Therapists in Oakland, CA

View neighborhoods in Oakland
Photo of Mary Fleisch, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mary Fleisch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94610
Trauma leaves us feeling broken, overwhelmed, & anxious in our relationships. Perhaps you're fed up with constant triggers in everyday situations, feeling distant from loved ones, or overwhelmed by the nagging voice that whispers "you're not enough." Maybe you can't even recall a time when things felt different. But one thing's for sure- you're over feeling terrible all the time. You're ready for relief. You're ready to experience joy in daily life without the constant mind chatter. You're ready for deep, intimate relationships where you can feel safe, loved & connected. You're ready to finally feel good.
Trauma leaves us feeling broken, overwhelmed, & anxious in our relationships. Perhaps you're fed up with constant triggers in everyday situations, feeling distant from loved ones, or overwhelmed by the nagging voice that whispers "you're not enough." Maybe you can't even recall a time when things felt different. But one thing's for sure- you're over feeling terrible all the time. You're ready for relief. You're ready to experience joy in daily life without the constant mind chatter. You're ready for deep, intimate relationships where you can feel safe, loved & connected. You're ready to finally feel good.
(510) 804-0425 View (510) 804-0425
Photo of Catherine Morelix, LCSW, LSCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Catherine Morelix
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LSCSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94607  (Online Only)
Do you struggle to feel safe and secure in relationships? Do shame, guilt, and anxiety cause you to avoid talking about your own needs? Trauma from our past can affect how we relate to others. My approach is to build a warm, peaceful, shame free space for people to share their story and discover in creative ways to heal the hurt that they carry. I support people as they open doors of their hearts with compassion and care. Whether you are coming to therapy as an individual or a couple, I work to build up your inner resources and hope for your future.
Do you struggle to feel safe and secure in relationships? Do shame, guilt, and anxiety cause you to avoid talking about your own needs? Trauma from our past can affect how we relate to others. My approach is to build a warm, peaceful, shame free space for people to share their story and discover in creative ways to heal the hurt that they carry. I support people as they open doors of their hearts with compassion and care. Whether you are coming to therapy as an individual or a couple, I work to build up your inner resources and hope for your future.
(415) 329-7865 View (415) 329-7865
Photo of Peter Chechele, LMFT, LPCC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Peter Chechele
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LPCC
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
As a very engaged and empathic therapist, I work with my clients to discover what they are wanting to achieve in therapy and what they've already tried that hasn't worked. Then together we come up with a strategy to work through where they might be stuck and construct a path forward. A combination of insight and values driven action typically leads to improvement for the conditions they present with.
As a very engaged and empathic therapist, I work with my clients to discover what they are wanting to achieve in therapy and what they've already tried that hasn't worked. Then together we come up with a strategy to work through where they might be stuck and construct a path forward. A combination of insight and values driven action typically leads to improvement for the conditions they present with.
(310) 356-9420 View (310) 356-9420
Photo of Christopher Medina Brown, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Christopher Medina Brown
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94618
Are you or your child constantly finding yourself feeling lost, overwhelmed, exhausted, powerless or helpless in your daily life or in your relationships with others? Navigating the emotional spaces within our relationships, professions and ourselves is a complex and often, scary place to be in. While these spaces can be overwhelming and difficult to navigate, you deserve the space to be heard and met with with empathetic warmth in acknowledging the experiences, beliefs and feelings that have brought you here today. I warmly invite you to begin or continue that journey with me so we can learn, unlearn, explore and grow together.
Are you or your child constantly finding yourself feeling lost, overwhelmed, exhausted, powerless or helpless in your daily life or in your relationships with others? Navigating the emotional spaces within our relationships, professions and ourselves is a complex and often, scary place to be in. While these spaces can be overwhelming and difficult to navigate, you deserve the space to be heard and met with with empathetic warmth in acknowledging the experiences, beliefs and feelings that have brought you here today. I warmly invite you to begin or continue that journey with me so we can learn, unlearn, explore and grow together.
