Therapists in Oak Park, CA

Photo of Dr. Ray Armstrong, PsyD, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. Ray Armstrong
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
Hello and thank you for visiting my profile. My therapeutic philosophy is that individuals need to be a part of their own solutions. Each person is the EXPERT of their own life; not anyone else. I strive to empower clients to feel that their successes come from themselves and are the result of their own dedication and hard work. Many times therapists tend to talk about their ideal client...this seems backwards to me...why does it matter about the therapists' needs? Clients should be empowered to seek out their ideal therapist and what the therapist has to offer them individually, their family, spouse, partner, children, etc.
Hello and thank you for visiting my profile. My therapeutic philosophy is that individuals need to be a part of their own solutions. Each person is the EXPERT of their own life; not anyone else. I strive to empower clients to feel that their successes come from themselves and are the result of their own dedication and hard work. Many times therapists tend to talk about their ideal client...this seems backwards to me...why does it matter about the therapists' needs? Clients should be empowered to seek out their ideal therapist and what the therapist has to offer them individually, their family, spouse, partner, children, etc.
(818) 485-2998 View (818) 485-2998
Photo of Amy Ross - Amy Ross, MA, MFT, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Amy Ross, MA, MFT
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377  (Online Only)
My goal in the work I do with children, adolescents, individual and families is to improve family dynamics, address interfering issues, and aim to improve your relationship with yourself and/or achieve family cohesion. By utilizing a number of conventional and collaborative approaches, treatment is individually tailored to fit the needs of each individual client and family. I aim to provide a comfortable and supportive atmosphere where clients can openly confront issues, learn to better manage emotions, and engage in working toward their unique goals.
My goal in the work I do with children, adolescents, individual and families is to improve family dynamics, address interfering issues, and aim to improve your relationship with yourself and/or achieve family cohesion. By utilizing a number of conventional and collaborative approaches, treatment is individually tailored to fit the needs of each individual client and family. I aim to provide a comfortable and supportive atmosphere where clients can openly confront issues, learn to better manage emotions, and engage in working toward their unique goals.
(818) 962-6381 View (818) 962-6381
Photo of Emily Nicole Glickman, MA, LMFT, ATR, Marriage & Family Therapist
Emily Nicole Glickman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, ATR
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377  (Online Only)
My name is Emily Glickman and I am a licensed MFT and registered art therapist. I am passionate about helping people get unstuck from their mental health symptoms and to be able to reach their full potential. I work with individuals aged 12 and up as well as families. Specifically, I have years of experience working with those dealing with anxiety and panic, mood disorders, OCD and related disorders, eating disorders, trauma and more. I am able to assist clients in learning to cope with and manage their symptoms, meet personal goals, as well as create a fulfilling identity outside of struggling with mental health.
My name is Emily Glickman and I am a licensed MFT and registered art therapist. I am passionate about helping people get unstuck from their mental health symptoms and to be able to reach their full potential. I work with individuals aged 12 and up as well as families. Specifically, I have years of experience working with those dealing with anxiety and panic, mood disorders, OCD and related disorders, eating disorders, trauma and more. I am able to assist clients in learning to cope with and manage their symptoms, meet personal goals, as well as create a fulfilling identity outside of struggling with mental health.
(818) 824-5251 View (818) 824-5251
Photo of Matthew Peter Morgan, MS, SUDCCIV, CNS
Matthew Peter Morgan
Registered Psychological Assistant, MS, SUDCCIV, CNS
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
I’ve been working in mental health and addiction for over 17 years. I know not a single method is suitable for every individual. So, I’ve been trained in various techniques, including MI, SUD counseling, DBT, TM, case management, men’s issues, couples and family therapy, Neurofeedback, and 12-step recovery.
I’ve been working in mental health and addiction for over 17 years. I know not a single method is suitable for every individual. So, I’ve been trained in various techniques, including MI, SUD counseling, DBT, TM, case management, men’s issues, couples and family therapy, Neurofeedback, and 12-step recovery.
(818) 824-8838 View (818) 824-8838
