Therapists in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA

Photo of Alina Scott, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Alina Scott
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012  (Online Only)
Hi, my name is Alina Scott and I dedicated and compassionate therapist committed to helping individuals identify their strengths help guide them through life's challenges. Throughout my career, I have worked in different setting to address and support clients various mental health concerns, including anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship issues.
Hi, my name is Alina Scott and I dedicated and compassionate therapist committed to helping individuals identify their strengths help guide them through life's challenges. Throughout my career, I have worked in different setting to address and support clients various mental health concerns, including anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship issues.
(323) 395-5041 View (323) 395-5041
Photo of Ming Loong Teo, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Ming Loong Teo
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012  (Online Only)
I specialize in the treatment of trauma & working with survivors of narcissistic abuse and emotional manipulation. I believe strongly in the importance of addressing the systems of institutional racism & systemic poverty that exist in our current society. I acknowledge racial trauma & the consistent traumatization which often results due to living as an ethnic minority in the U.S.
I specialize in the treatment of trauma & working with survivors of narcissistic abuse and emotional manipulation. I believe strongly in the importance of addressing the systems of institutional racism & systemic poverty that exist in our current society. I acknowledge racial trauma & the consistent traumatization which often results due to living as an ethnic minority in the U.S.
(818) 938-8785 View (818) 938-8785
Photo of Dr. Andrew Young Choi, Psychologist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Dr. Andrew Young Choi
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012  (Online Only)
Are you wanting more from yourself yet feel lost or stuck in a life going in circles? Psychotherapy can be an emotionally challenging yet transformative experience that helps you reclaim the vitality of living openly and freely in your truest self. In a compassionate and nonjudgmental setting, our guided and collaborative reflection will help you unlock the past to gain insight into the motivations driving your thoughts and actions in the present. This process of self-discovery can empower you to make real and meaningful changes that promote healing and actualize your capacity for fulfillment and success.
Are you wanting more from yourself yet feel lost or stuck in a life going in circles? Psychotherapy can be an emotionally challenging yet transformative experience that helps you reclaim the vitality of living openly and freely in your truest self. In a compassionate and nonjudgmental setting, our guided and collaborative reflection will help you unlock the past to gain insight into the motivations driving your thoughts and actions in the present. This process of self-discovery can empower you to make real and meaningful changes that promote healing and actualize your capacity for fulfillment and success.
(213) 335-2282 View (213) 335-2282
Photo of Benjamin Cole, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Benjamin Cole
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90031  (Online Only)
In my experience, suffering thrives in isolation. That’s why it can be so helpful to talk about your experience with someone. As a trained professional, I'll work with you to process your anxiety, grief, shame, and depression. I want to help you trust your feelings and body, grow your self-acceptance, and learn how to be both creative and flexible in the face of the inevitable hardships of life.
In my experience, suffering thrives in isolation. That’s why it can be so helpful to talk about your experience with someone. As a trained professional, I'll work with you to process your anxiety, grief, shame, and depression. I want to help you trust your feelings and body, grow your self-acceptance, and learn how to be both creative and flexible in the face of the inevitable hardships of life.
(323) 615-3441 View (323) 615-3441
Photo of Lauren Abasheva, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Lauren Abasheva
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MEd, LMHC, LPCC, CST
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012  (Online Only)
Do you ever feel like you have to monitor, pull back, and even hide yourself from others?. From friends, family, acquaintances, even from yourself? Do you tend to put your needs and wants at the bottom of the list?. Are you ready to commit to you?. Together we will work side by side to help strengthen your confidence, awareness, insight, healing, and make progress within yourself. As a Certified Sex therapist, Kink knowledgeable, Gender affirming, and Trauma therapist I understand that we are all different, and provide a laid back atmosphere.
Do you ever feel like you have to monitor, pull back, and even hide yourself from others?. From friends, family, acquaintances, even from yourself? Do you tend to put your needs and wants at the bottom of the list?. Are you ready to commit to you?. Together we will work side by side to help strengthen your confidence, awareness, insight, healing, and make progress within yourself. As a Certified Sex therapist, Kink knowledgeable, Gender affirming, and Trauma therapist I understand that we are all different, and provide a laid back atmosphere.
(925) 807-7337 View (925) 807-7337
Photo of Manuel Mercado, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Manuel Mercado
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90031
