignant - that arise out of authentic engagement and provide a safe, compassionate space to explore issues related to chronic illness, anxiety/depression, grief/ loss, disordered eating and relationships.
I view therapy as a collaborative process that helps you gain access to a healthier and more creative life. I have a deep appreciation for the spontaneous moments - both joyful and poignant - that arise out of authentic engagement and provide a safe, compassionate space to explore issues related to chronic illness, anxiety/depression, grief/ loss, disordered eating and relationships.
(341) 895-7754 View (341) 895-7754
Photo of Molly S Mollin, Marriage & Family Therapist in Oakland, CA
Molly S Mollin
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified
Oakland, CA 94601  (Online Only)
My counseling experience includes co-occurring disorders, substance use, emotional regulation, depression, anxiety, chronic illness, and interpersonal difficulties.
I have over 20 years of experience working with adults, children, adolescents, and couples in a variety of settings. My approach involves warmth, honesty, insight, compassion, and humor. My philosophy is grounded in the core Humanistic principles of genuineness, empathy, and respect. Through my work, I have helped people from diverse backgrounds achieve improved health and move toward greater satisfaction in their lives and in themselves. I encourage individuals to tap into their own inherent strengths to find new, and more constructive, ways of navigating life's problems.
My counseling experience includes co-occurring disorders, substance use, emotional regulation, depression, anxiety, chronic illness, and interpersonal difficulties.
I have over 20 years of experience working with adults, children, adolescents, and couples in a variety of settings. My approach involves warmth, honesty, insight, compassion, and humor. My philosophy is grounded in the core Humanistic principles of genuineness, empathy, and respect. Through my work, I have helped people from diverse backgrounds achieve improved health and move toward greater satisfaction in their lives and in themselves. I encourage individuals to tap into their own inherent strengths to find new, and more constructive, ways of navigating life's problems.
(415) 516-3641 View (415) 516-3641
Photo of Clinical Hypnosis of Joseph R Giove, Clinical Hypnotherapist in Oakland, CA
Clinical Hypnosis of Joseph R Giove
Clinical Hypnotherapist, CCht
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94622
As a biomedical engineer and clinical hypnotist, I have developed a unique approach to mind-body wellness and performance optimization. For over 30 years I have helped people suffering from stress, anxiety, insomnia, addiction, panic, fears, phobias, chronic illness, allergies, weight loss and more.
As a biomedical engineer and clinical hypnotist, I have developed a unique approach to mind-body wellness and performance optimization. For over 30 years I have helped people suffering from stress, anxiety, insomnia, addiction, panic, fears, phobias, chronic illness, allergies, weight loss and more.
(925) 297-1391 View (925) 297-1391
Photo of Julie Stefan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Oakland, CA
Julie Stefan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Oakland, CA 94603
I have found that my style and previous professional experience are a good fit for those dealing with chronic illness or a traumatic injury/medical condition as well as those going through life transitions and experiencing depression/anxiety.
My name is Julie Stefan, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in Orange County, CA, and working with clients statewide via telehealth. I work with adults and specialize in individuals experiencing stress and anxiety/depression due to chronic illness or recovering from a traumatic injury or health condition. Using an eclectic, supportive approach I aim to help my clients feel cared for and to improve their current mood.
I have found that my style and previous professional experience are a good fit for those dealing with chronic illness or a traumatic injury/medical condition as well as those going through life transitions and experiencing depression/anxiety.
My name is Julie Stefan, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) based in Orange County, CA, and working with clients statewide via telehealth. I work with adults and specialize in individuals experiencing stress and anxiety/depression due to chronic illness or recovering from a traumatic injury or health condition. Using an eclectic, supportive approach I aim to help my clients feel cared for and to improve their current mood.
(408) 692-9270 View (408) 692-9270

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Chronic Illness Therapists

How does therapy for chronic illness work?

Many people living with a chronic illness may feel they cannot speak honestly about their experience out of embarrassment or fear of being a burden, or because those close to them do not understand, for example, that they may “look good” even if they do not feel good. Therapy sessions are an opportunity to speak openly with someone who knows their symptoms are not in their head and who can offer practical, proven suggestions for managing feelings of grief, shame, or fatigue, such as techniques to challenge unhelpful thoughts about symptoms and develop new ways to respond to them, such as distraction or calming breathing practices.

Can therapy help with physical symptoms of chronic illness?

Yes, especially if an individual with chronic illness has developed depression. People with depression are less likely to maintain their health treatment regimens or to take positive steps to manage physical symptoms when they arise, thereby potentially complicating their medical prognosis. Treatment of depression, through talk therapy, medication, or both, will often improve one’s physical state as it eases the emotional burden of illness.

What are the most effective treatment options for chronic illness?

No one living with a chronic illness, or their loved ones, should see depression as an unavoidable result of their condition. Instead, they should actively seek treatment. Research shows that people with depression are less likely to devote the required time and effort to maintaining or monitoring their health, and so therapy to limit the risk of depression can be vital for physical health as well. Therapeutic approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction have been found to help individuals reduce stress and anxiety.

How long does therapy for chronic illness take?

There is no set timeline for therapy for people living with chronic illnesses, but many will see a therapist for a number of weeks or months, typically spanning at least 12 weekly sessions. Some people feel that they experience progress faster than others but even some who quickly feel improvement may continue with sessions for months or years. Some people may benefit from maintenance therapy if their symptoms change or they experience a decline in physical health. Others find that the skills learned in short-term therapy can be used on an ongoing basis, even after therapy has concluded.