Photo of Harold Young, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Harold Young
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oak Park, CA 91377
Harold Young attended graduate school at UCLA and has over 35 years’ experience as a clinician, clinical supervisor and teacher of interns. He was the Clinical Director of The Maple Counseling Center of Beverly Hills for 20 years. He works with adults and couples from an insight and relational orientation.
Harold Young attended graduate school at UCLA and has over 35 years’ experience as a clinician, clinical supervisor and teacher of interns. He was the Clinical Director of The Maple Counseling Center of Beverly Hills for 20 years. He works with adults and couples from an insight and relational orientation.
(747) 239-5359 View (747) 239-5359
Photo of Kenneth England, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kenneth England
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
Kenneth England is a licensed marriage and family therapist who has worked at high-quality substance abuse programs such as Cri-Help, The Canyon at Peace Park, historic Promises Malibu and Valley Recovery Center - Agua Dulce. He applies this strong experience for his Private Practice clients, as well. Kenneth finds that it is very important for patients to receive quality service, empathy and guidance in their life-changing decisions. He has also worked with several professional athletes, from some of America's top sports leagues, helping them with problematic issues in their life, including substance use.
Kenneth England is a licensed marriage and family therapist who has worked at high-quality substance abuse programs such as Cri-Help, The Canyon at Peace Park, historic Promises Malibu and Valley Recovery Center - Agua Dulce. He applies this strong experience for his Private Practice clients, as well. Kenneth finds that it is very important for patients to receive quality service, empathy and guidance in their life-changing decisions. He has also worked with several professional athletes, from some of America's top sports leagues, helping them with problematic issues in their life, including substance use.
(818) 423-4804 View (818) 423-4804
Photo of Stephanie R. Bien, LMFT, LPCC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Stephanie R. Bien
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LPCC
Verified Verified
13 Endorsed
Oak Park, CA 91377
A lot of fighting going on? Work it out NOW! I help individuals and families improve the quality of their lives. Parents are included to help the issues our children face today to form a strong family unit and get through tough times. I have been trained in many modalities, including psychotherapy, communication, play therapy, sandtray work, education, visualization, meditation and hypnosis.
A lot of fighting going on? Work it out NOW! I help individuals and families improve the quality of their lives. Parents are included to help the issues our children face today to form a strong family unit and get through tough times. I have been trained in many modalities, including psychotherapy, communication, play therapy, sandtray work, education, visualization, meditation and hypnosis.
(818) 305-6245 View (818) 305-6245
Photo of Idit Roth, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Idit Roth
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
I am often asked, "What kind of patients do you see in your practice?" "People just like you and me", I respond. The one thing that they all have in common is their desire to connect, to be heard, to express themselves without being concerned about saying too much or too little.
I am often asked, "What kind of patients do you see in your practice?" "People just like you and me", I respond. The one thing that they all have in common is their desire to connect, to be heard, to express themselves without being concerned about saying too much or too little.
(818) 491-3289 View (818) 491-3289
Photo of Gil Katz-Goldstein, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Gil Katz-Goldstein
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oak Park, CA 91377  (Online Only)
Welcome! Lets embark together on your journey to live authentically. I believe that the connection between therapist & client is the most powerful tool for change & healing. I work with kids, teens, adults, couples, & groups with a wide range of issues. These include but are not limited to: depression, anxiety, grief, identity issues, relationship issues, mood disorders, & chronic medical conditions. I also run various therapy groups! Therapy can be a safe, unbiased & supportive place to gain insight, process emotions, & to learn practical skills to handle life's challenges.
Welcome! Lets embark together on your journey to live authentically. I believe that the connection between therapist & client is the most powerful tool for change & healing. I work with kids, teens, adults, couples, & groups with a wide range of issues. These include but are not limited to: depression, anxiety, grief, identity issues, relationship issues, mood disorders, & chronic medical conditions. I also run various therapy groups! Therapy can be a safe, unbiased & supportive place to gain insight, process emotions, & to learn practical skills to handle life's challenges.