(510) 737-7959 View (510) 737-7959
Photo of Carrie Smith, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carrie Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94612  (Online Only)
My style of therapy is to meet my clients where they are and provide Solution-Focused treatment to support learning how to manage your emotional self outside of therapy. I have worked as a therapist since 2014 with adults, families, and couples so I have a wide range of experience providing individual therapy to a diverse population.
My style of therapy is to meet my clients where they are and provide Solution-Focused treatment to support learning how to manage your emotional self outside of therapy. I have worked as a therapist since 2014 with adults, families, and couples so I have a wide range of experience providing individual therapy to a diverse population.
(510) 647-6738 View (510) 647-6738
Photo of Annaliese Taylor, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Annaliese Taylor
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94609
I am passionate about helping couples and individuals uncover the source of their emotional suffering and identify new strategies for adjusting to painful life events. I am concerned with the way our significant relationships, both early-on and in adulthood, impact how we experience the present. I collaborate with couples to identify unmet attachment needs driving disconnection in relationships and facilitate expression of these needs so partners can reconnect and feel secure in their relationships. My work with individuals promotes self-acceptance and value-driven action.
I am passionate about helping couples and individuals uncover the source of their emotional suffering and identify new strategies for adjusting to painful life events. I am concerned with the way our significant relationships, both early-on and in adulthood, impact how we experience the present. I collaborate with couples to identify unmet attachment needs driving disconnection in relationships and facilitate expression of these needs so partners can reconnect and feel secure in their relationships. My work with individuals promotes self-acceptance and value-driven action.
(628) 232-3889 View (628) 232-3889
Photo of Megan Ellis Van Vlack, LMFT, LPCC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Megan Ellis Van Vlack
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LPCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94618
The decision to begin psychotherapy can come about for a variety of reasons. This may be your first time in therapy or it’s just the right time to get a fresh perspective. You may be struggling with feelings and experiences that are hard to make sense of, like grief, anxiety, loneliness, stress, exhaustion, shame, anger, and/or emptiness. You may feel stuck, like you’ve tried everything, and nothing is working. It’s getting to be more difficult to stay motivated, to stay focused, and to enjoy the things that you love. Psychotherapy can help to relieve these stressors and reduce anxiety and depression.
The decision to begin psychotherapy can come about for a variety of reasons. This may be your first time in therapy or it’s just the right time to get a fresh perspective. You may be struggling with feelings and experiences that are hard to make sense of, like grief, anxiety, loneliness, stress, exhaustion, shame, anger, and/or emptiness. You may feel stuck, like you’ve tried everything, and nothing is working. It’s getting to be more difficult to stay motivated, to stay focused, and to enjoy the things that you love. Psychotherapy can help to relieve these stressors and reduce anxiety and depression.
(415) 914-9740 View (415) 914-9740
Photo of Megan Parker, PsyD, Psychologist
Megan Parker
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
As our world re-opens, many people are experiencing anxiety, depression, and stress due to recent social isolation and the unpredictability of the future. It can be a highly stressful time for people re-entering the world and for parents and teens. I provide individual adult therapy, teen/young adult therapy, and parent coaching. I am knowledgeable with non-traditional family structures (single parent, multiple caregiver, polyamorous, & LGBT families), transgender adolescent/child issues, anxiety, and neurodiversity . I’ve also begun working with the emotional effects of long Covid and chronic fatigue.
As our world re-opens, many people are experiencing anxiety, depression, and stress due to recent social isolation and the unpredictability of the future. It can be a highly stressful time for people re-entering the world and for parents and teens. I provide individual adult therapy, teen/young adult therapy, and parent coaching. I am knowledgeable with non-traditional family structures (single parent, multiple caregiver, polyamorous, & LGBT families), transgender adolescent/child issues, anxiety, and neurodiversity . I’ve also begun working with the emotional effects of long Covid and chronic fatigue.
(415) 347-8868 View (415) 347-8868
