Therapists in Menlo Park, CA

Photo of Hannah Johnson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hannah Johnson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
My clinical work is focused on treating individuals with co-occurring psychiatric, medical, and addictive disorders. I am intensively trained in Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. As a trauma-informed therapist, I provide a supportive environment to help you explore an existing problem from a new perspective.
My clinical work is focused on treating individuals with co-occurring psychiatric, medical, and addictive disorders. I am intensively trained in Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. As a trauma-informed therapist, I provide a supportive environment to help you explore an existing problem from a new perspective.
(650) 668-5706 View (650) 668-5706
Photo of Elizabeth Coudright, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Elizabeth Coudright
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
Every journey begins with a first step and asking for help is no small task. Together, we can work to create the life you find fulfilling. I will help you build your problem-solving skills and let go of old patterns that no longer fit, allowing you to embrace life with confidence and enthusiasm. You are the expert in your life and have the power to heal. Together, we will walk through the process of developing deeper self-awareness, greater self-acceptance, better coping skills and strengthening your resolve.
Every journey begins with a first step and asking for help is no small task. Together, we can work to create the life you find fulfilling. I will help you build your problem-solving skills and let go of old patterns that no longer fit, allowing you to embrace life with confidence and enthusiasm. You are the expert in your life and have the power to heal. Together, we will walk through the process of developing deeper self-awareness, greater self-acceptance, better coping skills and strengthening your resolve.
(310) 889-0295 View (310) 889-0295
Photo of Cristin Runfola, PhD, LP, Psychologist
Cristin Runfola
Psychologist, PhD, LP
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
I provide Telehealth therapy throughout California. In addition to my private practice, I hold a Clinical Associate Professorship at Stanford University where I’m able to wear research, teaching, and supervisory hats. My approach to therapy is personalized integrating information about your unique circumstances with my training to deliver evidence-based practice. I provide trauma-informed individual and couple-based therapy for various issues including eating disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, obsessive and compulsive disorder, transitions, & relationship concerns.
I provide Telehealth therapy throughout California. In addition to my private practice, I hold a Clinical Associate Professorship at Stanford University where I’m able to wear research, teaching, and supervisory hats. My approach to therapy is personalized integrating information about your unique circumstances with my training to deliver evidence-based practice. I provide trauma-informed individual and couple-based therapy for various issues including eating disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, obsessive and compulsive disorder, transitions, & relationship concerns.
(408) 609-3672 View (408) 609-3672
Photo of Susan Light, Psychologist
Susan Light
Psychologist
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025
For over 25 years I have worked with children, teens, parents, individual adults and couples facing a wide variety of issues and concerns. As I listen carefully to my clients and their challenges and goals, I choose the therapeutic modalities that best suit each individual and their needs. I focus on personal strengths as well as struggles. People have described me as active, engaged, perceptive and caring. It is a privilege to accompany and assist people in the important process of discovery, healing, change and growth.
For over 25 years I have worked with children, teens, parents, individual adults and couples facing a wide variety of issues and concerns. As I listen carefully to my clients and their challenges and goals, I choose the therapeutic modalities that best suit each individual and their needs. I focus on personal strengths as well as struggles. People have described me as active, engaged, perceptive and caring. It is a privilege to accompany and assist people in the important process of discovery, healing, change and growth.
(650) 209-7653 View (650) 209-7653
Photo of Kristian Bowden Menotti, LCSW, RYT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kristian Bowden Menotti
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, RYT
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025
You want to feel balanced, centered and be able to truly experience joy. You are tired of depression, anxiety and/or troubling memories standing in the way of your ability to live a rich and meaningful life. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a current challenging situation, or you're just ready to move forward from a troubled past, I cherish the opportunity of hearing your story and walking with you along your path of healing.
You want to feel balanced, centered and be able to truly experience joy. You are tired of depression, anxiety and/or troubling memories standing in the way of your ability to live a rich and meaningful life. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a current challenging situation, or you're just ready to move forward from a troubled past, I cherish the opportunity of hearing your story and walking with you along your path of healing.
(408) 215-9451 View (408) 215-9451
Photo of Peter Aston, PsyD, Psychologist
Peter Aston
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
I’m a licensed clinical psychologist (PSY32050) who provides individual psychotherapy and performance consultation to adults. I specialize in working with high-performance athletes and professionals, and in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, OCD, depression, stress and trauma.
