Therapists in Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA

Photo of Terri J Brenneman, PhD, Psychologist
Terri J Brenneman
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
Clinical Psychologist providing mindfulness based psychotherapy for adults and late adolescents, specializing in stress reduction, ADHD, weight/health management, life transitions, anxiety, infertility, and premarital counseling. Also, conduct psychological assessments for bariatric surgery candidates, ADHD (adult and child), adoption, and clergy
Clinical Psychologist providing mindfulness based psychotherapy for adults and late adolescents, specializing in stress reduction, ADHD, weight/health management, life transitions, anxiety, infertility, and premarital counseling. Also, conduct psychological assessments for bariatric surgery candidates, ADHD (adult and child), adoption, and clergy
(510) 573-7350 View (510) 573-7350
Photo of Steven Herrmann, PhD, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Steven Herrmann
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, MFT
Verified Verified
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
Jungian Analyst Steven Herrmann, Ph.D., MFT, Montclair, Oakland, California. Are you looking to find ways to make changes in order to live a more satisfying and meaningful life? Are you finding yourself in repetitive patterns that are no longer working for you? Then I may be of assistance to you. I bring an in-depth approach that builds on your strengths and aims to untangle the roots to what is causing problems. This may lead to a reduction in painful symptoms, an opening of vocational possibilities, a newly found sense of joy, and to the transformation of your personality. Please feel free to visit my website at stevenherrmann.com
Jungian Analyst Steven Herrmann, Ph.D., MFT, Montclair, Oakland, California. Are you looking to find ways to make changes in order to live a more satisfying and meaningful life? Are you finding yourself in repetitive patterns that are no longer working for you? Then I may be of assistance to you. I bring an in-depth approach that builds on your strengths and aims to untangle the roots to what is causing problems. This may lead to a reduction in painful symptoms, an opening of vocational possibilities, a newly found sense of joy, and to the transformation of your personality. Please feel free to visit my website at stevenherrmann.com
(510) 531-2534 View (510) 531-2534
Photo of Shannon Hurley, MA, Psychological Associate
Shannon Hurley
Psychological Associate, MA
Verified Verified
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
I am a therapist who believes that healing is done within the context of relationship. This includes an individual’s relationship to their body, their environment, and interpersonally. I seek to help empower my clients in order for them to gain confidence in their own capacity to be successful. I hope to offer individuals an opportunity to enrich and find deep meaning in their lives
I am a therapist who believes that healing is done within the context of relationship. This includes an individual’s relationship to their body, their environment, and interpersonally. I seek to help empower my clients in order for them to gain confidence in their own capacity to be successful. I hope to offer individuals an opportunity to enrich and find deep meaning in their lives
(510) 901-3242 View (510) 901-3242
Photo of Laurie Navarro Misra, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Laurie Navarro Misra
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
Common to the clients I work with is the desire to acquire a deeper understanding of themselves, to feel less stuck, better at voicing their needs, to feel less worry, more presence and joy. Many are seeking more meaningful connections & better communication in relationships. Recovery from difficult aspects of childhood, stressful life transitions, parenting challenges, and questions around identity often come up. Some clients are exploring spirituality. Most are unpacking familial and social beliefs and behavior patterns, while defining and creating new ones. Common to our human experience is adjusting to the constant changes.
Common to the clients I work with is the desire to acquire a deeper understanding of themselves, to feel less stuck, better at voicing their needs, to feel less worry, more presence and joy. Many are seeking more meaningful connections & better communication in relationships. Recovery from difficult aspects of childhood, stressful life transitions, parenting challenges, and questions around identity often come up. Some clients are exploring spirituality. Most are unpacking familial and social beliefs and behavior patterns, while defining and creating new ones. Common to our human experience is adjusting to the constant changes.
(510) 756-4271 View (510) 756-4271
Photo of Lara Weyland, PhD, Psychologist
Lara Weyland
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
I bring to my work understanding, compassion and extensive training as a psychotherapist and psychoanalyst. I have years of experience working with issues related to addiction; depression and anxiety; trauma; relationship, parenting, and family issues; life transition and questions like "What do I really want?" and "What is important to me?" I believe psychotherapy is a process that offers a way to understand troubling experiences and relationships that result in unhappiness, disappointments, and dissatisfaction, which build up over the course of life. Working with me offers new ways of thinking, feeling and relating.
I bring to my work understanding, compassion and extensive training as a psychotherapist and psychoanalyst. I have years of experience working with issues related to addiction; depression and anxiety; trauma; relationship, parenting, and family issues; life transition and questions like "What do I really want?" and "What is important to me?" I believe psychotherapy is a process that offers a way to understand troubling experiences and relationships that result in unhappiness, disappointments, and dissatisfaction, which build up over the course of life. Working with me offers new ways of thinking, feeling and relating.
(510) 878-4400 View (510) 878-4400
Photo of Lori Goldrich, PhD, Psychologist
Lori Goldrich
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
