Therapists in Montclair Village, Oakland, CA

Photo of Alisa Birgy, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Alisa Birgy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
I am a change oriented therapist and would like to support you in finding new solutions to old problems. I am part of a group practice that provides individual and group DBT, and I have experience working with addiction/alcoholism, trauma, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and psychosis. My other passion is parenting and pregnancy as I ran a parenting program for 12 years. I understand the stresses facing parents with young children, and will provide a trusting relationship where you can develop skills and experience more joy in parenting.
I am a change oriented therapist and would like to support you in finding new solutions to old problems. I am part of a group practice that provides individual and group DBT, and I have experience working with addiction/alcoholism, trauma, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and psychosis. My other passion is parenting and pregnancy as I ran a parenting program for 12 years. I understand the stresses facing parents with young children, and will provide a trusting relationship where you can develop skills and experience more joy in parenting.
(415) 663-5488 View (415) 663-5488
Photo of Stephen Colgan, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Stephen Colgan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
It’s not new insight that will free you, but new experience- new experience of yourself. If you’re trapped in a cycle of the same experiences, inner and outer- you’re suffering. You’re moving through the same patterns over and over- an emotional Groundhog Day. That’s why you’re seeking help. Growth, change, new neural pathways, new freedom, come from new experience. That’s what effective therapy offers.
It’s not new insight that will free you, but new experience- new experience of yourself. If you’re trapped in a cycle of the same experiences, inner and outer- you’re suffering. You’re moving through the same patterns over and over- an emotional Groundhog Day. That’s why you’re seeking help. Growth, change, new neural pathways, new freedom, come from new experience. That’s what effective therapy offers.
(510) 241-4246 View (510) 241-4246
Photo of undefined - DBT certified: Myra Altenau, PhD, PhD, Psychologist
DBT certified: Myra Altenau, PhD
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
I am accepting clients for my Dialectical Behavior Therapy program. Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a very effective treatment that helps you build a worthwhile and fulfilling life. You accept that you suffer, but also you learn to accept that you want to get better. I will help you to train your mind and body to peacefulness, and to significantly decrease every day stress. Combining distress tolerance practice, mindfulness skill building, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness skill building, I will guide you to heal the effects of trauma, depression and anxiety and replace that with establishing well-being.
I am accepting clients for my Dialectical Behavior Therapy program. Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a very effective treatment that helps you build a worthwhile and fulfilling life. You accept that you suffer, but also you learn to accept that you want to get better. I will help you to train your mind and body to peacefulness, and to significantly decrease every day stress. Combining distress tolerance practice, mindfulness skill building, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness skill building, I will guide you to heal the effects of trauma, depression and anxiety and replace that with establishing well-being.
(707) 709-8039 View (707) 709-8039
Photo of Larisa Blum, MA, MFT, JD, CMT-SE, Marriage & Family Therapist
Larisa Blum
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT, JD, CMT-SE
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
I am a somatic therapist who focuses on relational, attachment and childhood trauma issues. I work with individuals and couples to address relationship ambivalence, anxiety, major life transition, depression, stuckness, poor communication and conflict, among other issues. I help with building awareness of one's thoughts, feelings and physical sensations to develop greater insight and uncover new choices.
I am a somatic therapist who focuses on relational, attachment and childhood trauma issues. I work with individuals and couples to address relationship ambivalence, anxiety, major life transition, depression, stuckness, poor communication and conflict, among other issues. I help with building awareness of one's thoughts, feelings and physical sensations to develop greater insight and uncover new choices.
(510) 924-0161 View (510) 924-0161
Photo of Judith Muschel, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Judith Muschel
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
Choosing a therapist is a significant decision, and one in which it is crucial to trust your feelings. I am a very engaging, warm and thoughtful person. My approach is eclectic and interactive, and is adapted to the unique needs of each individual or couple. Humor, respectful listening, honest dialogue and collaboration are all important aspects of my work. My priority is to provide a safe connection as a foundation for growth, enhanced self-esteem, and well-being. Habitual patterns causing impasses, lack of passion, anxiety and depression, can shift once underlying needs and feelings are legitimized and given voice.
Choosing a therapist is a significant decision, and one in which it is crucial to trust your feelings. I am a very engaging, warm and thoughtful person. My approach is eclectic and interactive, and is adapted to the unique needs of each individual or couple. Humor, respectful listening, honest dialogue and collaboration are all important aspects of my work. My priority is to provide a safe connection as a foundation for growth, enhanced self-esteem, and well-being. Habitual patterns causing impasses, lack of passion, anxiety and depression, can shift once underlying needs and feelings are legitimized and given voice.
(510) 403-8134 View (510) 403-8134
Photo of Willow Banks, PsyD, Psychologist
Willow Banks
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
