Therapists in Piedmont, Oakland, CA

Photo of Krystal J Alderete, LMFT, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Krystal J Alderete
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MA
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94618  (Online Only)
I am a licensed marriage and family therapist specializing in child and adolescent development with over 15 years of experience working with children, teens and families. I have extensive training in child development and have been employed in outpatient and inpatient facilities, have served as the lead mental health clinician in multidisciplinary teams working with children struggling with feeding issues, and have run social skills groups in addition to providing individual and family treatment. I have a substantial amount of experience with teens suffering from anxiety and depression.
I am a licensed marriage and family therapist specializing in child and adolescent development with over 15 years of experience working with children, teens and families. I have extensive training in child development and have been employed in outpatient and inpatient facilities, have served as the lead mental health clinician in multidisciplinary teams working with children struggling with feeding issues, and have run social skills groups in addition to providing individual and family treatment. I have a substantial amount of experience with teens suffering from anxiety and depression.
(415) 969-6011 View (415) 969-6011
Photo of Fernando Castrillon - Dr. Fernando Castrillon, Licensed Psychologist, PsyD, Psychologist
Dr. Fernando Castrillon, Licensed Psychologist
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
Waitlist for new clients
As a psychoanalyst and clinical psychologist, I work with a variety of issues ranging from depression, sadness and anxiety to more severe issues such as schizophrenia and personality disorders. I work best with those clients who are interested in making lasting changes in their inner lives and circumstances. In my practice, I provide you with a place to speak freely, so that through this singular experience of speaking you can articulate your desire and assume responsibility for your life.
As a psychoanalyst and clinical psychologist, I work with a variety of issues ranging from depression, sadness and anxiety to more severe issues such as schizophrenia and personality disorders. I work best with those clients who are interested in making lasting changes in their inner lives and circumstances. In my practice, I provide you with a place to speak freely, so that through this singular experience of speaking you can articulate your desire and assume responsibility for your life.
(510) 228-4075 View (510) 228-4075
Photo of Beth Gadomski, PsyD, Psychologist
Beth Gadomski
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
After working at Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley, I started my private practice in 2015. My ideal client is motivated to align with their personal and relational integrity, allowing them to reduce symptoms and signs of distress, as well as pursue a life congruent with their authentic self, their intersectional identity, and their wellness. This include female-identified and non-binary individuals, as well as couples/partners (of all genders, sexual orientations, and relationship structures) who identify as non-traditional, including Queer, CNM/Poly, Kinky, and/or subcultural communities (e.g. Burners).
After working at Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley, I started my private practice in 2015. My ideal client is motivated to align with their personal and relational integrity, allowing them to reduce symptoms and signs of distress, as well as pursue a life congruent with their authentic self, their intersectional identity, and their wellness. This include female-identified and non-binary individuals, as well as couples/partners (of all genders, sexual orientations, and relationship structures) who identify as non-traditional, including Queer, CNM/Poly, Kinky, and/or subcultural communities (e.g. Burners).
(415) 373-6080 View (415) 373-6080
Photo of David Jay Goldman, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
David Jay Goldman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
'Tell me, what is it you plan to do with your one wild and precious life?' - Mary Oliver. Choosing a therapist can be an intimidating process and reaching out for help can be uncomfortable, but we all need support in order to thrive. Within a warm, open and compassionate environment, my practice helps clients make sense of the challenges they face and use this understanding to navigate their lives with increased resilience and grace.
'Tell me, what is it you plan to do with your one wild and precious life?' - Mary Oliver. Choosing a therapist can be an intimidating process and reaching out for help can be uncomfortable, but we all need support in order to thrive. Within a warm, open and compassionate environment, my practice helps clients make sense of the challenges they face and use this understanding to navigate their lives with increased resilience and grace.
(415) 942-8947 View (415) 942-8947
Photo of Larisa Blum, MA, MFT, JD, CMT-SE, Marriage & Family Therapist
Larisa Blum
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT, JD, CMT-SE
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
I am a somatic therapist who focuses on relational, attachment and childhood trauma issues. I work with individuals and couples to address relationship ambivalence, anxiety, major life transition, depression, stuckness, poor communication and conflict, among other issues. I help with building awareness of one's thoughts, feelings and physical sensations to develop greater insight and uncover new choices.
I am a somatic therapist who focuses on relational, attachment and childhood trauma issues. I work with individuals and couples to address relationship ambivalence, anxiety, major life transition, depression, stuckness, poor communication and conflict, among other issues. I help with building awareness of one's thoughts, feelings and physical sensations to develop greater insight and uncover new choices.
(510) 924-0161 View (510) 924-0161
Photo of (Will) Se Williams, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
(Will) Se Williams
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
