Therapists in Oakland, CA

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Photo of Jan Chess, PhD, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jan Chess
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, MFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94610
Are you struggling with how childhood experiences, losses or trauma continues to influence your life? Are you discouraged at repeating difficult situations or find it hard to get out from under depression or anxiety? I'm glad to see how we can put our minds together to understand your dilemmas and see things differently. Change is possible no matter what your age or your life circumstances when you feel seen, accepted and appreciated for who you are and where you've been.
Are you struggling with how childhood experiences, losses or trauma continues to influence your life? Are you discouraged at repeating difficult situations or find it hard to get out from under depression or anxiety? I'm glad to see how we can put our minds together to understand your dilemmas and see things differently. Change is possible no matter what your age or your life circumstances when you feel seen, accepted and appreciated for who you are and where you've been.
(530) 645-3796 View (530) 645-3796
Photo of Dr. Jacquie Josephson- Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy, PsyD, Psychologist
Dr. Jacquie Josephson- Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94609  (Online Only)
Do you feel stuck, like you are getting in your own way? Feelings hopeless and isolated? Life presents all kinds of challenges which we often try to manage on our own and creates frustrations. This frustration creates barriers that can leave you feeling distant from others and even a stranger to yourself. What is worse is often we don’t even know why we are struggling. I am dedicated to helping you with the difficult and painful experiences by facilitating understanding of yourself and the issues that cause pain.
Do you feel stuck, like you are getting in your own way? Feelings hopeless and isolated? Life presents all kinds of challenges which we often try to manage on our own and creates frustrations. This frustration creates barriers that can leave you feeling distant from others and even a stranger to yourself. What is worse is often we don’t even know why we are struggling. I am dedicated to helping you with the difficult and painful experiences by facilitating understanding of yourself and the issues that cause pain.
(341) 999-4375 View (341) 999-4375
Photo of Carla Marie Felten, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carla Marie Felten
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94609  (Online Only)
Your bravery has led you here - welcome! If you’re navigating life transitions, grief/loss, depression & anxiety, the impact of trauma (i.e. abuse, racial, adoption) there is hope for healing. Working with diverse people as a biracial Black woman has shown me how powerful it is to navigate life with the support of a person from a shared set of experiences and understanding. I ask to be a partner in your journey, and commit to provide a safe space to discuss challenges. I offer my reflection and guidance, and accept that your story & culture is uniquely yours and I am only in your life by your invitation to help you meet your goals.
Your bravery has led you here - welcome! If you’re navigating life transitions, grief/loss, depression & anxiety, the impact of trauma (i.e. abuse, racial, adoption) there is hope for healing. Working with diverse people as a biracial Black woman has shown me how powerful it is to navigate life with the support of a person from a shared set of experiences and understanding. I ask to be a partner in your journey, and commit to provide a safe space to discuss challenges. I offer my reflection and guidance, and accept that your story & culture is uniquely yours and I am only in your life by your invitation to help you meet your goals.
(415) 475-1766 View (415) 475-1766
Photo of Jessica Robershaw, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jessica Robershaw
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
I have 15 years of experience working with adults, children, and adolescents. I have extensive experience with diverse populations in medical, group and community settings. I work with my clients collaboratively by providing a non-judgmental, compassionate, and supportive setting. I believe in working in a partnership with my clients to help them identify their challenges and utilize their strengths to help them achieve their goals.
I have 15 years of experience working with adults, children, and adolescents. I have extensive experience with diverse populations in medical, group and community settings. I work with my clients collaboratively by providing a non-judgmental, compassionate, and supportive setting. I believe in working in a partnership with my clients to help them identify their challenges and utilize their strengths to help them achieve their goals.
(510) 851-9132 View (510) 851-9132
Photo of Rosa Viveros Wilcox - Rosa Wilcox, LCSW, LCSW, MSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Rosa Wilcox, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94612
Thank you for visiting my page. My therapeutic style provides a warm, nonjudgmental, environment that meets clients where they are at. As we work together clients are able to examine their goals, problem solve, increase positive coping skills and improve their lives. I specialize in working with anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse. I have a great deal of experience with clients who have lived through loss and/or trauma.
Thank you for visiting my page. My therapeutic style provides a warm, nonjudgmental, environment that meets clients where they are at. As we work together clients are able to examine their goals, problem solve, increase positive coping skills and improve their lives. I specialize in working with anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse. I have a great deal of experience with clients who have lived through loss and/or trauma.
(415) 801-8153 View (415) 801-8153
Photo of Brandon Brawner, PhD, Psychologist
Brandon Brawner
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94609