Healthy relationships, including the one with ourselves, are essential to our well-being. When problems become too much to manage, the therapy relationship provides a supportive space for recovery and personal growth. Discussing your experiences with a caring professional makes it possible to explore thoughts and feelings as they show up. Regular meetings support the process, offering the chance to know yourself more fully over the course of therapy.
Healthy relationships, including the one with ourselves, are essential to our well-being. When problems become too much to manage, the therapy relationship provides a supportive space for recovery and personal growth. Discussing your experiences with a caring professional makes it possible to explore thoughts and feelings as they show up. Regular meetings support the process, offering the chance to know yourself more fully over the course of therapy.
(510) 291-4854 View (510) 291-4854
Photo of David Hassin, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
David Hassin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
Life is change...but some changes leave wounds that no one can see. I work with men..regular guys, who may never have thought that they would ever need to speak to "a professional'. I know how hard it is to talk about the things that are bothering you. I know what it is to be alone and hurting. There is no magic in what I do. You don't even have to talk about your feelings, if you don't want to.. I stop the bleeding, I clean the wounds, and I help the healing start.
Life is change...but some changes leave wounds that no one can see. I work with men..regular guys, who may never have thought that they would ever need to speak to "a professional'. I know how hard it is to talk about the things that are bothering you. I know what it is to be alone and hurting. There is no magic in what I do. You don't even have to talk about your feelings, if you don't want to.. I stop the bleeding, I clean the wounds, and I help the healing start.
(510) 972-1648 View (510) 972-1648
Photo of Katelyn Simons, PsyD, Psychologist
Katelyn Simons
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
I practice both individual psychotherapy and assessment for children, adolescents, and adults. I specialize in understanding and addressing coping skills, anxiety, self-esteem, body image, and family conflict. Through therapy, assessment, or consultation, I provide support in navigating individual complexities. Whether I am working with children, teenagers, or adults, my aim is to help those I work with manage overwhelming emotions, navigate challenging situations, and address barriers standing in the way of contentment and clarity.
I practice both individual psychotherapy and assessment for children, adolescents, and adults. I specialize in understanding and addressing coping skills, anxiety, self-esteem, body image, and family conflict. Through therapy, assessment, or consultation, I provide support in navigating individual complexities. Whether I am working with children, teenagers, or adults, my aim is to help those I work with manage overwhelming emotions, navigate challenging situations, and address barriers standing in the way of contentment and clarity.
(510) 296-6515 View (510) 296-6515
Photo of undefined - EMDR Psychotherapy and Geriatric Mental Health , LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
EMDR Psychotherapy and Geriatric Mental Health
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
Are you bothered by an upsetting event (s) that you cannot get out of your mind? Do you know something is holding you back, perhaps from your past, but you can't seem to shake it? Have you tried traditional talk therapy, but your past still has a grip on you? Exciting breakthroughs have been advanced in our understanding of how our brains mange memories. The latest research shows that non-traditional therapies like EMDR, can more quickly & deeply help us heal and recover from traumatic events and live more satisfying lives.
Are you bothered by an upsetting event (s) that you cannot get out of your mind? Do you know something is holding you back, perhaps from your past, but you can't seem to shake it? Have you tried traditional talk therapy, but your past still has a grip on you? Exciting breakthroughs have been advanced in our understanding of how our brains mange memories. The latest research shows that non-traditional therapies like EMDR, can more quickly & deeply help us heal and recover from traumatic events and live more satisfying lives.
(510) 545-9572 View (510) 545-9572
Photo of Valerie Doyle, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Valerie Doyle
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
Not accepting new clients
It takes courage and strength to embrace healing, to create change, to experience deeper intimacy and to grow personally and spiritually. I believe that people are uniquely equipped in what they need to create both the life and relationships they want. In collaboration with you, we will work together to resolve any roadblocks and develop the tools to create both the life and relationships you desire. A quality that defines my practice is the ability to help people feel accepted and able to open up to share and explore what is on their heart and mind.
It takes courage and strength to embrace healing, to create change, to experience deeper intimacy and to grow personally and spiritually. I believe that people are uniquely equipped in what they need to create both the life and relationships they want. In collaboration with you, we will work together to resolve any roadblocks and develop the tools to create both the life and relationships you desire. A quality that defines my practice is the ability to help people feel accepted and able to open up to share and explore what is on their heart and mind.
(510) 756-3494 View (510) 756-3494
Photo of Marie Sarte, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Marie Sarte
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
As a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist, my practice specializes in working with people who struggle with depression, unresolved trauma, anxiety, family and relationship issues, and life transitions. Effective therapy starts with a trusting relationship. In a safe space where you feel understood and accepted, we will work toward your goals so that you feel empowered to change and can begin to make positive changes in your life. Practice specialties: Teens, Young Adults, Depression, Anxiety, Relationship and Family Issues, Stress, Life Transitions, Trauma, and Substance Use.