I offer holistic and depthful therapy that is both affirming and collaborative. My clients appreciate my gentleness, compassion & humor. My approach is de-stigmatizing and non-shaming, addressing & coming into contact with held stories and social narratives that may not match your current self or the self that wants to be. I hold an adaptive client centered framework utilizing trauma informed, social justice, somatic, parts work, & attachment based approaches. Sites of harm are often the sites of healing, in forming therapeutic relationship we can explore & come to know these sites and the unique offering &
I offer holistic and depthful therapy that is both affirming and collaborative. My clients appreciate my gentleness, compassion & humor. My approach is de-stigmatizing and non-shaming, addressing & coming into contact with held stories and social narratives that may not match your current self or the self that wants to be. I hold an adaptive client centered framework utilizing trauma informed, social justice, somatic, parts work, & attachment based approaches. Sites of harm are often the sites of healing, in forming therapeutic relationship we can explore & come to know these sites and the unique offering &
(510) 399-1782 View (510) 399-1782
Photo of Mar Ortmann, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mar Ortmann
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
As a psychotherapist, I help clients redefine how they live their lives. I am a licensed clinical social worker who sees children, adolescents and families as well as individual adults. By engaging in a series of conversations, I will help you to challenge the problematic assumptions and ways of being that prevent you from realizing the full potential of your life. I work from a colloborative stance that assumes you are the expert on your life. But my own expertise in helping people overcome emotional problems, troublesome habits and relationship roadblocks can help you create new solutions to old problems.
As a psychotherapist, I help clients redefine how they live their lives. I am a licensed clinical social worker who sees children, adolescents and families as well as individual adults. By engaging in a series of conversations, I will help you to challenge the problematic assumptions and ways of being that prevent you from realizing the full potential of your life. I work from a colloborative stance that assumes you are the expert on your life. But my own expertise in helping people overcome emotional problems, troublesome habits and relationship roadblocks can help you create new solutions to old problems.
(510) 878-6537 View (510) 878-6537
Photo of Myra Altenau - DBT certified: Myra Altenau, PhD, PhD, Psychologist
DBT certified: Myra Altenau, PhD
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
I am accepting clients for my Dialectical Behavior Therapy program. Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a very effective treatment that helps you build a worthwhile and fulfilling life. You accept that you suffer, but also you learn to accept that you want to get better. I will help you to train your mind and body to peacefulness, and to significantly decrease every day stress. Combining distress tolerance practice, mindfulness skill building, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness skill building, I will guide you to heal the effects of trauma, depression and anxiety and replace that with establishing well-being.
I am accepting clients for my Dialectical Behavior Therapy program. Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a very effective treatment that helps you build a worthwhile and fulfilling life. You accept that you suffer, but also you learn to accept that you want to get better. I will help you to train your mind and body to peacefulness, and to significantly decrease every day stress. Combining distress tolerance practice, mindfulness skill building, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness skill building, I will guide you to heal the effects of trauma, depression and anxiety and replace that with establishing well-being.
(707) 709-8039 View (707) 709-8039
Photo of Katie Burrill, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Katie Burrill
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
As we navigate these seemingly endless tumultuous times, having someone reliable to talk to about what we're experiencing that is outside of our immediate bubble can feel like the life boat we need to stay afloat. I can be that person for you. Together we can explore which coping strategies are working for you and which aren't, and how to get to a place that feels a bit more stable and manageable. You will gain insight that will help you now and in the future so that you can live your best life, even when challenges abound.
As we navigate these seemingly endless tumultuous times, having someone reliable to talk to about what we're experiencing that is outside of our immediate bubble can feel like the life boat we need to stay afloat. I can be that person for you. Together we can explore which coping strategies are working for you and which aren't, and how to get to a place that feels a bit more stable and manageable. You will gain insight that will help you now and in the future so that you can live your best life, even when challenges abound.
(510) 629-6938 View (510) 629-6938
Photo of Stephanie Rosso, PhD, Psychologist
Stephanie Rosso
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
Are you worried about your child? Are they having trouble in school? Not making friends? Has being a parent become really stressful? Parenting is always a challenge and can be even harder if your child is having emotional or behavioral difficulties. My goals are to help children reach their maximum potential emotionally, socially, and behaviorally and help parents be empowered and have more effective parenting skills. I specialize in working with children who have emotional, behavioral and academic difficulties including ADHD, anxiety, depression, poor frustration tolerance, loss of a loved one, trauma, family conflict, and interpersonal relationship difficulties.
Are you worried about your child? Are they having trouble in school? Not making friends? Has being a parent become really stressful? Parenting is always a challenge and can be even harder if your child is having emotional or behavioral difficulties. My goals are to help children reach their maximum potential emotionally, socially, and behaviorally and help parents be empowered and have more effective parenting skills. I specialize in working with children who have emotional, behavioral and academic difficulties including ADHD, anxiety, depression, poor frustration tolerance, loss of a loved one, trauma, family conflict, and interpersonal relationship difficulties.
