Therapists in Northridge, CA

Photo of Anna Cirronis in Northridge, CA
Anna Cirronis
MA, EXAT, CMLC, RYT
1 Endorsed
Northridge, CA 91324  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I help women age with power & get stronger through expansive mindset and natural health. The onset of menopause & the end of our menstruating years are a bio-psycho-spiritual event. Thus the changes are not just physical. We might experience a loss of identity, lack of meaning & direction, anxiety & confusion. It’s a time in which we question the life we had & wonder what to do with the one before us. We might experience being empty nested, divorce or a stagnant relationship, aging parents, our own physical and emotional changes, and mortality. Midlife is often a tender time of changes & transitions. I know because I've been there.
I help women age with power & get stronger through expansive mindset and natural health. The onset of menopause & the end of our menstruating years are a bio-psycho-spiritual event. Thus the changes are not just physical. We might experience a loss of identity, lack of meaning & direction, anxiety & confusion. It’s a time in which we question the life we had & wonder what to do with the one before us. We might experience being empty nested, divorce or a stagnant relationship, aging parents, our own physical and emotional changes, and mortality. Midlife is often a tender time of changes & transitions. I know because I've been there.
(818) 946-0951 View (818) 946-0951
Photo of Christine Popaj, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Christine Popaj
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Northridge, CA 91324  (Online Only)
Making the choice to start therapy can be intimidating, but taking the steps to care for yourself and your mental health shows that you are ready for some change. In order for this change to develop, I place immense value on the importance of the therapeutic relationship and provide a safe space for clients to feel understood, challenged and empowered without feeling judged. I want all of my clients to feel as though therapy is a safe place to vent, laugh, cry, gain insight, and grow as in individual.
Making the choice to start therapy can be intimidating, but taking the steps to care for yourself and your mental health shows that you are ready for some change. In order for this change to develop, I place immense value on the importance of the therapeutic relationship and provide a safe space for clients to feel understood, challenged and empowered without feeling judged. I want all of my clients to feel as though therapy is a safe place to vent, laugh, cry, gain insight, and grow as in individual.
(818) 280-8796 View (818) 280-8796
Photo of Jaimie T Barnett, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Jaimie T Barnett
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324  (Online Only)
I have experience working with all types of people and their current situations such as relationship issues, crisis intervention and prevention, trauma, anxiety, depression, substance use and abuse, bereavement, etc.. One of my passions is working with individuals who are suffering from anxiety. By creating a non judgmental and safe space, I believe that change can happen!
I have experience working with all types of people and their current situations such as relationship issues, crisis intervention and prevention, trauma, anxiety, depression, substance use and abuse, bereavement, etc.. One of my passions is working with individuals who are suffering from anxiety. By creating a non judgmental and safe space, I believe that change can happen!
(818) 960-7990 View (818) 960-7990
Photo of Sheree Jones-Pistol, A MAFT Corporation, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Sheree Jones-Pistol, A MAFT Corporation
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, PPS
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324
Everyone experiences, at one time or another, difficulty interacting with others and coping with stressful events. We guide you through your challenges, assist you in relieving your stresses, and support you through your enlightenment process to ultimately solve your problems on your own and achieve your goals. "All negative emotions are caused by a disruption in the body's energy system" -- this is the foundation we incorporate in our work. We blend psychotherapy, spiritual beliefs, and Eastern philosophies to work toward healing, working with the entire person's energy system.
Everyone experiences, at one time or another, difficulty interacting with others and coping with stressful events. We guide you through your challenges, assist you in relieving your stresses, and support you through your enlightenment process to ultimately solve your problems on your own and achieve your goals. "All negative emotions are caused by a disruption in the body's energy system" -- this is the foundation we incorporate in our work. We blend psychotherapy, spiritual beliefs, and Eastern philosophies to work toward healing, working with the entire person's energy system.
(818) 918-3046 View (818) 918-3046
Photo of Darrin L Johnson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Northridge, CA
Darrin L Johnson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324
I specialize in analyzing relationships, connections & emotions. I work with my clients to help them heal from past trauma, loss, anxiety or symptoms of depression. Together at a pace that's comfortable for you, we will get to the root of emotional distress through processing past life events that lead to negative symptoms or outcomes. We will work together to build a stronger sense of self to promote wholeness and an increased sense of well-being. I will work to "unstick" you from unprocessed life encounters or loss where emotion was not felt, nurtured or resolved.
I specialize in analyzing relationships, connections & emotions. I work with my clients to help them heal from past trauma, loss, anxiety or symptoms of depression. Together at a pace that's comfortable for you, we will get to the root of emotional distress through processing past life events that lead to negative symptoms or outcomes. We will work together to build a stronger sense of self to promote wholeness and an increased sense of well-being. I will work to "unstick" you from unprocessed life encounters or loss where emotion was not felt, nurtured or resolved.