As a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist, my practice specializes in working with people who struggle with depression, unresolved trauma, anxiety, family and relationship issues, and life transitions. Effective therapy starts with a trusting relationship. In a safe space where you feel understood and accepted, we will work toward your goals so that you feel empowered to change and can begin to make positive changes in your life. Practice specialties: Teens, Young Adults, Depression, Anxiety, Relationship and Family Issues, Stress, Life Transitions, Trauma, and Substance Use.
(510) 401-3186 View (510) 401-3186
Photo of Susanne Stolcke, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Susanne Stolcke
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
Dear Reader, choosing to seek therapy can be a difficult and stressful decision and I deeply respect your courage. My primary work is with women and men who suffer from depression, anxiety, feel generally unhappy and/or are struggling in their relationship(s).
Dear Reader, choosing to seek therapy can be a difficult and stressful decision and I deeply respect your courage. My primary work is with women and men who suffer from depression, anxiety, feel generally unhappy and/or are struggling in their relationship(s).
(510) 375-4575 View (510) 375-4575
Photo of Nancy Levine-Jordano, PsyD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Nancy Levine-Jordano
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PsyD, LCSW
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
I believe most people seek therapy as a road to change: lessening sadness, loneliness, anxiety, guilt, shame; changing relationships; making life transitions. I have devoted many years of training and practice to better help my patients understand their unconscious obstacles to desired change. For some patients change means learning to confront pain from chronic conditions like anxiety, depression, bi-polar or attention deficit disorders, For others, change entails finding their authentic voice in relationships or facing difficult realities. I enjoy developing a close, working relationship with my patients to create new capacities within themselves, hopefully perceiving new choices in their lives.
I believe most people seek therapy as a road to change: lessening sadness, loneliness, anxiety, guilt, shame; changing relationships; making life transitions. I have devoted many years of training and practice to better help my patients understand their unconscious obstacles to desired change. For some patients change means learning to confront pain from chronic conditions like anxiety, depression, bi-polar or attention deficit disorders, For others, change entails finding their authentic voice in relationships or facing difficult realities. I enjoy developing a close, working relationship with my patients to create new capacities within themselves, hopefully perceiving new choices in their lives.
(510) 394-1891 View (510) 394-1891
Photo of Chris Stach, LMFT, PPS, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Chris Stach
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, PPS, MA
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
The challenges of growing up in today's rapidly changing society are enormous. Children and adolescents need to be equipped with skills for survival and growth that were never before imagined. Some of the more common issues I help my young clients with include anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicide ideation, perfectionism, self confidence, challenging peer relationships, social anxiety and difficult family dynamics. I also work with parents offering them guidance and support.
The challenges of growing up in today's rapidly changing society are enormous. Children and adolescents need to be equipped with skills for survival and growth that were never before imagined. Some of the more common issues I help my young clients with include anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicide ideation, perfectionism, self confidence, challenging peer relationships, social anxiety and difficult family dynamics. I also work with parents offering them guidance and support.
(510) 345-1726 View (510) 345-1726
Photo of Jianne Gimian, PhD, Psychologist
Jianne Gimian
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
If you are having difficulty with relationships, at work, with parents or children, I can help you identify the issues causing discomfort and learn new strategies for coping, managing and getting more joy in life. If you need someone to talk openly with about your challenges in life, I can listen and help you gain insight so that you can choose the best ways to proceed. If you feel isolated and judged, I can help you build confidence. If you are stuck in grief, I can help you get through it. I can help you see pathways where you might be inclined to see barriers.
If you are having difficulty with relationships, at work, with parents or children, I can help you identify the issues causing discomfort and learn new strategies for coping, managing and getting more joy in life. If you need someone to talk openly with about your challenges in life, I can listen and help you gain insight so that you can choose the best ways to proceed. If you feel isolated and judged, I can help you build confidence. If you are stuck in grief, I can help you get through it. I can help you see pathways where you might be inclined to see barriers.
(510) 974-7019 View (510) 974-7019
Photo of Karen Harber, PhD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Karen Harber
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
Not accepting new clients
In my psychotherapy practice I create a space where you can feel comfortable and safe expressing emotions and exploring difficult issues. With compassion and mindfulness I listen to what you say through your words and what you say when there are no words. Together we will decide on the treatment modality that is best for you. I have tended to specialize in two main areas: trauma and relationship issues. My background in psychodynamic therapy offers a strong foundation for understanding behavior and the way we unintentionally get trapped in patterns.