I’m a licensed clinical psychologist (PSY32050) who provides individual psychotherapy and performance consultation to adults. I specialize in working with high-performance athletes and professionals, and in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, OCD, depression, stress and trauma.
(408) 547-2418 View (408) 547-2418
Photo of Dr. Caroline Stone, PsyD, MA, MS, Psychologist
Dr. Caroline Stone
Psychologist, PsyD, MA, MS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
As a clinical psychologist, I help both individuals and couples create more connected and fulfilling lives through personalized, supportive psychotherapy. My clients are looking to make specific changes and want an interactive clinician to provide perspective, as well as tools and strategies for coping with painful emotions and life stressors. I assist clients with relationship concerns, break-ups, anxiety, OCD, physical health conditions, trauma, social anxiety, parenting, and major life, academic, and career transitions. I also provide performance and executive coaching services across Silicon Valley.
As a clinical psychologist, I help both individuals and couples create more connected and fulfilling lives through personalized, supportive psychotherapy. My clients are looking to make specific changes and want an interactive clinician to provide perspective, as well as tools and strategies for coping with painful emotions and life stressors. I assist clients with relationship concerns, break-ups, anxiety, OCD, physical health conditions, trauma, social anxiety, parenting, and major life, academic, and career transitions. I also provide performance and executive coaching services across Silicon Valley.
(341) 444-3994 View (341) 444-3994
Photo of Robin Ruth- Eating Disorders, PhD, Psychologist
Robin Ruth- Eating Disorders
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
I am a warm, compassionate psychologist who practices therapy with a "power with" rather than a "power over" approach. I have personal experience with many life events including single parenting, divorce, caring for elderly parents, and overcoming depression. I specialize in treating eating disorders, body image, identity issues, depression, trauma, anxiety, and cancer related distress. I have extensive experience working at the residential & outpatient levels for eating disorders, and provide supportive therapy for not only the client, but for the parent or significant other who supports them.
I am a warm, compassionate psychologist who practices therapy with a "power with" rather than a "power over" approach. I have personal experience with many life events including single parenting, divorce, caring for elderly parents, and overcoming depression. I specialize in treating eating disorders, body image, identity issues, depression, trauma, anxiety, and cancer related distress. I have extensive experience working at the residential & outpatient levels for eating disorders, and provide supportive therapy for not only the client, but for the parent or significant other who supports them.
(650) 800-5516 View (650) 800-5516
Photo of Tyler Burns, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Tyler Burns
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
I believe strongly in understanding the connection between our physical and mental health. With extensive experience in both mental health and wellness, I bring a unique and balanced approach to clinical work. I provide evidence-based psychotherapy that is values-driven, mindful of our individuality and culture, and emphasizes the importance of physical health and lifestyle as a cornerstone of treatment. I often incorporate methods from a variety of theoretical orientations.
I believe strongly in understanding the connection between our physical and mental health. With extensive experience in both mental health and wellness, I bring a unique and balanced approach to clinical work. I provide evidence-based psychotherapy that is values-driven, mindful of our individuality and culture, and emphasizes the importance of physical health and lifestyle as a cornerstone of treatment. I often incorporate methods from a variety of theoretical orientations.
(650) 860-8302 View (650) 860-8302
Photo of Dr. Beate Klein, PhD, PsyD, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. Beate Klein
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Talking with one another can help you finding a more quiet space within yourself. If you are struggling with depression, anxieties, insecurities, troubled relationships, high sensitivity, or with a neurodiverse experience, psychotherapy can be a place from where you can travel, explore, and listen to the sound between the lines. I invite you to embark on this voyage and find your style of leadership that takes you to new places in love and work. Therapy can help you develop understanding and acceptance of overwhelming life events. Finding your way through life's maze can finally be one of your most wonderful achievements.
Talking with one another can help you finding a more quiet space within yourself. If you are struggling with depression, anxieties, insecurities, troubled relationships, high sensitivity, or with a neurodiverse experience, psychotherapy can be a place from where you can travel, explore, and listen to the sound between the lines. I invite you to embark on this voyage and find your style of leadership that takes you to new places in love and work. Therapy can help you develop understanding and acceptance of overwhelming life events. Finding your way through life's maze can finally be one of your most wonderful achievements.
(650) 241-4687 View (650) 241-4687
Photo of Phyu-Phoebe Htut, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Phyu-Phoebe Htut
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
I believe that each of us are experts in our lives and my goal in therapy is to support people finding meaning and purpose in their lives by providing safe and non-judgement space. One of my favorite quotes in life is “I am not what happened to me, I am what I choose to become” by Carl G. Jung. I like to work collaboratively with my clients by using strengths-based, attachment focus and the client-centered approach to achieve their individual goals in life.