I'm here to support teenage youth, parents/families, and adults in meeting their emotional, psychological and practical challenges. If you're a teen struggling with school problems, family difficulties or hoping to improve your mood, confidence and relationships, I can assist you in breaking down obstacles and achieving your goals. If you're a parent trying to manage and communicate with your "coming of age" depressed or rebellious adolescent, I provide counsel and safe opportunities to explore the conflicts and confusion that block resolutions.
I'm here to support teenage youth, parents/families, and adults in meeting their emotional, psychological and practical challenges. If you're a teen struggling with school problems, family difficulties or hoping to improve your mood, confidence and relationships, I can assist you in breaking down obstacles and achieving your goals. If you're a parent trying to manage and communicate with your "coming of age" depressed or rebellious adolescent, I provide counsel and safe opportunities to explore the conflicts and confusion that block resolutions.
(510) 400-4171 View (510) 400-4171
Photo of Julie Waters, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Julie Waters
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
13 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611
I became a therapist after many years of diving into my own healing process and studying various healing modalities. I am a holistic therapist, meaning I attend to all aspects of wellbeing: emotional, mental, and physical as well as spiritual, cultural, and in the context of community and social systems. I treat ailments including trauma, anxiety, depression, chronic pain, and relationship issues for individuals, couples, and families. Clients who benefit from my approach are those seeking a partner in growth and self-exploration, and who are ready to put new ways of thinking and being into practice in daily life.
I became a therapist after many years of diving into my own healing process and studying various healing modalities. I am a holistic therapist, meaning I attend to all aspects of wellbeing: emotional, mental, and physical as well as spiritual, cultural, and in the context of community and social systems. I treat ailments including trauma, anxiety, depression, chronic pain, and relationship issues for individuals, couples, and families. Clients who benefit from my approach are those seeking a partner in growth and self-exploration, and who are ready to put new ways of thinking and being into practice in daily life.
(510) 560-3864 View (510) 560-3864
Photo of Rebecca Silverstein, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Rebecca Silverstein
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94601
It's possible to have a fulfilling, meaningful and joyful life. I create a safe space for you to explore how your life experiences shaped your view of yourself and others. As a result of childhood abuse or neglect, intergenerational transmission of trauma and ongoing injustice, we can develop negative beliefs about our worth and what the world will provide for us. These often unconscious thoughts and behaviors helped you survive and even thrive but may not work well now. As humans, we go through many times of growth where we shed what doesn't fit, so we can become even an better version of ourselves.
It's possible to have a fulfilling, meaningful and joyful life. I create a safe space for you to explore how your life experiences shaped your view of yourself and others. As a result of childhood abuse or neglect, intergenerational transmission of trauma and ongoing injustice, we can develop negative beliefs about our worth and what the world will provide for us. These often unconscious thoughts and behaviors helped you survive and even thrive but may not work well now. As humans, we go through many times of growth where we shed what doesn't fit, so we can become even an better version of ourselves.
(415) 403-2734 View (415) 403-2734
Photo of Jennifer Fatzler, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jennifer Fatzler
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94610  (Online Only)
Welcome. Are you repeating the same patterns and don't understand why? Have you attempted to change only to find yourself in the same situations with the same problems? I am a CA licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over 20 years of experience helping people address their mental health needs and to improve their relationships and their quality of life. I am educated and trained in both psychodynamic and family systems therapy which informs my work.
Welcome. Are you repeating the same patterns and don't understand why? Have you attempted to change only to find yourself in the same situations with the same problems? I am a CA licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over 20 years of experience helping people address their mental health needs and to improve their relationships and their quality of life. I am educated and trained in both psychodynamic and family systems therapy which informs my work.
(510) 945-1007 View (510) 945-1007
Photo of Gretchen Reid, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gretchen Reid
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
With great courage and a sense of curiosity, you’ve already taken the hardest step towards feeling better—reaching out for help. Maybe you’ve been feeling "stuck" or overwhelmed? Perhaps you and your significant other find it difficult to communicate each other's feelings and needs. Or maybe you're trying to make sense of a life experience and don’t know where to start. I would like to reassure you, you don’t have to endure the pain or confusion alone. We, as humans, have all experienced moment(s) in life where we feel disconnected from our true selves and even our loved ones. Sometimes we just need some support along the way.
With great courage and a sense of curiosity, you’ve already taken the hardest step towards feeling better—reaching out for help. Maybe you’ve been feeling "stuck" or overwhelmed? Perhaps you and your significant other find it difficult to communicate each other's feelings and needs. Or maybe you're trying to make sense of a life experience and don’t know where to start. I would like to reassure you, you don’t have to endure the pain or confusion alone. We, as humans, have all experienced moment(s) in life where we feel disconnected from our true selves and even our loved ones. Sometimes we just need some support along the way.
(510) 616-9574 View (510) 616-9574