Are you looking to find ways to make changes so you can live a more satisfying and meaningful life? Are you finding yourself in repetitive patterns that are no longer working for you? I may be of assistance to you. I bring an in-depth approach that builds on your strengths and aims to untangle the roots to what is causing problems for you. This can lead to reduction in painful symptoms such as anxiety and depression, and to finding more constructive ways for you to address life challenges. I bring a gift in helping you fulfill your life potential.
Are you looking to find ways to make changes so you can live a more satisfying and meaningful life? Are you finding yourself in repetitive patterns that are no longer working for you? I may be of assistance to you. I bring an in-depth approach that builds on your strengths and aims to untangle the roots to what is causing problems for you. This can lead to reduction in painful symptoms such as anxiety and depression, and to finding more constructive ways for you to address life challenges. I bring a gift in helping you fulfill your life potential.
(510) 698-4353 View (510) 698-4353
Photo of Dana Cole, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dana Cole
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
Most people looking for a relationship therapist wish they could make changes, but don't know how. What they have tried has not worked. Everyone has irresolvable issues. Never do we have the exact same desire for money in the bank, sexual frequency, social activities, neatness, or parenting ideas (etc.) This is built-in conflict. This built-in conflict carries with it the seeds for growth and connection that would not happen in any other way. Living in distress is so awful and so curable. What I do is start with creating safety, so it is safe for you to talk to your partner and be heard, from there needed conversations can occur.
Most people looking for a relationship therapist wish they could make changes, but don't know how. What they have tried has not worked. Everyone has irresolvable issues. Never do we have the exact same desire for money in the bank, sexual frequency, social activities, neatness, or parenting ideas (etc.) This is built-in conflict. This built-in conflict carries with it the seeds for growth and connection that would not happen in any other way. Living in distress is so awful and so curable. What I do is start with creating safety, so it is safe for you to talk to your partner and be heard, from there needed conversations can occur.
(510) 878-4737 View (510) 878-4737
Photo of Amy Taylor Griffin, LCSW, PsyD, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Amy Taylor Griffin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PsyD
Verified Verified
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
Adulting is hard! So is being a kid! My therapy offers a safe space to strengthen you and/or your child’s resiliency and find the ease you’ve been seeking. Together, let’s deepen your self-understanding with therapy in a collaborative journey of compassion, healing, and skill building. We all need support at times to develop our strengths, gain guidance towards healing, and create space for positive change.
Adulting is hard! So is being a kid! My therapy offers a safe space to strengthen you and/or your child’s resiliency and find the ease you’ve been seeking. Together, let’s deepen your self-understanding with therapy in a collaborative journey of compassion, healing, and skill building. We all need support at times to develop our strengths, gain guidance towards healing, and create space for positive change.
(510) 350-3934 View (510) 350-3934
Photo of Jeff Taylor, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jeff Taylor
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
I came to this field when I began my recovery 17 years ago, feeling that my lived experience would be greatly beneficial for others struggling to find new ways of being. I believe we all want to be our best selves, and have the capacity for real change. It is my honor to support and facilitate that process, working in genuine collaboration with my clients, and to offer unconditional respect and compassion through the transformation. We can work together on priorities you identify, in a way that suits you. ***I offer a free initial 30 minute session***
I came to this field when I began my recovery 17 years ago, feeling that my lived experience would be greatly beneficial for others struggling to find new ways of being. I believe we all want to be our best selves, and have the capacity for real change. It is my honor to support and facilitate that process, working in genuine collaboration with my clients, and to offer unconditional respect and compassion through the transformation. We can work together on priorities you identify, in a way that suits you. ***I offer a free initial 30 minute session***
(510) 674-0587 View (510) 674-0587
Photo of Jennifer Howard, PsyD, Psychologist
Jennifer Howard
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA 94611
My approach is grounded in Cognitive-Behavioral and Attachment Theories. I also incorporate the practices of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction and ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy). I aspire to meet clients where they are, and help each individual to work on his or her expressed goals. I enjoy taking this journey with clients to navigate some of their most difficult and challenging moments in life, to help prevent troubled kids or young adults from more serious trouble, and to help all clients who seek my support turn their life's biggest challenges into opportunities for growth and lasting change.
My approach is grounded in Cognitive-Behavioral and Attachment Theories. I also incorporate the practices of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction and ACT (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy). I aspire to meet clients where they are, and help each individual to work on his or her expressed goals. I enjoy taking this journey with clients to navigate some of their most difficult and challenging moments in life, to help prevent troubled kids or young adults from more serious trouble, and to help all clients who seek my support turn their life's biggest challenges into opportunities for growth and lasting change.
(510) 289-9490 View (510) 289-9490