Photo of Nanyonjo Mukungu, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Nanyonjo Mukungu
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94610  (Online Only)
My framework as a psychotherapist is inspired by black feminist sci-fi writer, Octavia E. Butler who saw the possibility of many more worlds than just our own. I believe that transformative internal healing is critical to envisioning and building these worlds without the presence of imperialism, white supremacy, capitalism and cishet-patriarchy. The tools I use to support the exploration of individual, interpersonal and intergenerational trauma are shaped by abolition that rejects punitive and scarcity mindsets and disability justice which strives to value every body.
My framework as a psychotherapist is inspired by black feminist sci-fi writer, Octavia E. Butler who saw the possibility of many more worlds than just our own. I believe that transformative internal healing is critical to envisioning and building these worlds without the presence of imperialism, white supremacy, capitalism and cishet-patriarchy. The tools I use to support the exploration of individual, interpersonal and intergenerational trauma are shaped by abolition that rejects punitive and scarcity mindsets and disability justice which strives to value every body.
View
Photo of Sasha Stahl, MSW, ASW
Sasha Stahl
Associate Clinical Social Worker, MSW, ASW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94609  (Online Only)
As a Registered Associate Clinical Social Worker, I strive to support people as they navigate life's changes and challenges. Doing so alone is not easy, and I strongly believe everyone deserves a safe, containing space to work through what may be weighing heavy on their hearts and minds. My work has primarily focused on individuals and families experiencing anxiety, depression, acute stress, relational challenges, and trauma. These varied experiences have taught me that a meaningful therapist-client relationship is essential to effective therapeutic work, which I build through a warm, relational style and a touch of humor.
As a Registered Associate Clinical Social Worker, I strive to support people as they navigate life's changes and challenges. Doing so alone is not easy, and I strongly believe everyone deserves a safe, containing space to work through what may be weighing heavy on their hearts and minds. My work has primarily focused on individuals and families experiencing anxiety, depression, acute stress, relational challenges, and trauma. These varied experiences have taught me that a meaningful therapist-client relationship is essential to effective therapeutic work, which I build through a warm, relational style and a touch of humor.
(510) 899-5235 View (510) 899-5235
Photo of Hong Jeong, LCSW, EMDR, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hong Jeong
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, EMDR
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94609
We all go through emotional storms where we feel emotionally and physically stuck; we worry too much and lose control of ourselves. Do you find yourself thrown off balance by your childhood trauma? Childhood traumatic experiences such as abandonment, abuse, and neglect lead to social anxiety. My approach is solution-focused and tailored to your needs and goals. I am committed to providing a profound sense of safety and offering compassionate and actionable guidance to all my clients.
We all go through emotional storms where we feel emotionally and physically stuck; we worry too much and lose control of ourselves. Do you find yourself thrown off balance by your childhood trauma? Childhood traumatic experiences such as abandonment, abuse, and neglect lead to social anxiety. My approach is solution-focused and tailored to your needs and goals. I am committed to providing a profound sense of safety and offering compassionate and actionable guidance to all my clients.
(213) 275-2192 View (213) 275-2192
Photo of Rebecca E. Grayzel, Psychologist
Rebecca E. Grayzel
Psychologist
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94610  (Online Only)
I believe the key to change lies in cultivating a safe, strong therapeutic relationship. Through a developmental lens, I aim to understand each person’s history and how their unique story informs current challenges. I feel passionate about working with clients from diverse backgrounds and utilize a culturally-informed approach when understanding life experiences and associated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In conjunction with this psychodynamic, relationally-driven approach, I help clients identify a clear presenting concern, develop goals, and integrate the appropriate evidence-based practice tailored to their specific needs.
I believe the key to change lies in cultivating a safe, strong therapeutic relationship. Through a developmental lens, I aim to understand each person’s history and how their unique story informs current challenges. I feel passionate about working with clients from diverse backgrounds and utilize a culturally-informed approach when understanding life experiences and associated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In conjunction with this psychodynamic, relationally-driven approach, I help clients identify a clear presenting concern, develop goals, and integrate the appropriate evidence-based practice tailored to their specific needs.