(818) 699-9539 View (818) 699-9539
Photo of Jennifer Kadin - Jennifer Kadin [Psychological Testing], Psy D, Psychologist
Jennifer Kadin [Psychological Testing]
Psychologist, Psy D
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91301
I have been working as a Clinical and Forensic Psychologist for the past 9 years. I specialize in psychological testing and evaluation as well as individual, family, and couples’ therapy for all ages. I utilize cognitive-behavioral as well as solution focused, psychodynamic, and object relations interventions in my psychotherapy practice. I have many years of experience with risk assessment and psychological testing for children, adolescents, and adults and is a skilled diagnostician and treatment planner. I have an affinity for working with transitional age youth and adolescents.
I have been working as a Clinical and Forensic Psychologist for the past 9 years. I specialize in psychological testing and evaluation as well as individual, family, and couples’ therapy for all ages. I utilize cognitive-behavioral as well as solution focused, psychodynamic, and object relations interventions in my psychotherapy practice. I have many years of experience with risk assessment and psychological testing for children, adolescents, and adults and is a skilled diagnostician and treatment planner. I have an affinity for working with transitional age youth and adolescents.
(818) 350-5139 View (818) 350-5139
Photo of Andrew Scott Cohen, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Andrew Scott Cohen
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Oak Park, CA 91377
Are you experiencing debilitating intrusive thoughts and obsessions that will not get out of your head? Do you have to engage in time-consuming rituals to get through the day? You may be suffering from OCD or another anxiety disorder. These symptoms do not have to control your life, and it is possible to break free from your vicious anxiety cycle! In my practice, I utilize Evidence-Based Practices to treat OCD and Anxiety, including CBT, ERP, ACT, and Cognitive Based Mindfulness.
Are you experiencing debilitating intrusive thoughts and obsessions that will not get out of your head? Do you have to engage in time-consuming rituals to get through the day? You may be suffering from OCD or another anxiety disorder. These symptoms do not have to control your life, and it is possible to break free from your vicious anxiety cycle! In my practice, I utilize Evidence-Based Practices to treat OCD and Anxiety, including CBT, ERP, ACT, and Cognitive Based Mindfulness.
(805) 209-1042 View (805) 209-1042
Photo of Marina Edelman, MA, MFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Marina Edelman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
I have helped numerous couples, individuals & families find happiness, harmony, and coping strategies to life challenges. I use John Gottman's (research based) approach and EFT to help couples understand their strengths & areas that need improvement. By taking an online assessment couples save time & money & I can quickly assess areas of focus & recomend interventions. To help clients with anxiety/depression I challenge distorted beliefs and maladaptive behaviors using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. This approach along with other interventions encourages clients to go out of their comfort zone & reduce problamatic symptoms.
I have helped numerous couples, individuals & families find happiness, harmony, and coping strategies to life challenges. I use John Gottman's (research based) approach and EFT to help couples understand their strengths & areas that need improvement. By taking an online assessment couples save time & money & I can quickly assess areas of focus & recomend interventions. To help clients with anxiety/depression I challenge distorted beliefs and maladaptive behaviors using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. This approach along with other interventions encourages clients to go out of their comfort zone & reduce problamatic symptoms.
(818) 253-9910 View (818) 253-9910
Photo of Shahin Sean Nourian, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Shahin Sean Nourian
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377  (Online Only)
Hi, I'm Sean. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over 10 years of experience working with different populations and needs. My experiences include Residential Treatment Centers, Outpatient Programs, School Settings, Teaching and also Private Practice. I have worked with individuals with adjustments to life, depression, anxiety, trauma, PTSD, difficulty with concentration, isolation, negative self-talk, cultural differences, and different levels of cognitive distortions. I utilize helping connect to self, environment, and social supports through psychoeducation, reflection, validation, and utilizing anxiety for change.