(818) 626-3539 View (818) 626-3539
Photo of Desiree Vega, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Desiree Vega
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Northridge, CA 91326
You may be scared to take the first step to get into counseling/therapy--this is something most of my clients have shared with me. Are you fighting the need to be perfect? Do you beat yourself up for all of your mistakes—whether it’s parenting related, work related, or relationship related? Are you completely overwhelmed to the point that you can’t sleep or stress is showing up in your body? It takes courage to ask for help because it requires vulnerability but you can do it!
You may be scared to take the first step to get into counseling/therapy--this is something most of my clients have shared with me. Are you fighting the need to be perfect? Do you beat yourself up for all of your mistakes—whether it’s parenting related, work related, or relationship related? Are you completely overwhelmed to the point that you can’t sleep or stress is showing up in your body? It takes courage to ask for help because it requires vulnerability but you can do it!
(818) 446-1858 View (818) 446-1858
Photo of Azy Aarons, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Northridge, CA
Azy Aarons
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324
Hello and welcome to therapy. I have experience serving teens, adults, older adults, and families. I specialize in depression, anxiety, trauma, change of life issues, grief, chronic medical illness, and relational problems. I am a LGBTQIA ally and support individuals and their families during transitional times. I am trauma informed and move at the client's pace and assist them in listening to the intelligence of their body.
Hello and welcome to therapy. I have experience serving teens, adults, older adults, and families. I specialize in depression, anxiety, trauma, change of life issues, grief, chronic medical illness, and relational problems. I am a LGBTQIA ally and support individuals and their families during transitional times. I am trauma informed and move at the client's pace and assist them in listening to the intelligence of their body.
(805) 262-9523 View (805) 262-9523
Photo of Dawn Richards in Northridge, CA
Dawn Richards
PsyD, LEP, ABSNP
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324
I provide psycho-educational and neuropsychological assessments for children, adolescents, and young adults. I assess for multiple disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, depression, anxiety, etc. Depending on the outcomes of the assessment, I may also recommend educational consultation and/or educational counseling to help with any weaknesses or deficits that may be identified.
I provide psycho-educational and neuropsychological assessments for children, adolescents, and young adults. I assess for multiple disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, depression, anxiety, etc. Depending on the outcomes of the assessment, I may also recommend educational consultation and/or educational counseling to help with any weaknesses or deficits that may be identified.
(626) 269-6805 View (626) 269-6805
Photo of Dr. Angie Gereis, Psychologist in Northridge, CA
Dr. Angie Gereis
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Northridge, CA 91326  (Online Only)
Hi, there. I know you've been searching for the right therapist, and I know it's frustrating to try to find someone you connect with. Whatever brings you here, I understand that trying to "have it all" in today's world is a goal that feels unachievable. Whether you have been feeling overwhelmed with worrying thoughts, not feeling like yourself, are grieving, going through a major transition, or want to work on your relationships with yourself and others, I believe we can make sense of it all together. You do not need to have all the answers all alone.
Hi, there. I know you've been searching for the right therapist, and I know it's frustrating to try to find someone you connect with. Whatever brings you here, I understand that trying to "have it all" in today's world is a goal that feels unachievable. Whether you have been feeling overwhelmed with worrying thoughts, not feeling like yourself, are grieving, going through a major transition, or want to work on your relationships with yourself and others, I believe we can make sense of it all together. You do not need to have all the answers all alone.
(818) 696-4243 View (818) 696-4243
Photo of Samantha Tallon, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Samantha Tallon
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Northridge, CA 91325
Hello there! My name is Samantha Tallon and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT), currently providing telehealth counseling services to clients in California. I have experience in managing relational issues and challenging family dynamics while working with adults, teenagers, couples and families. I am also a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional (CCTP) and specialize in treating trauma/PTSD, grief and loss, anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders.
Hello there! My name is Samantha Tallon and I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT), currently providing telehealth counseling services to clients in California. I have experience in managing relational issues and challenging family dynamics while working with adults, teenagers, couples and families. I am also a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional (CCTP) and specialize in treating trauma/PTSD, grief and loss, anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders.
(818) 797-9308 View (818) 797-9308
Photo of Lesley Sears, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Lesley Sears
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LPC, LMFT, SEP
Verified
Northridge, CA 91326
For more than 10 years I have been helping individuals, couples & families overcome challenges and live the lives they were created for by working through issues of depression, anxiety, OCD, eating disorders, substance abuse, trauma, etc. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in California and am also licensed in Arizona as an (LPC) Licensed Professional Counselor and a (LMFT) Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist. Also, I am a Certified Life Coach through the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) and have training as a Somatic Experiencing Practitioner (SEP). This certification uniquely equips me to help you resolve trauma in a gentle and effective way.