Personal growth, depression, anxiety, trauma, relationship problems, issues surrounding sexual orientation or gender identification, life transitions or everyday life impediments are my primary focus for treatment. I draw upon your own personal strengths, talents, and desires to identify the options you have to move past the challenges you've identified and create alternative outcomes. Whatever the need, growth is a process that is worked on collaboratively in treatment. When the challenge exists between you and a loved one, treatment highlights the development of clear, honest, and respectful communication so that all parties may gain a greater appreciation and understanding of the person next to them.
Personal growth, depression, anxiety, trauma, relationship problems, issues surrounding sexual orientation or gender identification, life transitions or everyday life impediments are my primary focus for treatment. I draw upon your own personal strengths, talents, and desires to identify the options you have to move past the challenges you've identified and create alternative outcomes. Whatever the need, growth is a process that is worked on collaboratively in treatment. When the challenge exists between you and a loved one, treatment highlights the development of clear, honest, and respectful communication so that all parties may gain a greater appreciation and understanding of the person next to them.
(626) 325-0107 View (626) 325-0107
Photo of Shari D Lee, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Shari D Lee
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90031
Are you looking for insight into difficult thoughts or feelings that keep you from enjoying relationships, family, and career? When traumatic events or unexpressed feelings are left unattended we can become identified with these states and symptoms like depression, social anxiety, substance abuse and self sabotage can arise. It can be difficult to make changes and overcome obstacles without support, new tools, and new insight.
Are you looking for insight into difficult thoughts or feelings that keep you from enjoying relationships, family, and career? When traumatic events or unexpressed feelings are left unattended we can become identified with these states and symptoms like depression, social anxiety, substance abuse and self sabotage can arise. It can be difficult to make changes and overcome obstacles without support, new tools, and new insight.
(323) 744-0974 View (323) 744-0974
Photo of Andrea Denise Davis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Andrea Denise Davis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, CDAC, LMSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90030
Life comes with daily challenges, hurdles and changes that can sometimes be tough to get through. There may be times that you begin to lose control. This is where I step in; to help you figure out and get through this thing called life. The care that I take with each client is to ensure that you feel that you are in a safe and nurturing environment always. My genuine empathy for every individual has afforded me the privilege of guiding my clients through difficult times in their lives and seeing them through the not so bright days.
Life comes with daily challenges, hurdles and changes that can sometimes be tough to get through. There may be times that you begin to lose control. This is where I step in; to help you figure out and get through this thing called life. The care that I take with each client is to ensure that you feel that you are in a safe and nurturing environment always. My genuine empathy for every individual has afforded me the privilege of guiding my clients through difficult times in their lives and seeing them through the not so bright days.
(818) 746-3576 View (818) 746-3576
Laura Newberry - Expansive Therapy
Counselor, ACSW
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90031
Being a person in this world can be exciting, painful, scary, and awe-inspiring (sometimes all at once!) and I’m here to hold space for the paradoxes and messiness of life. My intention is to help you reclaim and accept the parts of yourself that you’ve learned to disown — and we all have those parts. I believe that with the right support, everyone has the ability to move toward more ease and connection.
Being a person in this world can be exciting, painful, scary, and awe-inspiring (sometimes all at once!) and I’m here to hold space for the paradoxes and messiness of life. My intention is to help you reclaim and accept the parts of yourself that you’ve learned to disown — and we all have those parts. I believe that with the right support, everyone has the ability to move toward more ease and connection.
(631) 430-4346 View (631) 430-4346
Photo of Anjna Champaneri - Expansive Therapy, Pre-Licensed Professional in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Anjna Champaneri - Expansive Therapy
Pre-Licensed Professional, ACSW
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
My aim is to create a caring therapeutic relationship with you that is founded in empathy, trust, and respect. Together we will create a safe and open environment for brave and insightful explorations. I offer collaborative, client-centered therapy that supports the development of personal insights and practical coping skills through curiosity, mindfulness, and compassion.
My aim is to create a caring therapeutic relationship with you that is founded in empathy, trust, and respect. Together we will create a safe and open environment for brave and insightful explorations. I offer collaborative, client-centered therapy that supports the development of personal insights and practical coping skills through curiosity, mindfulness, and compassion.
(332) 262-2012 View (332) 262-2012
Photo of Jacqueline Gordon, Counselor in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Jacqueline Gordon
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90031  (Online Only)
Online Only-The best time to begin or restart your life's journey is NOW!. I provide comprehensive psychotherapy services. I utilize a culturally competent approach to assessment, and believe that psychotherapy requires the ability to understand culture, socioeconomic factors and ethnicity. My approach begins with establishing a therapist-client relationship by creating a safe, nurturing nonjudgmental environment to address your concerns and challenges. In addition, I understand addiction and the challenges that people face who struggle with substance use. I can assist you with determining if your substance use is problematic.