(510) 422-2954 View (510) 422-2954
Photo of Emma Tennison, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Emma Tennison
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94620  (Online Only)
Seeking support can feel vulnerable – especially when the culture around us glorifies “self-made” success stories and aspires to a seemingly effortless, perfectly curated social media existence. The reality of course is that life is messy, and that we all benefit from support. We are impacted by world events, our environments, relationships, the histories of our people (our families, ancestors, communities), and our own unique collection of lived experiences. As a therapist I view my role as that of an ally, confidant, collaborator - and very occasionally a guide.
Seeking support can feel vulnerable – especially when the culture around us glorifies “self-made” success stories and aspires to a seemingly effortless, perfectly curated social media existence. The reality of course is that life is messy, and that we all benefit from support. We are impacted by world events, our environments, relationships, the histories of our people (our families, ancestors, communities), and our own unique collection of lived experiences. As a therapist I view my role as that of an ally, confidant, collaborator - and very occasionally a guide.
(510) 369-2713 View (510) 369-2713
Photo of Olisha Hodges, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Olisha Hodges
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611
Not accepting new clients
Are you experiencing a difficult time? Looking for support? My therapeutic approach is tailored to meet your individual needs, as you are the expert on your life! My goal is to partner with you as you navigate through this difficult time. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with ten years experience working with children and families in various non-profit, school and county capacities. My private practice is dedicated to supporting school-age, teen and adult clients to make the most out of their resources and relationships. I provide psychotherapy services to those in need.
Are you experiencing a difficult time? Looking for support? My therapeutic approach is tailored to meet your individual needs, as you are the expert on your life! My goal is to partner with you as you navigate through this difficult time. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with ten years experience working with children and families in various non-profit, school and county capacities. My private practice is dedicated to supporting school-age, teen and adult clients to make the most out of their resources and relationships. I provide psychotherapy services to those in need.
(510) 907-6476 View (510) 907-6476
Photo of Kristin Fialko, LMFT, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kristin Fialko
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94606  (Online Only)
We often find ourselves and bodies, on the path towards health after overwhelming experiences (birth, chronic illness), trauma, grief or loss. Re-igniting our inner-fire and natural emotional balance can understandably be a challenge. Trauma-informed somatic psychotherapy can help! I take my role as a therapist, one who supports the client on their journey, as a facilitator of a sacred collaboration. I conduct therapy with an intention to process and move trauma (anxiety, depression and grief accompanying it) in order to restore balance between the mind, body, and spirit and reignite the internal fire.
We often find ourselves and bodies, on the path towards health after overwhelming experiences (birth, chronic illness), trauma, grief or loss. Re-igniting our inner-fire and natural emotional balance can understandably be a challenge. Trauma-informed somatic psychotherapy can help! I take my role as a therapist, one who supports the client on their journey, as a facilitator of a sacred collaboration. I conduct therapy with an intention to process and move trauma (anxiety, depression and grief accompanying it) in order to restore balance between the mind, body, and spirit and reignite the internal fire.
(510) 491-9142 View (510) 491-9142
Photo of Andrea Henderson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Andrea Henderson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94607
I am an LCSW with experience working with adolescents, families, people struggling with significant mental health difficulties, loss and grief
I am an LCSW with experience working with adolescents, families, people struggling with significant mental health difficulties, loss and grief
(415) 223-8370 View (415) 223-8370
Photo of Tricia Kim Walsh, MA, LMFT, PMH-C, Marriage & Family Therapist
Tricia Kim Walsh
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, PMH-C
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Oakland, CA 94611
Waitlist for new clients