For more than 10 years I have been helping individuals, couples & families overcome challenges and live the lives they were created for by working through issues of depression, anxiety, OCD, eating disorders, substance abuse, trauma, etc. I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist in California and am also licensed in Arizona as an (LPC) Licensed Professional Counselor and a (LMFT) Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist. Also, I am a Certified Life Coach through the American Association of Christian Counselors (AACC) and have training as a Somatic Experiencing Practitioner (SEP). This certification uniquely equips me to help you resolve trauma in a gentle and effective way.
(805) 246-9786 View (805) 246-9786
Photo of Theresa J Leinweber, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Theresa J Leinweber
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324  (Online Only)
I work with people who have suffered enough. If you or your partner are dealing with sexual integrity issues--pornography, prostitutes, affairs, addiction to sex and love or just sex-- change and recovery is a possibility for you. I also work with betrayed partners devastated by the discovery. Are you asking ,"Can this relationship be saved?". "Can I ever trust them again?" and "Am I a fool for staying?". NO, you are not a fool for trying to keep your relationship and family together. And YES, there is hope for healing
I work with people who have suffered enough. If you or your partner are dealing with sexual integrity issues--pornography, prostitutes, affairs, addiction to sex and love or just sex-- change and recovery is a possibility for you. I also work with betrayed partners devastated by the discovery. Are you asking ,"Can this relationship be saved?". "Can I ever trust them again?" and "Am I a fool for staying?". NO, you are not a fool for trying to keep your relationship and family together. And YES, there is hope for healing
(818) 426-3311 View (818) 426-3311
Photo of Mental Health Wellness 4u, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Northridge, CA
Mental Health Wellness 4u
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, Tara, Kesling, LCSW
Verified
Northridge, CA 91325  (Online Only)
My name is Tara Kesling and I have been working with many different populations for over 30 years. I have worked with individuals, families, children, seniors, and couples. I am currently offering Telemental Health Therapy services to adults. I am a good listener and able to help people redirect their life and feel better about themselves using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and other clinical modalities. I have worked with the assessment process in determining the direction of care. I accept insurance through Headway.
My name is Tara Kesling and I have been working with many different populations for over 30 years. I have worked with individuals, families, children, seniors, and couples. I am currently offering Telemental Health Therapy services to adults. I am a good listener and able to help people redirect their life and feel better about themselves using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and other clinical modalities. I have worked with the assessment process in determining the direction of care. I accept insurance through Headway.
(818) 824-8830 View (818) 824-8830
Photo of Pamela Thompson, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Northridge, CA
Pamela Thompson
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324
Hi! My name is Pamela Thompson and I am a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor. I love working with individuals of all ages and primarily use cognitive behavioral therapy with patients as it has been proven to be the most effective treatment for the majority of mental health issues. Having said that, I believe that therapy should be tailored for each patient and that often means incorporating other types of therapy techniques into treatment.
Hi! My name is Pamela Thompson and I am a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor. I love working with individuals of all ages and primarily use cognitive behavioral therapy with patients as it has been proven to be the most effective treatment for the majority of mental health issues. Having said that, I believe that therapy should be tailored for each patient and that often means incorporating other types of therapy techniques into treatment.
(818) 962-6389 View (818) 962-6389
Photo of Cynthia Haas, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Northridge, CA
Cynthia Haas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
5 Endorsed
Northridge, CA 91324  (Online Only)
I believe we each possess the resilience and potential to overcome life's challenges, make difficult changes in our lives, and personally thrive. My role as a therapist is to guide my clients to better understand their inner worlds, improve emotional well-being, and tap into unique resources to access their personal strengths.
I believe we each possess the resilience and potential to overcome life's challenges, make difficult changes in our lives, and personally thrive. My role as a therapist is to guide my clients to better understand their inner worlds, improve emotional well-being, and tap into unique resources to access their personal strengths.
(818) 746-3169 View (818) 746-3169
Photo of Kiana Naimi, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Northridge, CA
Kiana Naimi
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Northridge, CA 91324  (Online Only)
Do problems always seem to get in the way of you living your fullest life? Perhaps trauma holds you back, or you have trouble breaking free from old patterns. At some point, enough is enough. You feel ready to make a change, but you need the right support to do so. I help people dealing with problems like trauma, grief, and significant life transitions. I help you see your life more clearly, so you can work through the past and reconnect with your fullest self, heart and soul. Every person has unique talents and gifts to give to the world. It’s time for you to find, recognize, and share yours.