Hi, I'm Sean. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over 10 years of experience working with different populations and needs. My experiences include Residential Treatment Centers, Outpatient Programs, School Settings, Teaching and also Private Practice. I have worked with individuals with adjustments to life, depression, anxiety, trauma, PTSD, difficulty with concentration, isolation, negative self-talk, cultural differences, and different levels of cognitive distortions. I utilize helping connect to self, environment, and social supports through psychoeducation, reflection, validation, and utilizing anxiety for change.
(818) 418-8313 View (818) 418-8313
Photo of Zulykha Azizi - Azizi Talk Therapy, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Azizi Talk Therapy
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377  (Online Only)
Therapy is a safe space for the personal growth of individuals/couples/families, to heal their wounds from their past and become the best version of their authentic self. The challenge in today's world is finding "the right time" in the midst of 99 other tasks on our to-do-list. For the first time in our life let's put ourselves first to start therapy to learn how to to recognize the problem, understand the origin of the symptoms, and to develop healthy coping skills.
Therapy is a safe space for the personal growth of individuals/couples/families, to heal their wounds from their past and become the best version of their authentic self. The challenge in today's world is finding "the right time" in the midst of 99 other tasks on our to-do-list. For the first time in our life let's put ourselves first to start therapy to learn how to to recognize the problem, understand the origin of the symptoms, and to develop healthy coping skills.
(747) 298-5945 View (747) 298-5945
Photo of Gail Shurtleff - Beyond Grief & Loss Therapy, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Beyond Grief & Loss Therapy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
If you have lost a loved one and are grieving I'm sorry that you have to read this. If you have survived a loved ones suicide I"m sorry for the pain you are feeling. Many people will tell you to "get over it" or move on with life. It's a great deal more complex than that. You don't need to be fixed: you need to be heard. If you have embarked on a new phase of your life and are struggling to say goodbye to the old chances are you don't need to be fixed you need to have support. Life transitions are difficult and they come in many forms. Death and Faith transitions are just two of these. Grief and loss affects so many things.
If you have lost a loved one and are grieving I'm sorry that you have to read this. If you have survived a loved ones suicide I"m sorry for the pain you are feeling. Many people will tell you to "get over it" or move on with life. It's a great deal more complex than that. You don't need to be fixed: you need to be heard. If you have embarked on a new phase of your life and are struggling to say goodbye to the old chances are you don't need to be fixed you need to have support. Life transitions are difficult and they come in many forms. Death and Faith transitions are just two of these. Grief and loss affects so many things.
(209) 267-2649 View (209) 267-2649
Photo of Michael Kaufman, MFT, PsyD, Marriage & Family Therapist
Michael Kaufman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, PsyD
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
Have you ever heard that you have an anger management problem? Is substance abuse an issue? Do you have teenagers that are "challenging?" Dr. Kaufman is a licensed marriage and family therapist who works in the area of helping people through various issues including anger management, substance abuse and alternative parenting techniques for parents of challenging teens for over 29 years. He has helped thousands of individuals, couples and families. He is a licensed anger management and domestic violence provider for Los Angeles and Ventura Counties and has lectured extensively. He creates a safe and supportive environment.
Have you ever heard that you have an anger management problem? Is substance abuse an issue? Do you have teenagers that are "challenging?" Dr. Kaufman is a licensed marriage and family therapist who works in the area of helping people through various issues including anger management, substance abuse and alternative parenting techniques for parents of challenging teens for over 29 years. He has helped thousands of individuals, couples and families. He is a licensed anger management and domestic violence provider for Los Angeles and Ventura Counties and has lectured extensively. He creates a safe and supportive environment.
(818) 293-5976 View (818) 293-5976
Photo of Stazan K Sina, PhD, Psychologist
Stazan K Sina
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