I believe that each of us are experts in our lives and my goal in therapy is to support people finding meaning and purpose in their lives by providing safe and non-judgement space. One of my favorite quotes in life is “I am not what happened to me, I am what I choose to become” by Carl G. Jung. I like to work collaboratively with my clients by using strengths-based, attachment focus and the client-centered approach to achieve their individual goals in life.
(415) 634-4664 View (415) 634-4664
Photo of Kamailia Williams, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kamailia Williams
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
I have worked with diverse populations of all ages. I believe that everyone deserves to live their best life, use their voice, and be free in their body. As humans, our sense of self is shaped by family stories, the environment we grew up and live in, relationships, past traumas, and socio-political-economic and cultural influences, that may have clouded our vision of ourselves or who we want to be. My joy as a therapist is to provide space for you to speak your truth, find your way back to yourself, reinvent, and rediscover who you are. Change is a moment-by-moment process.
I have worked with diverse populations of all ages. I believe that everyone deserves to live their best life, use their voice, and be free in their body. As humans, our sense of self is shaped by family stories, the environment we grew up and live in, relationships, past traumas, and socio-political-economic and cultural influences, that may have clouded our vision of ourselves or who we want to be. My joy as a therapist is to provide space for you to speak your truth, find your way back to yourself, reinvent, and rediscover who you are. Change is a moment-by-moment process.
(415) 549-1171 View (415) 549-1171
Photo of Amy Tsou, PsyD, Psychologist
Amy Tsou
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Do you have a brilliant yet unfocused child? Do you worry about your child's self-esteem? Are you interested in non-medication options for ADHD? If your child is struggling with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Anxiety, Stress-Related Disorders or Depression, I can help. By performing a careful and thorough evaluation, I will work with you and your child to develop an effective plan for living happily with less school stress.
Do you have a brilliant yet unfocused child? Do you worry about your child's self-esteem? Are you interested in non-medication options for ADHD? If your child is struggling with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Anxiety, Stress-Related Disorders or Depression, I can help. By performing a careful and thorough evaluation, I will work with you and your child to develop an effective plan for living happily with less school stress.
(650) 779-5771 View (650) 779-5771
Photo of Wendy Justus, MA, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Wendy Justus
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Not accepting new clients
I am a licensed psychotherapist and EMDR provider who specializes in trauma, depression, addiction, life change and attachment issues. I work with adults and older adolescents. I can help with the anxiety and painful feelings that proliferate when coping with challenging life experiences. I am certified to provide EMDR, (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) a powerful and highly effective trauma treatment which can greatly improve therapeutic outcome and expedite recovery time. EMDR works with major trauma as well as repetitive, "small t" trauma like that experienced growing up in a dysfunctional home.
I am a licensed psychotherapist and EMDR provider who specializes in trauma, depression, addiction, life change and attachment issues. I work with adults and older adolescents. I can help with the anxiety and painful feelings that proliferate when coping with challenging life experiences. I am certified to provide EMDR, (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) a powerful and highly effective trauma treatment which can greatly improve therapeutic outcome and expedite recovery time. EMDR works with major trauma as well as repetitive, "small t" trauma like that experienced growing up in a dysfunctional home.
(650) 437-8597 View (650) 437-8597
Photo of Glenn Teeter, PsyD, Psychologist
Glenn Teeter
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Do you feel like your relationships are suffering? Are you or a loved one looking for help with depression, anxiety, or stress? Therapy is a great way to get your life unstuck and moving forward again. I encourage you to call me for a free initial phone consultation so that I can offer you some ideas about how therapy can be helpful to you, what it involves, and how long it might last. At the very least, you'll come away with lots of answers to your questions about therapy and how it works.
Do you feel like your relationships are suffering? Are you or a loved one looking for help with depression, anxiety, or stress? Therapy is a great way to get your life unstuck and moving forward again. I encourage you to call me for a free initial phone consultation so that I can offer you some ideas about how therapy can be helpful to you, what it involves, and how long it might last. At the very least, you'll come away with lots of answers to your questions about therapy and how it works.
(650) 209-8447 View (650) 209-8447
Photo of Tyler Webster, PsyD, Psychologist
Tyler Webster
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Are you feeling stuck in the same type of relationships, arguments, or habits? When you feel stuck, it can be helpful to talk with someone to consider a fresh perspective. Previous ways of facing obstacles in your life may not be working and you might want to learn new ways to cope, or you may need extra support while going through a challenging experience. Typically, I help clients with stress, depression, worries/anxiety, life transitions, professional/sport/academic performance, and substance abuse. I enjoy working with people who are interested in self-growth and are curious about themselves and others.
Are you feeling stuck in the same type of relationships, arguments, or habits? When you feel stuck, it can be helpful to talk with someone to consider a fresh perspective. Previous ways of facing obstacles in your life may not be working and you might want to learn new ways to cope, or you may need extra support while going through a challenging experience. Typically, I help clients with stress, depression, worries/anxiety, life transitions, professional/sport/academic performance, and substance abuse. I enjoy working with people who are interested in self-growth and are curious about themselves and others.
