Therapists in Garberville, CA

Photo of Katherine O'Connell, Psychologist in Garberville, CA
Katherine O'Connell
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Garberville, CA 95542  (Online Only)
For over 45 years I have had the privilege of providing competent, compassionate, caring psychotherapy and personal, business, and optimal health coaching services to a wide range of people. I work by phone and by telemedicine online internationally.I know techniques that rapidly and effectively lower anxiety. I am the author of two books and have an international reputation as a consultant, educator and coach.I have an extensive background in Integrative Psychology and natural health.I work with natural cycles and timing.I work with small companies internationally as a coach as well as individual enterpreneurs.
For over 45 years I have had the privilege of providing competent, compassionate, caring psychotherapy and personal, business, and optimal health coaching services to a wide range of people. I work by phone and by telemedicine online internationally.I know techniques that rapidly and effectively lower anxiety. I am the author of two books and have an international reputation as a consultant, educator and coach.I have an extensive background in Integrative Psychology and natural health.I work with natural cycles and timing.I work with small companies internationally as a coach as well as individual enterpreneurs.
(707) 879-4386 View (707) 879-4386
Photo of Brianne A Hutchinson, Associate Professional Clinical Counselor in Garberville, CA
Brianne A Hutchinson
Associate Professional Clinical Counselor, MS, APCC, E-RYT
Verified Verified
Garberville, CA 95542
BriAnne is a registered Associate Professional Clinical Counselor through the California Board of Behavioral Sciences. Her focus is towards Ecopsychology and Somatic oriented therapies. She is trained in Ecotherapy/Ecopsychology, Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR), Comprehensive Resource Model (CRM) , Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Somatic Therapy, Internal Family Systems/Parts Work and Psychedelic Therapies such as Ketamine Assisted Therapy (KAP) and Psychedelic Integration. BriAnne carries additional certifications in Yoga (E-RYT) and Whitewater navigation/Wilderness First Aid.
BriAnne is a registered Associate Professional Clinical Counselor through the California Board of Behavioral Sciences. Her focus is towards Ecopsychology and Somatic oriented therapies. She is trained in Ecotherapy/Ecopsychology, Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR), Comprehensive Resource Model (CRM) , Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Somatic Therapy, Internal Family Systems/Parts Work and Psychedelic Therapies such as Ketamine Assisted Therapy (KAP) and Psychedelic Integration. BriAnne carries additional certifications in Yoga (E-RYT) and Whitewater navigation/Wilderness First Aid.
(707) 659-3471 View (707) 659-3471
Photo of Carol Coal, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Garberville, CA
Carol Coal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Garberville, CA 95542
I believe therapy is a collaborative journey where with support clients are able to access their innate wisdom,moving from surviving to thriving. I have over 20 years working with issues of life transitions, substance abuse, codependency, trauma, childhood trauma, domestic violence, anxiety and depression. I look forward to talking with you.
I believe therapy is a collaborative journey where with support clients are able to access their innate wisdom,moving from surviving to thriving. I have over 20 years working with issues of life transitions, substance abuse, codependency, trauma, childhood trauma, domestic violence, anxiety and depression. I look forward to talking with you.
(707) 639-8365 View (707) 639-8365
Photo of Joel Morrison, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Garberville, CA
Joel Morrison
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Garberville, CA 95542  (Online Only)
I make it a priority to respond to every call by the day's end and also offer the flexibility of weekend appointments. My goal is to help others find relief from the cycle of difficult thoughts and emotions that arise from a variety of life circumstances, whether adjusting to new events or dealing with a life-long struggle. Learning new skills, perspectives and being heard can be transformative. Your life-story, your beliefs and your strengths are of paramount importance. I strongly believe in acceptance, compassion and hope, offering these at all stages of our work together.
I make it a priority to respond to every call by the day's end and also offer the flexibility of weekend appointments. My goal is to help others find relief from the cycle of difficult thoughts and emotions that arise from a variety of life circumstances, whether adjusting to new events or dealing with a life-long struggle. Learning new skills, perspectives and being heard can be transformative. Your life-story, your beliefs and your strengths are of paramount importance. I strongly believe in acceptance, compassion and hope, offering these at all stages of our work together.
(707) 683-7540 View (707) 683-7540