Although I work with children and adolescents individually, working with them alone is not sufficient. As a parent myself, I am very aware of what it is like for me to entrust my childrens' care into the hands of another. In order for treatment to be successful and for my clients to feel secure in the treatment process, I thus believe it is essential to incorporate working with parents into the treatment of the child. In addition to specializing in treating children and adolescents, I also offer services to college-aged individuals and older adults.
Although I work with children and adolescents individually, working with them alone is not sufficient. As a parent myself, I am very aware of what it is like for me to entrust my childrens' care into the hands of another. In order for treatment to be successful and for my clients to feel secure in the treatment process, I thus believe it is essential to incorporate working with parents into the treatment of the child. In addition to specializing in treating children and adolescents, I also offer services to college-aged individuals and older adults.
(805) 244-5868 View (805) 244-5868
Photo of Roger William Coger, PhD, P, H, D, Psychologist
Roger William Coger
Psychologist, PhD, P, H, D
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377  (Online Only)
I have a wide range of training and experience working to help people with depression, anxiety, and problems with attention, concentration, and organization. This includes children with learning and behavior problems and adults with social interaction difficulties. Soldiers Project to treat soldiers returning from deployment, with deployment related problems, and their families. My primary goal is to aid people in finding their way to a happier life by identifying emotional and cognitive barriers.
I have a wide range of training and experience working to help people with depression, anxiety, and problems with attention, concentration, and organization. This includes children with learning and behavior problems and adults with social interaction difficulties. Soldiers Project to treat soldiers returning from deployment, with deployment related problems, and their families. My primary goal is to aid people in finding their way to a happier life by identifying emotional and cognitive barriers.
(805) 526-4444 View (805) 526-4444
Photo of Kelly Nicassio, MS, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kelly Nicassio
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Oak Park, CA 91377
Is your child experiencing problems at school, difficulty making or keeping friends, tantrums, constant worrying or nightmares? I have a passion for working with children and families, and I'm here to help. There is so much pressure today to be a "perfect" parent, and admitting that you need support can be difficult. My goal is to create a safe space for you and your child to work together to problem-solve and get through challenging times.
Is your child experiencing problems at school, difficulty making or keeping friends, tantrums, constant worrying or nightmares? I have a passion for working with children and families, and I'm here to help. There is so much pressure today to be a "perfect" parent, and admitting that you need support can be difficult. My goal is to create a safe space for you and your child to work together to problem-solve and get through challenging times.
(805) 727-4364 View (805) 727-4364
Photo of Sara Hulan, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Sara Hulan
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Oak Park, CA 91377
Are you walking on eggshells? Do you even know how to say what you feel? Are you looking for connection and only find disconnection? Does it seem like you are haunted by the past? Sometimes depression and anxiety tell you how you should feel. Your history likes to persuade you to believe what is best. It can cloud your view of goals and motivation. It wants you to believe everything that it is saying. Let's learn to stand up and speak your truth. What do you really want from your life, your relationship, your direction?
Are you walking on eggshells? Do you even know how to say what you feel? Are you looking for connection and only find disconnection? Does it seem like you are haunted by the past? Sometimes depression and anxiety tell you how you should feel. Your history likes to persuade you to believe what is best. It can cloud your view of goals and motivation. It wants you to believe everything that it is saying. Let's learn to stand up and speak your truth. What do you really want from your life, your relationship, your direction?
(424) 306-1996 View (424) 306-1996

See more therapy options for Oak Park

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Oak Park, CA

20+

Average cost per session

$177

Therapists in Oak Park, CA who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
85% Relationship Issues
80% Depression
80% Coping Skills
75% Stress
70% Self Esteem
65% Grief

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

60% Cigna and Evernorth
40% Beacon Health Options | Carelon
30% Aetna

How Therapists in Oak Park, CA see their clients

70% In Person and Online
30% Online Only

Gender breakdown

55% Female
45% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Oak Park?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.