Therapists in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA

Photo of Katharina Klakus, Psychologist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Katharina Klakus
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94610
Waitlist for new clients
I am a licensed child psychologist with extensive experience in providing therapeutic services to children, adolescents, emerging adults, and families. My specialization lies in helping clients navigate through various challenges such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, peer and family stress, learning, behavioral and attention difficulties, life transitions, trauma, separation, self-harm, and suicidal thoughts. Additionally, I offer guidance to parents, helping them understand their children's challenges and strengths more deeply, enhance family communication and connection, and learn effective parenting and coping skills.
I am a licensed child psychologist with extensive experience in providing therapeutic services to children, adolescents, emerging adults, and families. My specialization lies in helping clients navigate through various challenges such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, peer and family stress, learning, behavioral and attention difficulties, life transitions, trauma, separation, self-harm, and suicidal thoughts. Additionally, I offer guidance to parents, helping them understand their children's challenges and strengths more deeply, enhance family communication and connection, and learn effective parenting and coping skills.
(847) 499-1427 View (847) 499-1427
Photo of Maelinda Nicole Turner, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Maelinda Nicole Turner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MDiv
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
I am about the soft life. Soft life is a life of self-care where you make yourself a priority. It is a life that emphasizes reduced stress, dispelling false narratives and good boundaries. You are worthy and it is your time to breath. I provide individual therapy for a range of issues including stress, grief, multi-cultural issues, anxiety, and depression.
I am about the soft life. Soft life is a life of self-care where you make yourself a priority. It is a life that emphasizes reduced stress, dispelling false narratives and good boundaries. You are worthy and it is your time to breath. I provide individual therapy for a range of issues including stress, grief, multi-cultural issues, anxiety, and depression.
(341) 895-5587 View (341) 895-5587
Photo of Cheri Tsai, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Cheri Tsai
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MS, MFCC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
My work is especially effective in helping professional working adults, LGBTQIA, Asians, immigrants, first and second generation Asian Americans, POC. If you feel stuck, or aspects of your life becomes too painful, therapy can restore these loose ends. For those needing short-term, immediate relief to address issues at work or home, I offer Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This therapy can about take 3-5 months.
My work is especially effective in helping professional working adults, LGBTQIA, Asians, immigrants, first and second generation Asian Americans, POC. If you feel stuck, or aspects of your life becomes too painful, therapy can restore these loose ends. For those needing short-term, immediate relief to address issues at work or home, I offer Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This therapy can about take 3-5 months.
(341) 999-4327 View (341) 999-4327
Photo of Veronique N Lee, Psychologist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Veronique N Lee
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
Seeking help is often the first step in making a change for the better. My goal as a therapist is to support you in your steps towards wellness. I work with children, adolescents, adults and families with a wide range of emotional concerns. I support children and adolescents struggling with emotional or behavioral issues, adults managing life stress, individuals facing life transitions, or families struggling with communication difficulties. As a therapist I will work collaboratively with you to build upon your strengths to create change and will tailor my treatments to meet your unique needs.
Seeking help is often the first step in making a change for the better. My goal as a therapist is to support you in your steps towards wellness. I work with children, adolescents, adults and families with a wide range of emotional concerns. I support children and adolescents struggling with emotional or behavioral issues, adults managing life stress, individuals facing life transitions, or families struggling with communication difficulties. As a therapist I will work collaboratively with you to build upon your strengths to create change and will tailor my treatments to meet your unique needs.
(510) 695-2343 View (510) 695-2343
Photo of Kristin Fialko, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Kristin Fialko
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MA
Verified
3 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
We often find ourselves and bodies, on the path towards health after overwhelming experiences, trauma, grief or loss. Re-igniting our inner-fire and natural emotional balance can understandably be a challenge. Trauma-informed somatic psychotherapy can help! I take my role as a therapist, one who supports the client On their journey, as a facilitator of a sacred collaboration. I conduct therapy with an intention to process and move trauma (anxiety, depression and grief accompanying it) in order to restore balance between the mind, body, and spirit and reignite the internal fire.
We often find ourselves and bodies, on the path towards health after overwhelming experiences, trauma, grief or loss. Re-igniting our inner-fire and natural emotional balance can understandably be a challenge. Trauma-informed somatic psychotherapy can help! I take my role as a therapist, one who supports the client On their journey, as a facilitator of a sacred collaboration. I conduct therapy with an intention to process and move trauma (anxiety, depression and grief accompanying it) in order to restore balance between the mind, body, and spirit and reignite the internal fire.