Online Only-The best time to begin or restart your life's journey is NOW!. I provide comprehensive psychotherapy services. I utilize a culturally competent approach to assessment, and believe that psychotherapy requires the ability to understand culture, socioeconomic factors and ethnicity. My approach begins with establishing a therapist-client relationship by creating a safe, nurturing nonjudgmental environment to address your concerns and challenges. In addition, I understand addiction and the challenges that people face who struggle with substance use. I can assist you with determining if your substance use is problematic.
(209) 500-4284 View (209) 500-4284
Photo of Jessica Ghermezi- Psychological Testing Evaluations, Licensed Educational Psychologist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Jessica Ghermezi- Psychological Testing Evaluations
Licensed Educational Psychologist, LEP4402
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
Are you a parent on a quest for deeper insights into your child or adolescent’s learning strengths and areas that could use a bit more attention? Suspecting a learning disability or grappling with challenges in planning, organization, and time management? Maybe you're an adult navigating the college landscape, facing hurdles in focus, information recall, or attention. If any of these scenarios sound familiar, I'm here to lend a helping hand!
Are you a parent on a quest for deeper insights into your child or adolescent’s learning strengths and areas that could use a bit more attention? Suspecting a learning disability or grappling with challenges in planning, organization, and time management? Maybe you're an adult navigating the college landscape, facing hurdles in focus, information recall, or attention. If any of these scenarios sound familiar, I'm here to lend a helping hand!
(424) 484-7388 View (424) 484-7388
Photo of Rebekah Gong, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Rebekah Gong
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012  (Online Only)
Dear fellow traveler, do you want to find calm amidst anxiety and stress, claim inner peace from past wounds, rekindle love and affection with your partner(s), seek peace with food, discover pleasure with your body, or get more clarity and acceptance about who you are? As a seasoned trauma/ relationship/ sex specialist, I help highly motivated humans like you to create the life you've been waiting for. Together, we navigate the challenges you face, not only transforming your life, but also breaking generational cycles, and fostering healing for future generations (if you choose to have them).
Dear fellow traveler, do you want to find calm amidst anxiety and stress, claim inner peace from past wounds, rekindle love and affection with your partner(s), seek peace with food, discover pleasure with your body, or get more clarity and acceptance about who you are? As a seasoned trauma/ relationship/ sex specialist, I help highly motivated humans like you to create the life you've been waiting for. Together, we navigate the challenges you face, not only transforming your life, but also breaking generational cycles, and fostering healing for future generations (if you choose to have them).
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Photo of Robyn Elizabeth Smith, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Robyn Elizabeth Smith
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, MFT
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
IN EMOTIONAL PAIN? RELATIONSHIP IN CRISIS? Therapy is a unique opportunity to transform whatever pain or dissatisfaction you may be experiencing into clarity and a sense of well-being. Often people manage pain with food, alcohol, unhealthy relationships, and other distractions or dysfunctional behaviors. I am deeply committed to helping individuals and couples use their struggles to grow and achieve a happier, more fulfilling life. My style is warm and intuitive, thoughtful and engaged. I welcome a call to talk about the issues that are motivating you to consider therapy right now.
IN EMOTIONAL PAIN? RELATIONSHIP IN CRISIS? Therapy is a unique opportunity to transform whatever pain or dissatisfaction you may be experiencing into clarity and a sense of well-being. Often people manage pain with food, alcohol, unhealthy relationships, and other distractions or dysfunctional behaviors. I am deeply committed to helping individuals and couples use their struggles to grow and achieve a happier, more fulfilling life. My style is warm and intuitive, thoughtful and engaged. I welcome a call to talk about the issues that are motivating you to consider therapy right now.
(424) 744-3154 View (424) 744-3154
Photo of Lisa Vitti, Psychologist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Lisa Vitti
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
A person most often seeks therapy when a part of his/her life feels unmanageable. Often past skills used to cope are no longer effective and one may feel vulnerable and alone even in the presence of others. Sometimes these feelings occur after a recent transition in a relationship, career choice, or a recent move. At other times, someone may experience diffuse feelings of anxiety and sadness without a specific stressor.
A person most often seeks therapy when a part of his/her life feels unmanageable. Often past skills used to cope are no longer effective and one may feel vulnerable and alone even in the presence of others. Sometimes these feelings occur after a recent transition in a relationship, career choice, or a recent move. At other times, someone may experience diffuse feelings of anxiety and sadness without a specific stressor.
(310) 366-5413 View (310) 366-5413
Photo of Jana Rae Corpuz, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Jana Rae Corpuz
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