Do you feel depleted from finding the "right fit" couples or individual therapist? Have you just entered into a new developmental life phase (relocation/college/graduation/job change/new relationship/engagement/marriage/separation, etc.). Or maybe your mood, anxiety, communication and/or relational problems have you so stuck, you can no longer can focus on what is most important in your life. I am an authentic and integrative therapist who is focused on helping you find your own solutions and voice. I specialize in work with individual adults, teens and families. Call or message me for a free 20 minute telephone consultation today.
Do you feel depleted from finding the "right fit" couples or individual therapist? Have you just entered into a new developmental life phase (relocation/college/graduation/job change/new relationship/engagement/marriage/separation, etc.). Or maybe your mood, anxiety, communication and/or relational problems have you so stuck, you can no longer can focus on what is most important in your life. I am an authentic and integrative therapist who is focused on helping you find your own solutions and voice. I specialize in work with individual adults, teens and families. Call or message me for a free 20 minute telephone consultation today.
(925) 392-0834 View (925) 392-0834
Photo of Suzette Yap Brillantes, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Suzette Yap Brillantes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94610  (Online Only)
Are you grappling with heightened feelings of anxiety and depression as a parent or caregiver? Recognize that unresolved issues such, as generational trauma; and relational challenges may be impacting your ability to be fully present for your family.
Are you grappling with heightened feelings of anxiety and depression as a parent or caregiver? Recognize that unresolved issues such, as generational trauma; and relational challenges may be impacting your ability to be fully present for your family.
(510) 949-5510 View (510) 949-5510
Photo of Philip James Keddy, PhD, Psychologist
Philip James Keddy
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94618
Are you looking to escape the influence of negative childhood experiences? Are there problems standing in your way, such as depression, anxiety, addiction, codependency, or trauma? Do you want to be more fully yourself, to experience a greater sense of wholeness and freedom? Do you want to become more aware of unconscious motivations? We can find answers to these questions and work towards a greater sense of meaning in your life. I can help you to understand your dreams as a source of guidance. I am highly trained and bring over 30 years of experience to helping people from late teens to older adults with a wide variety of problems.
Are you looking to escape the influence of negative childhood experiences? Are there problems standing in your way, such as depression, anxiety, addiction, codependency, or trauma? Do you want to be more fully yourself, to experience a greater sense of wholeness and freedom? Do you want to become more aware of unconscious motivations? We can find answers to these questions and work towards a greater sense of meaning in your life. I can help you to understand your dreams as a source of guidance. I am highly trained and bring over 30 years of experience to helping people from late teens to older adults with a wide variety of problems.
(510) 470-7779 View (510) 470-7779
Photo of Masha Brown, PsyD, Psychologist
Masha Brown
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Oakland, CA 94611
Not accepting new clients
We all face our share of struggles as we go through life. You may be experiencing fears that constrict your life, or your past may be sabotaging your ability to live life fully. You may be in the grips of a powerful habit that persists despite your best efforts to break free. I use EMDR, solution-focused, empathetic, and collaborative approach to help clients feel empowered, find meaning and serenity, and reclaim their lives. I am in network with Lyra Healthcare EAP program and also accept private pay.
We all face our share of struggles as we go through life. You may be experiencing fears that constrict your life, or your past may be sabotaging your ability to live life fully. You may be in the grips of a powerful habit that persists despite your best efforts to break free. I use EMDR, solution-focused, empathetic, and collaborative approach to help clients feel empowered, find meaning and serenity, and reclaim their lives. I am in network with Lyra Healthcare EAP program and also accept private pay.
(510) 573-7401 View (510) 573-7401
1
...

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Oakland, CA

2,000+

Average cost per session

$185

Therapists in Oakland, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
80% Relationship Issues
74% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
68% Grief
66% Stress

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

63% Aetna
50% Cigna and Evernorth
45% Anthem | Elevance

How Therapists in Oakland, CA see their clients

62% In Person and Online
38% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
21% Male
4% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Oakland?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.