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Photo of Norma Lee Myers, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Norma Lee Myers
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
Not accepting new clients
There are usually two types of reasons people come into therapy. One is that find themselves making the same mistakes over and over again and they want to do something different, but are just not sure how. The other is that they have been carrying around a deep pain in their life that they want to resolve. Often these things are connected. This is why I work with you on two levels. I help you change the current unwanted behavior, while also helping you resolve issues from your past that may be effecting your reactions.
There are usually two types of reasons people come into therapy. One is that find themselves making the same mistakes over and over again and they want to do something different, but are just not sure how. The other is that they have been carrying around a deep pain in their life that they want to resolve. Often these things are connected. This is why I work with you on two levels. I help you change the current unwanted behavior, while also helping you resolve issues from your past that may be effecting your reactions.
(510) 878-4296 View (510) 878-4296
Photo of Laura M Ostrow, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Laura M Ostrow
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
3 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
Hello! I am currently offering trauma informed and EMDR therapy. I work primarily with high functioning women who are struggling with depression, anxiety, or PTSD and are ready to get to the root of it all and feel better. Whether you are challenged by intimacy issues, feeling unfulfilled at work or school, or are just tired of being controlled by emotions like anger or grief, emotions can be hard to manage. Lasting change happens within the context of a safe relationship, and regardless of your attachment style or history, I can help you create the changes you want to see in your life.
Hello! I am currently offering trauma informed and EMDR therapy. I work primarily with high functioning women who are struggling with depression, anxiety, or PTSD and are ready to get to the root of it all and feel better. Whether you are challenged by intimacy issues, feeling unfulfilled at work or school, or are just tired of being controlled by emotions like anger or grief, emotions can be hard to manage. Lasting change happens within the context of a safe relationship, and regardless of your attachment style or history, I can help you create the changes you want to see in your life.
(510) 343-7169 View (510) 343-7169
Photo of Glen E Harelson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Glen E Harelson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, MPH
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
I currently offer Telehealth services to clients residing in Arizona and California. I place a high priority on access to care and therefore offer a generous sliding fee schedule. I have been in the field of public and behavioral health at federal, county and nonprofit settings as a manager and direct service provider for over 25 years. I work with individuals with mild to moderate stress, anxiety, panic disorders, depression, trauma, family and relationship difficulties, mental and addictive disorders including clients with chronic dependence on alcohol and opioids.
I currently offer Telehealth services to clients residing in Arizona and California. I place a high priority on access to care and therefore offer a generous sliding fee schedule. I have been in the field of public and behavioral health at federal, county and nonprofit settings as a manager and direct service provider for over 25 years. I work with individuals with mild to moderate stress, anxiety, panic disorders, depression, trauma, family and relationship difficulties, mental and addictive disorders including clients with chronic dependence on alcohol and opioids.
(520) 210-5361 View (520) 210-5361
Photo of Courtland McPherson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Courtland McPherson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified
9 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
You can’t pinpoint when it happened, but all of a sudden you don’t feel the same. You’re waking up feeling discontent and struggling to get out of bed. Sometimes you find yourself wondering what you’re doing with yourself… You don’t feel fulfilled at all. You think you should feel great - You have the job, the friends, likes and follows from your connections… yet you still feel alone. Your inner voice is telling you something is missing.
You can’t pinpoint when it happened, but all of a sudden you don’t feel the same. You’re waking up feeling discontent and struggling to get out of bed. Sometimes you find yourself wondering what you’re doing with yourself… You don’t feel fulfilled at all. You think you should feel great - You have the job, the friends, likes and follows from your connections… yet you still feel alone. Your inner voice is telling you something is missing.
(510) 996-4636 View (510) 996-4636
Photo of Melissa K Bowman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Melissa K Bowman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MS, LMFT
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
I love what I do! I have the pleasure of working with clients from five to 105-years-old! Having the opportunity to work with an expansive age range has taught me that at any age: we want to be loved and we want to love, we want to belong, we want to have purpose, we want to experience joy, and we don't want pain. My goal as a therapist, is to help my clients find ways to reduce, restructure, and remove obstacles that cause pain; while building on our individual resources to promote health, happiness and well-being.
I love what I do! I have the pleasure of working with clients from five to 105-years-old! Having the opportunity to work with an expansive age range has taught me that at any age: we want to be loved and we want to love, we want to belong, we want to have purpose, we want to experience joy, and we don't want pain. My goal as a therapist, is to help my clients find ways to reduce, restructure, and remove obstacles that cause pain; while building on our individual resources to promote health, happiness and well-being.
(510) 849-6789 View (510) 849-6789