In my psychotherapy practice I create a space where you can feel comfortable and safe expressing emotions and exploring difficult issues. With compassion and mindfulness I listen to what you say through your words and what you say when there are no words. Together we will decide on the treatment modality that is best for you. I have tended to specialize in two main areas: trauma and relationship issues. My background in psychodynamic therapy offers a strong foundation for understanding behavior and the way we unintentionally get trapped in patterns.
(510) 878-4480 View (510) 878-4480
Photo of L Rebecca Connell, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
L Rebecca Connell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
INDIVIDUALS (couples below): Energy Psychology is a group of self-calming practices involving breathing and touching one’s own face and body. Scientific studies and clinical experience are confirming that Energy Psychology can help with anxiety, relationships, and trauma. You will learn practices to calm down during a conflict, sleep better, or let go of things that bother you. These practices help you by enhancing nervous system regulation, changing the way your brain stores upsetting memories, and bringing in more happiness and focus. You'll learn practices to use at home, in moments of stress or to start your day on a good note
INDIVIDUALS (couples below): Energy Psychology is a group of self-calming practices involving breathing and touching one’s own face and body. Scientific studies and clinical experience are confirming that Energy Psychology can help with anxiety, relationships, and trauma. You will learn practices to calm down during a conflict, sleep better, or let go of things that bother you. These practices help you by enhancing nervous system regulation, changing the way your brain stores upsetting memories, and bringing in more happiness and focus. You'll learn practices to use at home, in moments of stress or to start your day on a good note
(510) 594-8224 View (510) 594-8224
Photo of Cara Frankel, PsyD, Psychologist
Cara Frankel
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
I am a clinical psychologist and have been working clinically with children, adolescents and families for 17 years. I am passionate about my work with children and adolescents. I believe that childhood is both a wonderful and an extremely challenging time. Through play, talk and family therapy I help children and families reach their potential for happy, productive and successful lives.
I am a clinical psychologist and have been working clinically with children, adolescents and families for 17 years. I am passionate about my work with children and adolescents. I believe that childhood is both a wonderful and an extremely challenging time. Through play, talk and family therapy I help children and families reach their potential for happy, productive and successful lives.
View
Photo of Jesse Whittle-Utter, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jesse Whittle-Utter
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
I work with folks from all walks of life, and specialize in working with gay men and the larger LGBTQ+ community, to alleviate depression, anxiety, shame, work stress, relationship issues, questions of meaning, & life transitions. I use a variety of therapeutic methods, including Internal Family Systems, EMDR, Ketamine-Assisted Psychotherapy (KAP) and psychedelic integration. Psychedelic therapy allows access to deeper layers of self and accelerates progress toward personal growth and healing; it can accomplish in a short timeframe what might otherwise take years of weekly talk therapy. KAP is sliding scale ($150-$175).
I work with folks from all walks of life, and specialize in working with gay men and the larger LGBTQ+ community, to alleviate depression, anxiety, shame, work stress, relationship issues, questions of meaning, & life transitions. I use a variety of therapeutic methods, including Internal Family Systems, EMDR, Ketamine-Assisted Psychotherapy (KAP) and psychedelic integration. Psychedelic therapy allows access to deeper layers of self and accelerates progress toward personal growth and healing; it can accomplish in a short timeframe what might otherwise take years of weekly talk therapy. KAP is sliding scale ($150-$175).
(341) 888-7801 View (341) 888-7801
Photo of Justin McGahan, MA, PhD, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Justin McGahan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, PhD, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Montclair Village, Oakland, CA 94611
A good therapist helps us get to know ourselves fully. Better understanding our motivations, thoughts and feelings reveals more fulfilling, effective choices. Exploring what is getting in our way of having deeply satisfying relationships is essential to living a full life. I often address issues of: understanding a partner's motivations, life purpose & transition, transparent vulnerable & authentic communication, finding/creating fulfilling relationship, confidence & leadership, men in relationship, trauma, and integrating presence in daily living.
A good therapist helps us get to know ourselves fully. Better understanding our motivations, thoughts and feelings reveals more fulfilling, effective choices. Exploring what is getting in our way of having deeply satisfying relationships is essential to living a full life. I often address issues of: understanding a partner's motivations, life purpose & transition, transparent vulnerable & authentic communication, finding/creating fulfilling relationship, confidence & leadership, men in relationship, trauma, and integrating presence in daily living.
(510) 358-4860 View (510) 358-4860

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Montclair Village, Oakland, CA

200+

Average cost per session

$195

Therapists in Montclair Village, Oakland, CA who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
94% Depression
74% Stress
69% Life Transitions
68% Grief
67% Relationship Issues
65% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% Aetna
70% Anthem | Elevance
64% MHN | Health Net

How Therapists in Montclair Village, Oakland, CA see their clients

50% Online Only
50% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

76% Female
21% Male
3% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Montclair Village, Oakland?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.