Photo of Paul Taruskin, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Paul Taruskin
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94610
I'm glad you are here. This is a big deal. Whether you seek therapy individually or as part of a couple, the way you relate to yourself, your world, and your people are pivotal to understanding your mental health. I'm committed to supporting couples and individuals at all levels of development who seek a supportive environment in their pursuit of growth and healing. Together, we will explore your present and past to discover your strengths, while making space for the pain and distress you are carrying. Together, we will understand your partner and relationships in a new way and rediscover your capacity to find solutions on your own
I'm glad you are here. This is a big deal. Whether you seek therapy individually or as part of a couple, the way you relate to yourself, your world, and your people are pivotal to understanding your mental health. I'm committed to supporting couples and individuals at all levels of development who seek a supportive environment in their pursuit of growth and healing. Together, we will explore your present and past to discover your strengths, while making space for the pain and distress you are carrying. Together, we will understand your partner and relationships in a new way and rediscover your capacity to find solutions on your own
(510) 683-5919 View (510) 683-5919
Photo of Ronica M Clark, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Ronica M Clark
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94621  (Online Only)
You have at least one of the following in broken relationship, not in a relationship but want to be, have terrible self-esteem, in dead end job, feels like life is just plan hard to get through, or maybe drink and use illegal substances. Above all else you are looking for peace of mind. You are the kind of person that would like to change their lives in a big way and just need a call to action and someone to help. You would like to see yourself as the envy of all your friends and family with the awesome life you have.
You have at least one of the following in broken relationship, not in a relationship but want to be, have terrible self-esteem, in dead end job, feels like life is just plan hard to get through, or maybe drink and use illegal substances. Above all else you are looking for peace of mind. You are the kind of person that would like to change their lives in a big way and just need a call to action and someone to help. You would like to see yourself as the envy of all your friends and family with the awesome life you have.
(510) 757-9427 View (510) 757-9427
Photo of Paul Julio Calloway, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Paul Julio Calloway
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94610
Waitlist for new clients
As a therapist, I would like to create a safe place to discuss and process your feelings. The most important thing for me is building trust and rapport so that the therapeutic process can commence. I am here to provide guidance and tailor my counseling interventions to address your specific needs. I identify as a therapist of color specializing in working with communities of color.
As a therapist, I would like to create a safe place to discuss and process your feelings. The most important thing for me is building trust and rapport so that the therapeutic process can commence. I am here to provide guidance and tailor my counseling interventions to address your specific needs. I identify as a therapist of color specializing in working with communities of color.
(510) 983-7753 View (510) 983-7753
Photo of Margaret F Mancuso, PhD, Psychologist
Margaret F Mancuso
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94618
I am a Clinical Psychologist in private practice with more than 20 years' experience helping individual adults, teens, children and their families. I offer both Psychotherapy and Consultation. Psychotherapy in a safe and caring atmosphere can offer a pathway to insight, personal understanding and achieving new goals that bring a more rewarding life. My clinical approach is an interactive one since I believe that successful therapy is a collaborative process. I incorporate various therapeutic approaches: Psychodynamic, Interpersonal, Psychoanalytic, Solution-Focused and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
I am a Clinical Psychologist in private practice with more than 20 years' experience helping individual adults, teens, children and their families. I offer both Psychotherapy and Consultation. Psychotherapy in a safe and caring atmosphere can offer a pathway to insight, personal understanding and achieving new goals that bring a more rewarding life. My clinical approach is an interactive one since I believe that successful therapy is a collaborative process. I incorporate various therapeutic approaches: Psychodynamic, Interpersonal, Psychoanalytic, Solution-Focused and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.
(510) 746-8071 View (510) 746-8071
Photo of Lyca Sedaka, LMFT, LEP, Marriage & Family Therapist
Lyca Sedaka
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LEP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94618
Do you find yourself frequently frustrated and overwhelmed by tasks that appear effortless to others? Have you ever felt like you're constantly falling short of meeting the expectations and needs of those around you? Or do you have a thriving career but struggle to keep up with other areas of life? The ADHD mind is different in both frustrating and wonderful ways. Understanding these traits, along with your own unique strengths and challenges, is the key to unlocking the full life you desire.
Do you find yourself frequently frustrated and overwhelmed by tasks that appear effortless to others? Have you ever felt like you're constantly falling short of meeting the expectations and needs of those around you? Or do you have a thriving career but struggle to keep up with other areas of life? The ADHD mind is different in both frustrating and wonderful ways. Understanding these traits, along with your own unique strengths and challenges, is the key to unlocking the full life you desire.
(510) 319-2887 View (510) 319-2887
Photo of Zachary Weiss, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Zachary Weiss
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94611