Photo of Helene Goldberg, Psychologist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Helene Goldberg
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
Just because therapy is serious, even profound, doesn't mean that it has to be grim. Understanding and the change it permits are liberating and exciting.
Just because therapy is serious, even profound, doesn't mean that it has to be grim. Understanding and the change it permits are liberating and exciting.
(925) 482-6936 View (925) 482-6936
Photo of Avigail Lev, Psychologist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Avigail Lev
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
My approach is behavioral and goal oriented. I focus on identifying new coping strategies and changing behavioral patterns that damage relationships. I assist clients in identifying deeply held values and taking behavioral steps towards getting closer to these values. I utilize Cognitive Behavioral techniques to help clients who struggle with relationship problems, depression, anxiety, OCD, and mood disorders. I help clients identify particular core beliefs that act as barriers to values-based behavior and explore alternative coping behaviors to utilize when one's schemas are triggered in relationships. Particular methods I incorporate in treatment include mindfulness, cognitive defusion, exposure, and Nonviolent communication.
My approach is behavioral and goal oriented. I focus on identifying new coping strategies and changing behavioral patterns that damage relationships. I assist clients in identifying deeply held values and taking behavioral steps towards getting closer to these values. I utilize Cognitive Behavioral techniques to help clients who struggle with relationship problems, depression, anxiety, OCD, and mood disorders. I help clients identify particular core beliefs that act as barriers to values-based behavior and explore alternative coping behaviors to utilize when one's schemas are triggered in relationships. Particular methods I incorporate in treatment include mindfulness, cognitive defusion, exposure, and Nonviolent communication.
(415) 349-0855 View (415) 349-0855
Photo of Ella Ofori, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Ella Ofori
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MPH
Verified
1 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
I work from a core belief that everyone has within themselves what they need for healing. I also believe that working in community helps to bring out and recall collective knowledge and understanding of what health, illness, and recovery are. I work collaboratively with you in supporting your process of understanding and integrating your life experiences, using a relational, strength-based, culturally attuned, community-centered process. *Please review my website for more information and faster response.*
I work from a core belief that everyone has within themselves what they need for healing. I also believe that working in community helps to bring out and recall collective knowledge and understanding of what health, illness, and recovery are. I work collaboratively with you in supporting your process of understanding and integrating your life experiences, using a relational, strength-based, culturally attuned, community-centered process. *Please review my website for more information and faster response.*
(415) 223-5461 View (415) 223-5461
Photo of Kristie A Vogel, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Kristie A Vogel
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
Hi, I am an experienced therapist with over 25 years of working with individuals, groups, couples and families. If you are experiencing anxiety, depression, fear, sadness, anger, or confusion, and the serenity and peace in your life is being compromised, I have experience helping people work through and understand these emotions. You can come out on the other side. I believe that everyone is wise and has their own solutions within themselves. I am dedicated to helping you find your solutions and your inner wisdom, so that you can live your life with joy, peace and serenity.
Hi, I am an experienced therapist with over 25 years of working with individuals, groups, couples and families. If you are experiencing anxiety, depression, fear, sadness, anger, or confusion, and the serenity and peace in your life is being compromised, I have experience helping people work through and understand these emotions. You can come out on the other side. I believe that everyone is wise and has their own solutions within themselves. I am dedicated to helping you find your solutions and your inner wisdom, so that you can live your life with joy, peace and serenity.
(510) 358-8596 View (510) 358-8596
Photo of Julie Fishman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Julie Fishman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606
I work with individuals and couples, offering in person or video sessions and specializing in issues of depression, anxiety, and relationship. I believe that we all have the capacity to feel more alive, and achieve our creative potentials. An important part of fostering growth is building trust and safety in the therapeutic relationship, so I place a focus on this as a foundation for our work together. From there, I will support you in working toward goals that we co-create, and can help you to feel a sense of purpose, connection, and freedom in your life. For more information you can visit my website at: juliefishmantherapy.com
I work with individuals and couples, offering in person or video sessions and specializing in issues of depression, anxiety, and relationship. I believe that we all have the capacity to feel more alive, and achieve our creative potentials. An important part of fostering growth is building trust and safety in the therapeutic relationship, so I place a focus on this as a foundation for our work together. From there, I will support you in working toward goals that we co-create, and can help you to feel a sense of purpose, connection, and freedom in your life. For more information you can visit my website at: juliefishmantherapy.com
(510) 394-3698 View (510) 394-3698
Photo of Annu Sood, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Annu Sood
Marriage & Family Therapist
Verified
3 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