Online Therapists

Photo of Lauren Go, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Lauren Go
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
Choosing a therapist can be intimidating, especially for people of color. We might wonder if our therapist will understand the significant role of various cultural factors in our experience. I believe each individual brings with them a set of unique experiences, values, and goals, regardless of background. Perhaps you are an individual looking for a safe space to explore your identity, including ethnicity and gender. Maybe you are already in couples therapy and want the dedicated support of your own individual sessions. Or maybe you are having difficulty communicating with family members due to generational differences.
Choosing a therapist can be intimidating, especially for people of color. We might wonder if our therapist will understand the significant role of various cultural factors in our experience. I believe each individual brings with them a set of unique experiences, values, and goals, regardless of background. Perhaps you are an individual looking for a safe space to explore your identity, including ethnicity and gender. Maybe you are already in couples therapy and want the dedicated support of your own individual sessions. Or maybe you are having difficulty communicating with family members due to generational differences.
View
Photo of Nina Hausman, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Nina Hausman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
Are you feeling stuck in life? Maybe you’re struggling with relationship challenges, past traumas or work stress? Is shame, anxiety, anger or numbness affecting your ability to be happy? Maybe you’re wondering how your substance use, or that of a loved one, is related to any of this? I’d like to offer you a non-judgmental space to explore behaviors, beliefs and feelings that keep you from living the life you want to live. You are not broken and I would be honored to help you reconnect to the innate wisdom and power of your authentic self. My style is real, warm and respectful of your choices, whatever they may be.
Are you feeling stuck in life? Maybe you’re struggling with relationship challenges, past traumas or work stress? Is shame, anxiety, anger or numbness affecting your ability to be happy? Maybe you’re wondering how your substance use, or that of a loved one, is related to any of this? I’d like to offer you a non-judgmental space to explore behaviors, beliefs and feelings that keep you from living the life you want to live. You are not broken and I would be honored to help you reconnect to the innate wisdom and power of your authentic self. My style is real, warm and respectful of your choices, whatever they may be.
(510) 405-0628 View (510) 405-0628
Photo of Stephanie Bossy, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Stephanie Bossy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94618
I welcome you to journey inward with the support of another person by your side. In our work together, I hope to make space for all parts of your experience to come forward, especially ones that have seemed unacceptable or unwelcome in society. My approach to psychotherapy is holistic. It is descriptive rather than prescriptive, and focused on the whole person and their environment.
I welcome you to journey inward with the support of another person by your side. In our work together, I hope to make space for all parts of your experience to come forward, especially ones that have seemed unacceptable or unwelcome in society. My approach to psychotherapy is holistic. It is descriptive rather than prescriptive, and focused on the whole person and their environment.
(415) 914-7597 View (415) 914-7597
Photo of Ashley Mezzasalma, PsyD, Psychologist
Ashley Mezzasalma
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
It is a brave thing to ask for help. When we ask for help, we acknowledge two things: first, that our circumstances are not what we would like them to be; and second, that we don't know how to change them. As a psychologist, it is my job to help those who are suffering navigate to a place of healing. I have many years of experience with evidence-based practices such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Solution-focused therapy. I tailor my approach to my client and draw from different therapeutic frameworks depending on the person and their needs.
It is a brave thing to ask for help. When we ask for help, we acknowledge two things: first, that our circumstances are not what we would like them to be; and second, that we don't know how to change them. As a psychologist, it is my job to help those who are suffering navigate to a place of healing. I have many years of experience with evidence-based practices such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Solution-focused therapy. I tailor my approach to my client and draw from different therapeutic frameworks depending on the person and their needs.
(510) 737-7004 View (510) 737-7004
Photo of Kathleen Parkinson McConnell, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kathleen Parkinson McConnell
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94611
"Reaching out is the first step. I invite you to take that first step and CALL me at 510-652-1902. I look forward to talking with you."
"Reaching out is the first step. I invite you to take that first step and CALL me at 510-652-1902. I look forward to talking with you."
(510) 652-1902 View (510) 652-1902
Photo of Heather Hardeman Galvano, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Heather Hardeman Galvano
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
It can be vulnerable to start therapy; it takes courage. I believe it can be very rewarding and is one of the most powerful paths of transformation. Being in therapy is an opportunity to look at your life, and to learn new ways of relating to yourself, to others, and to your circumstances. This process can ease the pain of whatever difficulty you may be going through. It is an opportunity to not have to be alone with your pain, but to have the support and guidance of someone who is familiar with the terrain of the human psyche.