Trauma can disconnect you from your true self. I work with women who have experienced trauma and looking to find their real authentic selves again. Despite feeling stuck, hopeless and ruled by your triggers, I believe everyone has the ability to and strength to heal themselves. They just need a little hope and a little help.
Trauma can disconnect you from your true self. I work with women who have experienced trauma and looking to find their real authentic selves again. Despite feeling stuck, hopeless and ruled by your triggers, I believe everyone has the ability to and strength to heal themselves. They just need a little hope and a little help.
(323) 886-0458 View (323) 886-0458
Photo of Dylan Ramos, Psychologist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Dylan Ramos
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
I believe that relationships, with others and with oneself, are essential to living an enjoyable life. Healthy relationships and self-knowledge can be the remedy to our distress and the key to our healing. My approach is collaborative- I do not expect you to enter my office and "fix" yourself, but rather to work alongside me to cultivate insight, deepen relationships, and develop a stronger sense of self. Often we walk through life being merely existing-my goal is to help you thrive by living a well-balanced and joyful life.
I believe that relationships, with others and with oneself, are essential to living an enjoyable life. Healthy relationships and self-knowledge can be the remedy to our distress and the key to our healing. My approach is collaborative- I do not expect you to enter my office and "fix" yourself, but rather to work alongside me to cultivate insight, deepen relationships, and develop a stronger sense of self. Often we walk through life being merely existing-my goal is to help you thrive by living a well-balanced and joyful life.
(323) 615-3474 View (323) 615-3474
Photo of Megan McGrath, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Megan McGrath
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
Not accepting new clients
Feeling stuck in a job? A relationship? In your own life? Is something bothering you, but you have found that it is hard to put your thoughts into words or find someone to talk to? I help clients address issues related to relationships, depression, anxiety, anger, addiction, stressful or traumatic events and work toward their goals of becoming healthier, happier, and enjoying a more fulfilling life. My goal in therapy is to foster a collaborative and non-judgmental relationship that allows you to safely explore whatever is troubling you, and to build on the strengths and resources you already possess.
Feeling stuck in a job? A relationship? In your own life? Is something bothering you, but you have found that it is hard to put your thoughts into words or find someone to talk to? I help clients address issues related to relationships, depression, anxiety, anger, addiction, stressful or traumatic events and work toward their goals of becoming healthier, happier, and enjoying a more fulfilling life. My goal in therapy is to foster a collaborative and non-judgmental relationship that allows you to safely explore whatever is troubling you, and to build on the strengths and resources you already possess.
(626) 722-5158 View (626) 722-5158
Photo of Terence Ford, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Terence Ford
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
We will work in a confidential space, where we thoughtfully,carefully, and intelligently reflect on your emotional life. We can gently explore the origins of your feelings and work through how they show themselves. Our work will be focused in the here and now: by exploring who you are right now, change in your outlook or actions becomes possible. Generally, I use ideas firmly grounded in psychoanalytic theory and technique that are informed by my personal practice of Zen meditation of over ten years. Paying attention to what you do and how you feel can reveal the source of discomfort.
We will work in a confidential space, where we thoughtfully,carefully, and intelligently reflect on your emotional life. We can gently explore the origins of your feelings and work through how they show themselves. Our work will be focused in the here and now: by exploring who you are right now, change in your outlook or actions becomes possible. Generally, I use ideas firmly grounded in psychoanalytic theory and technique that are informed by my personal practice of Zen meditation of over ten years. Paying attention to what you do and how you feel can reveal the source of discomfort.
(213) 260-1919 View (213) 260-1919
Photo of Weili Lin, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA
Weili Lin
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA 90012
You're tired of the emotional barriers that keep you from enjoying your relationships, work, and social activities. Sometimes you wonder why you reacted so intensely to someone or something and you wish you could control your reaction. You're not afraid of digging deep and facing your feelings, but you just don't know how.
You're tired of the emotional barriers that keep you from enjoying your relationships, work, and social activities. Sometimes you wonder why you reacted so intensely to someone or something and you wish you could control your reaction. You're not afraid of digging deep and facing your feelings, but you just don't know how.
(626) 341-0900 View (626) 341-0900

See more therapy options for Chinatown, Los Angeles

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA

90+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Depression
93% Anxiety
82% Self Esteem
81% Relationship Issues
72% Trauma and PTSD
70% Coping Skills
66% Stress

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

76% Aetna
70% Cigna and Evernorth
57% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Chinatown, Los Angeles, CA see their clients

59% In Person and Online
41% Online Only

Gender breakdown

73% Female
27% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Chinatown, Los Angeles?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.