Hello! My name is Annu, and I am a therapist in San Francisco (and online). I work with immigrants and adult-children of immigrants....also known as Third Culture Kids (TCK) or First Generation Americans. I work with multi-cultural and multi-racial couples, many of whom are people of color. I work with successful, career-driven achievers. I belong to each of these demographics - my parents immigrated to the US in 1971, and I worked in the corporate world for nearly 2 decades, climbing the corporate ladder rapidly before pivoting my career by going back to school to study counseling psychology. I work virtually via Zoom or phone.
Hello! My name is Annu, and I am a therapist in San Francisco (and online). I work with immigrants and adult-children of immigrants....also known as Third Culture Kids (TCK) or First Generation Americans. I work with multi-cultural and multi-racial couples, many of whom are people of color. I work with successful, career-driven achievers. I belong to each of these demographics - my parents immigrated to the US in 1971, and I worked in the corporate world for nearly 2 decades, climbing the corporate ladder rapidly before pivoting my career by going back to school to study counseling psychology. I work virtually via Zoom or phone.
(415) 942-8008 View (415) 942-8008
Photo of Daniela Girbal, Marriage & Family Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Daniela Girbal
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist and have experience providing individual and family psychotherapy. I utilize an eclectic theoretical approach to therapy as every client is unique and one size does not fit all when approaching treatment. I believe that psychotherapy is a collaborative process and feel honored to be part of my client's journeys of self-discovery and growth.
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist and have experience providing individual and family psychotherapy. I utilize an eclectic theoretical approach to therapy as every client is unique and one size does not fit all when approaching treatment. I believe that psychotherapy is a collaborative process and feel honored to be part of my client's journeys of self-discovery and growth.
(510) 907-6077 View (510) 907-6077
Photo of Erica Richardson, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Erica Richardson
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Verified
1 Endorsed
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
You may be finding yourself here because the signals have become too loud to ignore - drifting thoughts; painful tension; uncomfortable feelings that you can't quite understand. Something elusive has been beckoning your attention and you are seeking change, but life's constant demands keep you distracted and needing to persevere for survival in our modern society. Questions linger - What if I hadn't, or what if I had? Do I make them proud? Is this worth the sacrifice? You may be finding yourself here because you are ready to experience a more authentic, connected, and nourishing way of living.
You may be finding yourself here because the signals have become too loud to ignore - drifting thoughts; painful tension; uncomfortable feelings that you can't quite understand. Something elusive has been beckoning your attention and you are seeking change, but life's constant demands keep you distracted and needing to persevere for survival in our modern society. Questions linger - What if I hadn't, or what if I had? Do I make them proud? Is this worth the sacrifice? You may be finding yourself here because you are ready to experience a more authentic, connected, and nourishing way of living.
(510) 907-6815 View (510) 907-6815
Photo of Mariya Croshal, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Mariya Croshal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
I share parts of my life and experiences, when appropriate, in order to help my clients feel more understood, less alone, and to help them move forward in our work together. I am very open about the fact that I've been in therapy on and off for most of my adult life in order to normalize the struggle of the human condition. Most of the tools, resources, and interventions I use with my clients, I have used in my personal life. This way I can personally vouch for their function and effectiveness.
I share parts of my life and experiences, when appropriate, in order to help my clients feel more understood, less alone, and to help them move forward in our work together. I am very open about the fact that I've been in therapy on and off for most of my adult life in order to normalize the struggle of the human condition. Most of the tools, resources, and interventions I use with my clients, I have used in my personal life. This way I can personally vouch for their function and effectiveness.
(510) 726-4118 View (510) 726-4118
Photo of Azad Galustian, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA
Azad Galustian
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Bella Vista, Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
I have been working in the field of mental health for over 14 years and have extensive experience working with children, adolescent, adult and families in various settings and environments. I use a strengths-based approach and attempt to work with my clients on the topics and issues they want to and are ready to explore. I have extensive training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), Trauma focused CBT, and motivational interviewing.
I have been working in the field of mental health for over 14 years and have extensive experience working with children, adolescent, adult and families in various settings and environments. I use a strengths-based approach and attempt to work with my clients on the topics and issues they want to and are ready to explore. I have extensive training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), Trauma focused CBT, and motivational interviewing.
(510) 399-2253 View (510) 399-2253

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA

100+

Average cost per session

$180

Therapists in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
93% Depression
85% Stress
79% Trauma and PTSD
71% Life Transitions
70% Grief
61% Women's Issues

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

94% Aetna
83% Anthem | Elevance
82% Health Net

How Therapists in Bella Vista, Oakland, CA see their clients

67% Online Only
33% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

84% Female
15% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Bella Vista, Oakland?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.