(650) 603-5046 View (650) 603-5046
Photo of Kelly Saam, AMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Kelly Saam
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Healing is possible for all people, especially in the context of connection and empathy. My unwavering belief in the goodness of people and the resilience of the human spirit has guided and informed my approach to therapy. I strive to build trustworthy collaborative relationships with my clients in order to find ways to heal, change patterns, and establish more fulfilling lives and relationships.
Healing is possible for all people, especially in the context of connection and empathy. My unwavering belief in the goodness of people and the resilience of the human spirit has guided and informed my approach to therapy. I strive to build trustworthy collaborative relationships with my clients in order to find ways to heal, change patterns, and establish more fulfilling lives and relationships.
(650) 374-0382 View (650) 374-0382
Photo of Alex J Basche, LMFT, IGDC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Alex J Basche
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, IGDC
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025
I use a strength-based approach to foster genuine self-acceptance & to support clients in finding meaning. My philosophy centers around building & harnessing connections between the body, emotions, thoughts & behaviors to create healing & growth. This is an active, evidence-based approach that addresses the whole person. Treatment is uniquely individualized & with over a decade of clinical experience, I am competent in helping clients to not only heal but to make real gains. This can involve setting/tracking measurable goals for therapy to help guide our work and offer insight into obstacles along the way.
I use a strength-based approach to foster genuine self-acceptance & to support clients in finding meaning. My philosophy centers around building & harnessing connections between the body, emotions, thoughts & behaviors to create healing & growth. This is an active, evidence-based approach that addresses the whole person. Treatment is uniquely individualized & with over a decade of clinical experience, I am competent in helping clients to not only heal but to make real gains. This can involve setting/tracking measurable goals for therapy to help guide our work and offer insight into obstacles along the way.
(669) 222-7872 View (669) 222-7872
Photo of Roxane Williams, MA, MSW, ASW
Roxane Williams
Associate Clinical Social Worker, MA, MSW, ASW
Verified Verified
Menlo Park, CA 94025  (Online Only)
With a primary focus on adults and couples/relationships, I specialize in sex, sexuality, and gender-affirming therapies, am trained as a Certified Sex Therapy Informed Professional (CSTIP), and also have studied specific modalities and supports for the LGBTQIA+ community. I work with a diverse array of clients, many of whom are exploring dating, divorce, recovery from infidelity, intimacy issues, sexual dysfunction, polyamory/ethical nonmonogamy, open relationships, and BDSM/kink, and I offer treatment for many other relational, behavioral, and mental health challenges, such as anxiety and depression, as well.
With a primary focus on adults and couples/relationships, I specialize in sex, sexuality, and gender-affirming therapies, am trained as a Certified Sex Therapy Informed Professional (CSTIP), and also have studied specific modalities and supports for the LGBTQIA+ community. I work with a diverse array of clients, many of whom are exploring dating, divorce, recovery from infidelity, intimacy issues, sexual dysfunction, polyamory/ethical nonmonogamy, open relationships, and BDSM/kink, and I offer treatment for many other relational, behavioral, and mental health challenges, such as anxiety and depression, as well.
(650) 675-2672 View (650) 675-2672
Photo of Margaret Li, PsyD, CST, Psychologist
Margaret Li
Psychologist, PsyD, CST
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Menlo Park, CA 94025
Are you struggling with intimacy or sexual concerns and not sure how to improve the situation? Sex therapy is a form of therapy intended to help individuals and couples resolve sexual difficulties, such as performance anxiety or relationship problems. It’s normal for clients to feel anxious when seeing a sex therapist, especially for the first time. Many people have trouble talking about sex at all, so discussing it with me as a stranger may feel awkward. I provide a safe space in exploring your sexual concerns, reducing the pain, and reaching desirable goals. I am one of the few Asian American AASECT certified therapists across US.
Are you struggling with intimacy or sexual concerns and not sure how to improve the situation? Sex therapy is a form of therapy intended to help individuals and couples resolve sexual difficulties, such as performance anxiety or relationship problems. It’s normal for clients to feel anxious when seeing a sex therapist, especially for the first time. Many people have trouble talking about sex at all, so discussing it with me as a stranger may feel awkward. I provide a safe space in exploring your sexual concerns, reducing the pain, and reaching desirable goals. I am one of the few Asian American AASECT certified therapists across US.
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How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Menlo Park, CA

300+

Average cost per session

$220

Therapists in Menlo Park, CA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
87% Depression
76% Relationship Issues
69% Self Esteem
68% Stress
63% Grief
62% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

72% Aetna
51% Cigna and Evernorth
45% Anthem | Elevance

How Therapists in Menlo Park, CA see their clients

61% In Person and Online
39% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
17% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Menlo Park?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.