(510) 822-6721 View (510) 822-6721
Photo of Rachel Boyes, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Rachel Boyes
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
Hello, I am a Marriage and Family Therapist who supports my clients in discovering and achieving what they most want in life. As we begin to look more deeply at who we are, we can move toward a life that has increased balance and fulfillment. Many of us suffer in our relationships, careers and internal worlds due to a lack of awareness of the ways in which our past wounds impact current choices and ways of interacting with others. By taking a deeper look at these processes, problematic belief systems can begin to change.
Hello, I am a Marriage and Family Therapist who supports my clients in discovering and achieving what they most want in life. As we begin to look more deeply at who we are, we can move toward a life that has increased balance and fulfillment. Many of us suffer in our relationships, careers and internal worlds due to a lack of awareness of the ways in which our past wounds impact current choices and ways of interacting with others. By taking a deeper look at these processes, problematic belief systems can begin to change.
(510) 319-0136 View (510) 319-0136
Photo of L Rebecca Connell, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
L Rebecca Connell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
INDIVIDUALS (couples below): Energy Psychology is a group of self-calming practices involving breathing and touching one’s own face and body. Scientific studies and clinical experience are confirming that Energy Psychology can help with anxiety, relationships, and trauma. You will learn practices to calm down during a conflict, sleep better, or let go of things that bother you. These practices help you by enhancing nervous system regulation, changing the way your brain stores upsetting memories, and bringing in more happiness and focus. You'll learn practices to use at home, in moments of stress or to start your day on a good note
INDIVIDUALS (couples below): Energy Psychology is a group of self-calming practices involving breathing and touching one’s own face and body. Scientific studies and clinical experience are confirming that Energy Psychology can help with anxiety, relationships, and trauma. You will learn practices to calm down during a conflict, sleep better, or let go of things that bother you. These practices help you by enhancing nervous system regulation, changing the way your brain stores upsetting memories, and bringing in more happiness and focus. You'll learn practices to use at home, in moments of stress or to start your day on a good note
(510) 594-8224 View (510) 594-8224
Photo of Diane Swirsky, PhD, Psychologist
Diane Swirsky
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
I think of psychotherapy as a collaborative process and my style is interactive and engaged. I value people's strengths and maintain an open, empathic and non-judgmental position. Every individual and couple comes to therapy with unique needs, desires and history; so there is no one "right" way to work with everyone. Together the client and I determine what is most likely to be helpful. I have over 25 years experience treating all sorts of people, but I have a particular specialty in treating trauma and abuse survivors.
I think of psychotherapy as a collaborative process and my style is interactive and engaged. I value people's strengths and maintain an open, empathic and non-judgmental position. Every individual and couple comes to therapy with unique needs, desires and history; so there is no one "right" way to work with everyone. Together the client and I determine what is most likely to be helpful. I have over 25 years experience treating all sorts of people, but I have a particular specialty in treating trauma and abuse survivors.
(510) 567-4797 View (510) 567-4797
Photo of Allison B. Shapiro, PhD, Psychologist
Allison B. Shapiro
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
Healing and growth, which can be uncomfortable and painful, sometimes take time and support. These are shifts that we do not have to experience alone. Through authenticity, warmth and collaboration, I work with clients to cultivate understanding of their thoughts, feelings and behaviors and we work together to decrease stress and achieve defined goals. Whether it is anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues or health concerns, I integrate evidence-based practices to allow for the transformation of pain into growth.
Healing and growth, which can be uncomfortable and painful, sometimes take time and support. These are shifts that we do not have to experience alone. Through authenticity, warmth and collaboration, I work with clients to cultivate understanding of their thoughts, feelings and behaviors and we work together to decrease stress and achieve defined goals. Whether it is anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues or health concerns, I integrate evidence-based practices to allow for the transformation of pain into growth.
(341) 895-7563 View (341) 895-7563
Photo of Amy Diner, PsyD, CEAP, Psychologist
Amy Diner
Psychologist, PsyD, CEAP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
Therapy is a highly transformative and fascinating process. It has the power to heal, enliven, and repair. I enthusiastically invite you to begin this process with me. My warm, engaging, curious, and playful approach can help you feel like your personal experience and unique point of view is consistently appreciated. From this place, you may begin to feel more empowered and liberated in your life. I am a doctor with over 20 years of professional experience treating adults, couples, and adolescents.
Therapy is a highly transformative and fascinating process. It has the power to heal, enliven, and repair. I enthusiastically invite you to begin this process with me. My warm, engaging, curious, and playful approach can help you feel like your personal experience and unique point of view is consistently appreciated. From this place, you may begin to feel more empowered and liberated in your life. I am a doctor with over 20 years of professional experience treating adults, couples, and adolescents.