Do problems always seem to get in the way of you living your fullest life? Perhaps trauma holds you back, or you have trouble breaking free from old patterns. At some point, enough is enough. You feel ready to make a change, but you need the right support to do so. I help people dealing with problems like trauma, grief, and significant life transitions. I help you see your life more clearly, so you can work through the past and reconnect with your fullest self, heart and soul. Every person has unique talents and gifts to give to the world. It’s time for you to find, recognize, and share yours.
(747) 298-7473 View (747) 298-7473
Photo of Jennifer Lopez, Counselor in Northridge, CA
Jennifer Lopez
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified
Northridge, CA 91325  (Online Only)
Hi! My name is Jennifer Lopez and I am a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in the state of California. I have fourteen (14) years of clinical counseling experience and several years of Christian counseling experience as well. Working with diverse clients over the years has given me opportunities to learn about people and their unique individuality. Respect and learning about your culture and how it affects your worldview and experience without judgment or assumption is important in deepening my understanding of where you are coming from.
Hi! My name is Jennifer Lopez and I am a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in the state of California. I have fourteen (14) years of clinical counseling experience and several years of Christian counseling experience as well. Working with diverse clients over the years has given me opportunities to learn about people and their unique individuality. Respect and learning about your culture and how it affects your worldview and experience without judgment or assumption is important in deepening my understanding of where you are coming from.
(805) 519-7675 View (805) 519-7675
Photo of Melissa Argueta, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Melissa Argueta
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Northridge, CA 91325  (Online Only)
Do you ever feel like things will never get better? That you will never wake up happy and satisfied with your life because of your past or current situation? Are you stuck? Do you want to get out of survivor mode and experience a life that is calm, peaceful and safe? Are you hesitant about steps you need to take so that your life feels more manageable.Have you faced losses that prevent you from seeking healthy relationships or perhaps you continue to struggle with trusting people? I am here for you. Together we will address and challenge the issues at hand to begin the process of healing, happiness, motivation, and passion for life.
Do you ever feel like things will never get better? That you will never wake up happy and satisfied with your life because of your past or current situation? Are you stuck? Do you want to get out of survivor mode and experience a life that is calm, peaceful and safe? Are you hesitant about steps you need to take so that your life feels more manageable.Have you faced losses that prevent you from seeking healthy relationships or perhaps you continue to struggle with trusting people? I am here for you. Together we will address and challenge the issues at hand to begin the process of healing, happiness, motivation, and passion for life.
(747) 207-4424 View (747) 207-4424
Photo of Counseling with Jennifer, Associate Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Counseling with Jennifer
Associate Marriage & Family Therapist, AMFT, APCC
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324  (Online Only)
Are you an adult survivor of physical, emotional, or sexual child abuse? Childhood maltreatment can affect you at any age. As an adult survivor of childhood abuse you may not realize how much the maltreatment has affected your adult life. You may have learned resilience that aided you through your development from youth through adulthood. You may appear happy and productive to the outside world while internally suffering in silence. You may have developed panic disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, post traumatic stress disorder, gastrointestinal issues, and other physical health maladies.
Are you an adult survivor of physical, emotional, or sexual child abuse? Childhood maltreatment can affect you at any age. As an adult survivor of childhood abuse you may not realize how much the maltreatment has affected your adult life. You may have learned resilience that aided you through your development from youth through adulthood. You may appear happy and productive to the outside world while internally suffering in silence. You may have developed panic disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, post traumatic stress disorder, gastrointestinal issues, and other physical health maladies.
(818) 276-9861 View (818) 276-9861
Photo of Lindsay Gooze, Marriage & Family Therapist in Northridge, CA
Lindsay Gooze
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Northridge, CA 91324
On the outside, it seems like you have it all together. But, you are struggling with anxiety, depression, or an eating disorder. You don’t feel good enough, despite putting effort in everything you do. You work hard to be in control, and get anxious when things don’t go as planned. It is hard to ask for help, since you tend to put other people before yourself. You feel lonely and want to connect to people. But, it is hard to focus on relationships, when you are thinking about what might go wrong.
On the outside, it seems like you have it all together. But, you are struggling with anxiety, depression, or an eating disorder. You don’t feel good enough, despite putting effort in everything you do. You work hard to be in control, and get anxious when things don’t go as planned. It is hard to ask for help, since you tend to put other people before yourself. You feel lonely and want to connect to people. But, it is hard to focus on relationships, when you are thinking about what might go wrong.
(818) 928-6867 View (818) 928-6867

See more therapy options for Northridge

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Northridge, CA

200+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in Northridge, CA who prioritize treating:

96% Anxiety
91% Depression
83% Relationship Issues
82% Self Esteem
75% Trauma and PTSD
75% Stress
74% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% Aetna
70% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
69% Optum

How Therapists in Northridge, CA see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
16% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Northridge?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.