Therapy is a life-changing process of growth, transformation, and healing. It is a safe, confidential space where you can unburden yourself. Where you can begin to unpack the ways of being and doing that no longer serve you. It is a place where you can share your pain. Where wounds are found, held, and tended with care. Where you can connect with your own vitality and dare to live a fuller, more meaningful life. It isn't always easy, nor quick, but it's almost always worthwhile.
Therapy is a life-changing process of growth, transformation, and healing. It is a safe, confidential space where you can unburden yourself. Where you can begin to unpack the ways of being and doing that no longer serve you. It is a place where you can share your pain. Where wounds are found, held, and tended with care. Where you can connect with your own vitality and dare to live a fuller, more meaningful life. It isn't always easy, nor quick, but it's almost always worthwhile.
(408) 882-1853 View (408) 882-1853
Photo of Fiona Ruddy, LMFT, ATR-BC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Fiona Ruddy
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, ATR-BC
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94610
Waitlist for new clients
Are you finding yourself struggling to adapt to a change or transition in your life? You may be finding yourself overthinking, anxious, overwhelmed and/or feeling stuck. You may be having trouble sleeping, feeling sad, hopeless, insecure or tired of that negative voice in your head that seems to hold you back. You want to feel more confident, calm, clear and positive about the future. You want things to be different, get on a new path, but you aren't sure how to get there.
Are you finding yourself struggling to adapt to a change or transition in your life? You may be finding yourself overthinking, anxious, overwhelmed and/or feeling stuck. You may be having trouble sleeping, feeling sad, hopeless, insecure or tired of that negative voice in your head that seems to hold you back. You want to feel more confident, calm, clear and positive about the future. You want things to be different, get on a new path, but you aren't sure how to get there.
(415) 323-4740 View (415) 323-4740
Photo of Erin Boyle, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Erin Boyle
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
I help people find their footing when they feel overwhelmed and anxious, hopeless and depressed, or lost in their relationships. I specialize in working with professionals in tech who are struggling with these feelings at their jobs as well as at home. Often these struggles show up for high achievers and technical folks because of developmental trauma, which impacts the way we show up in relationships with others, like those we have intense attachments to (family, partners) or where power dynamics are at play (like work). Hello perfectionists, people-pleasers, and "I can do it all myself"-ers!
I help people find their footing when they feel overwhelmed and anxious, hopeless and depressed, or lost in their relationships. I specialize in working with professionals in tech who are struggling with these feelings at their jobs as well as at home. Often these struggles show up for high achievers and technical folks because of developmental trauma, which impacts the way we show up in relationships with others, like those we have intense attachments to (family, partners) or where power dynamics are at play (like work). Hello perfectionists, people-pleasers, and "I can do it all myself"-ers!
(510) 973-4112 View (510) 973-4112
Photo of Dena Scott, PsyD, MA, Psychologist
Dena Scott
Psychologist, PsyD, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94605
Not accepting new clients
There is a bravery in the therapeutic process. A willingness to be open to better understanding of yourself, others and the world around us. A desire to navigate towards the ultimate destination of social-emotional wellness. For each individual, couple, family and system there is a path we have the ability to impact. I aim to be a catalyst along this sometimes simple and often complex journey. My goal is to support, challenge and empower. We will build our therapeutic relationship through thoughtful inquiry and meaningful dialogue that allows us to develop a comprehensive treatment plan for you and/or your loved ones.
There is a bravery in the therapeutic process. A willingness to be open to better understanding of yourself, others and the world around us. A desire to navigate towards the ultimate destination of social-emotional wellness. For each individual, couple, family and system there is a path we have the ability to impact. I aim to be a catalyst along this sometimes simple and often complex journey. My goal is to support, challenge and empower. We will build our therapeutic relationship through thoughtful inquiry and meaningful dialogue that allows us to develop a comprehensive treatment plan for you and/or your loved ones.
(404) 476-8760 View (404) 476-8760
Photo of Andrew Damian, PsyD, BCN, Psychologist
Andrew Damian
Psychologist, PsyD, BCN
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94609
I am a licensed psychologist with expertise in neurofeedback, neuropsychology, chronic pain treatment, individual psychotherapy, meditation, and qEEG brain mapping. I am board certified in neurofeedback and I use cutting-edge techniques to determine the best treatment and to improve outcomes.
I am a licensed psychologist with expertise in neurofeedback, neuropsychology, chronic pain treatment, individual psychotherapy, meditation, and qEEG brain mapping. I am board certified in neurofeedback and I use cutting-edge techniques to determine the best treatment and to improve outcomes.
(628) 265-6274 View (628) 265-6274
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Oakland, CA

2,000+

Average cost per session

$185

Therapists in Oakland, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
80% Relationship Issues
74% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
68% Grief
66% Stress

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

62% Aetna
51% Cigna and Evernorth
45% Anthem | Elevance

How Therapists in Oakland, CA see their clients

62% In Person and Online
38% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
21% Male
4% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Oakland?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.