(415) 799-9491 View (415) 799-9491
Photo of Nicholas Hack, PsyD, Psychologist
Nicholas Hack
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
The world of therapy has been changing rapidly. The growth of virtual therapy companies has made it easier to find therapists, but people talk about being treated as commodities to acquire rather than humans in need of help. Instead of the focus being on you as an individual getting the help that's right for you, companies have to rely on manualized treatments and high meeting volume in order to show funders that they'll have a strong ROI. I offer something very different: individualized, identity-affirming patient care.
The world of therapy has been changing rapidly. The growth of virtual therapy companies has made it easier to find therapists, but people talk about being treated as commodities to acquire rather than humans in need of help. Instead of the focus being on you as an individual getting the help that's right for you, companies have to rely on manualized treatments and high meeting volume in order to show funders that they'll have a strong ROI. I offer something very different: individualized, identity-affirming patient care.
(707) 723-6043 View (707) 723-6043
Photo of Jianne Gimian, PhD, Psychologist
Jianne Gimian
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
If you are having difficulty with relationships, at work, with parents or children, I can help you identify the issues causing discomfort and learn new strategies for coping, managing and getting more joy in life. If you need someone to talk openly with about your challenges in life, I can listen and help you gain insight so that you can choose the best ways to proceed. If you feel isolated and judged, I can help you build confidence. If you are stuck in grief, I can help you get through it. I can help you see pathways where you might be inclined to see barriers.
If you are having difficulty with relationships, at work, with parents or children, I can help you identify the issues causing discomfort and learn new strategies for coping, managing and getting more joy in life. If you need someone to talk openly with about your challenges in life, I can listen and help you gain insight so that you can choose the best ways to proceed. If you feel isolated and judged, I can help you build confidence. If you are stuck in grief, I can help you get through it. I can help you see pathways where you might be inclined to see barriers.
(510) 974-7019 View (510) 974-7019
Photo of David Cerfolio, LCSW, CAADAC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
David Cerfolio
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CAADAC
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
I am a licensed clinical social worker and certified substance abuse counselor who has worked in the field for the past 15 years. My hope is to use my experiences and skills to help individuals struggling with mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, PTSD or substance abuse issues find new coping skills in order improve the quality of their lives. My approach combines elements of short-term behavioral therapies (DBT and CBT) with psychodynamic techniques to address problematic behaviors to achieve lasting change.
I am a licensed clinical social worker and certified substance abuse counselor who has worked in the field for the past 15 years. My hope is to use my experiences and skills to help individuals struggling with mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, PTSD or substance abuse issues find new coping skills in order improve the quality of their lives. My approach combines elements of short-term behavioral therapies (DBT and CBT) with psychodynamic techniques to address problematic behaviors to achieve lasting change.
(510) 296-6270 View (510) 296-6270
Photo of Connie C Linas, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Connie C Linas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
Do you need relief from anxiety or depression? Are you and your partner fighting and trying to move forward together? I often help people who are exactly where you are. A collaborative, focused relationship with a caring professional can be a life-changing experience. I have a goal oriented and interactive style, and my goal is always to help you move forward - at your own pace - with ease and acceptance. Check out my website and call for a phone consultation to see if I'd be a good fit for you.
Do you need relief from anxiety or depression? Are you and your partner fighting and trying to move forward together? I often help people who are exactly where you are. A collaborative, focused relationship with a caring professional can be a life-changing experience. I have a goal oriented and interactive style, and my goal is always to help you move forward - at your own pace - with ease and acceptance. Check out my website and call for a phone consultation to see if I'd be a good fit for you.
(510) 338-6655 View (510) 338-6655
Photo of Angela Hasty, PhD, Psychologist
Angela Hasty
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Piedmont, Oakland, CA 94611
I offer professional psychotherapy via video and in-person or a flexible combination of the two modalities for adults of all ethnicities, gender identities and sexual orientations. I am helping with a spectrum of emotional challenges, including anxiety, depression, stress, grief, work/life balance and healthy boundaries.
I offer professional psychotherapy via video and in-person or a flexible combination of the two modalities for adults of all ethnicities, gender identities and sexual orientations. I am helping with a spectrum of emotional challenges, including anxiety, depression, stress, grief, work/life balance and healthy boundaries.
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Piedmont, Oakland, CA

300+

Average cost per session

$195

Therapists in Piedmont, Oakland, CA who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
94% Depression
74% Stress
68% Grief
67% Life Transitions
66% Relationship Issues
65% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

77% Aetna
70% Anthem | Elevance
64% MHN | Health Net

How Therapists in Piedmont, Oakland, CA see their clients

50% Online Only
50% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

76% Female
21% Male
3% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Piedmont, Oakland?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.