It can be vulnerable to start therapy; it takes courage. I believe it can be very rewarding and is one of the most powerful paths of transformation. Being in therapy is an opportunity to look at your life, and to learn new ways of relating to yourself, to others, and to your circumstances. This process can ease the pain of whatever difficulty you may be going through. It is an opportunity to not have to be alone with your pain, but to have the support and guidance of someone who is familiar with the terrain of the human psyche.
(210) 248-8068 View (210) 248-8068
Photo of Dr. Jadu Malcolm Jagel, PsyD, Psychologist
Dr. Jadu Malcolm Jagel
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94609
Therapy offers the chance to become more present with ourselves. Together we contemplate the human journey. We can get familiar with our innate mindfulness and compassion. On my journey I've realized that well being can be learned; achieved with a level of skillfulness, a window of tolerance. Getting triggered helps us learn. I help individuals and couples study their nervous systems and their "parts" -- a complex legacy of neurobiological attachment wiring. With a manner that is warm, relatable, and active yet non-invasive, I help my clients find meaning, hope, and the freedom to become who they were meant to be.
Therapy offers the chance to become more present with ourselves. Together we contemplate the human journey. We can get familiar with our innate mindfulness and compassion. On my journey I've realized that well being can be learned; achieved with a level of skillfulness, a window of tolerance. Getting triggered helps us learn. I help individuals and couples study their nervous systems and their "parts" -- a complex legacy of neurobiological attachment wiring. With a manner that is warm, relatable, and active yet non-invasive, I help my clients find meaning, hope, and the freedom to become who they were meant to be.
(415) 707-8552 View (415) 707-8552
Photo of Dr. Katie Mai Findley, PsyD, BCBA, LMFT, CGT, CST, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. Katie Mai Findley
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, BCBA, LMFT, CGT, CST
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94609  (Online Only)
Dr. Findley is a Certified Gottman Couples Therapist and AASECT certified Sex Therapist. A UC Berkeley graduate with training and education from Stanford University, Yale University, Harvard University, the Gottman Institute, and Modern Sex Therapy Institute, Dr. Findley uses the knowledge and tools she gained to help others make meaningful change in their lives. She utilizes the latest, most effective treatment.
Dr. Findley is a Certified Gottman Couples Therapist and AASECT certified Sex Therapist. A UC Berkeley graduate with training and education from Stanford University, Yale University, Harvard University, the Gottman Institute, and Modern Sex Therapy Institute, Dr. Findley uses the knowledge and tools she gained to help others make meaningful change in their lives. She utilizes the latest, most effective treatment.
(707) 475-3959 View (707) 475-3959
Photo of Sara Ouimette Grief Therapy, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Sara Ouimette Grief Therapy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611
You're here because you want more from life after loss and/or disappointment. Perhaps you've accomplished all you hoped for, and still feel incomplete. Or maybe nothing went as planned, and you're grappling with the loss of the life you so wanted for yourself. I work with high achievers and creatives who are used to making things happen for themselves, yet feel a general lack of joy and satisfaction (especially after achieving their goals or having arrived in mid-life). You might be asking yourself if this is all there is. I'm so glad you're here, because there absolutely is more if you're willing to go within to find it.
You're here because you want more from life after loss and/or disappointment. Perhaps you've accomplished all you hoped for, and still feel incomplete. Or maybe nothing went as planned, and you're grappling with the loss of the life you so wanted for yourself. I work with high achievers and creatives who are used to making things happen for themselves, yet feel a general lack of joy and satisfaction (especially after achieving their goals or having arrived in mid-life). You might be asking yourself if this is all there is. I'm so glad you're here, because there absolutely is more if you're willing to go within to find it.
(510) 447-1443 View (510) 447-1443
Photo of Alli Gremillion, ASW
Alli Gremillion
Associate Clinical Social Worker, ASW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
Hi, I’m Alli, a trauma-informed relational therapist, specialized in working with couples, parents, parent-child, siblings, and individuals. You may be seeking effective communication and conflict management in your relationships. You desire to build trust and connection, enhance your relational intelligence, and cultivate a deeper understanding of yourself and others. Perhaps you're navigating challenging moods such as anxiety, depression and loneliness, or you're dealing with recurring problems that keep you feeling stuck. You recognize these experiences are deeply intertwined with the quality of your relationships and life.
Hi, I’m Alli, a trauma-informed relational therapist, specialized in working with couples, parents, parent-child, siblings, and individuals. You may be seeking effective communication and conflict management in your relationships. You desire to build trust and connection, enhance your relational intelligence, and cultivate a deeper understanding of yourself and others. Perhaps you're navigating challenging moods such as anxiety, depression and loneliness, or you're dealing with recurring problems that keep you feeling stuck. You recognize these experiences are deeply intertwined with the quality of your relationships and life.
(510) 250-3756 View (510) 250-3756

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA

10+

Average cost per session

$200

Therapists in Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
80% Trauma and PTSD
70% Relationship Issues
70% Grief
70% Parenting
60% Depression
60% Spirituality

Average years in practice

20 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

50% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
50% Other
50% Optum

How Therapists in Shepherd Canyon, Oakland, CA see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Shepherd Canyon, Oakland?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.