Online Therapists

Photo of Lisa R Rix, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Garberville, CA
Lisa R Rix
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Eureka, CA 95501
I (she/her/hers) work with transition aged youth (14-24), adults and seniors in my telehealth practice online. I want to see people who need help with making decisions, dealing with the past, and accepting self care into their own lives.
I (she/her/hers) work with transition aged youth (14-24), adults and seniors in my telehealth practice online. I want to see people who need help with making decisions, dealing with the past, and accepting self care into their own lives.
(707) 683-7244 View (707) 683-7244
Photo of Julie Branson, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Julie Branson
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Eureka, CA 95501
Life's challenges can sometimes seem overwhelming. You don't have to walk through it alone. Finding the courage to ask for help can be a powerful step on the path to healing. I believe that when people are listened to, understood, and accepted, they can connect to their inner wisdom, build resiliency, and cultivate a sense of well-being. My intention is to create a welcoming, supportive, respectful environment in which you can feel safe to share your truth.
Life's challenges can sometimes seem overwhelming. You don't have to walk through it alone. Finding the courage to ask for help can be a powerful step on the path to healing. I believe that when people are listened to, understood, and accepted, they can connect to their inner wisdom, build resiliency, and cultivate a sense of well-being. My intention is to create a welcoming, supportive, respectful environment in which you can feel safe to share your truth.
(707) 238-7138 View (707) 238-7138
Photo of Heather J. Orr, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Heather J. Orr
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Redding, CA 96002
I believe each of us are incredibly unique, therefore, I want to work together to find the most effective therapeutic approach for you. My desire is to create a space in which you feel safe enough to explore your own inner world and the world around you; to address the small and larger traumas of life. I love working with clients who are courageous enough to revisit past events, explore their own conditioned worldview, ask the difficult questions, and ultimately live out the fullest expression of themselves.
I believe each of us are incredibly unique, therefore, I want to work together to find the most effective therapeutic approach for you. My desire is to create a space in which you feel safe enough to explore your own inner world and the world around you; to address the small and larger traumas of life. I love working with clients who are courageous enough to revisit past events, explore their own conditioned worldview, ask the difficult questions, and ultimately live out the fullest expression of themselves.
(530) 418-5307 View (530) 418-5307
Photo of Ashley Michelle Smith, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Ashley Michelle Smith
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redding, CA 96001
The reality of life is that it is hard. I genuinely love what I do because I get to help people learn how to find ways to make the hard times feel more manageable, and find and create more of the beautiful moments. It truly is an honor to be able to walk alongside someone as they discover how to enhance their life. My style is client-centered, as I believe it is important to meet my clients right where they’re at on their journeys. I believe our minds are incredible: incredibly complex yet thankfully also malleable. I value being able to provide a therapy environment that is safe, calm, and confidential.
The reality of life is that it is hard. I genuinely love what I do because I get to help people learn how to find ways to make the hard times feel more manageable, and find and create more of the beautiful moments. It truly is an honor to be able to walk alongside someone as they discover how to enhance their life. My style is client-centered, as I believe it is important to meet my clients right where they’re at on their journeys. I believe our minds are incredible: incredibly complex yet thankfully also malleable. I value being able to provide a therapy environment that is safe, calm, and confidential.
(530) 278-6852 View (530) 278-6852
Photo of Inessa Freya Lieberman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Inessa Freya Lieberman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Arcata, CA 95521  (Online Only)
There's a saying, "Healing is the application of love to the places inside that hurt." I'm here to fully support you in tending to those places. Together we will journey into understanding the major themes and patterns in your life and what they are trying to teach you. This increased level of awareness can help you access your strength and intuition, eliminate negative self talk and choose a more fulfilling relationship with yourself, others and life. I offer a 15 minute meet and greet to ensure we are a good fit.
There's a saying, "Healing is the application of love to the places inside that hurt." I'm here to fully support you in tending to those places. Together we will journey into understanding the major themes and patterns in your life and what they are trying to teach you. This increased level of awareness can help you access your strength and intuition, eliminate negative self talk and choose a more fulfilling relationship with yourself, others and life. I offer a 15 minute meet and greet to ensure we are a good fit.
(707) 207-8551 View (707) 207-8551
Photo of Dr. Debbie Celli-Francis, Psychologist in Garberville, CA
Dr. Debbie Celli-Francis
Psychologist, PsyD, MA, BAR
Verified Verified
Redding, CA 96001
CURRENTLY OFFERING VIDEO SESSIONS I view psychotherapy as an opportunity to enrich your relationship with yourself and the world. Together, we'll create a safe space where you can explore and understand yourself, your strengths, and your challenges. In therapy, we'll develop effective coping skills to use now and in future situations. Life can be difficult but you don't have to figure it out all alone. I know you're struggling with something painful right now ... you've already taken the first step toward healing. .
CURRENTLY OFFERING VIDEO SESSIONS I view psychotherapy as an opportunity to enrich your relationship with yourself and the world. Together, we'll create a safe space where you can explore and understand yourself, your strengths, and your challenges. In therapy, we'll develop effective coping skills to use now and in future situations. Life can be difficult but you don't have to figure it out all alone. I know you're struggling with something painful right now ... you've already taken the first step toward healing. .
(833) 420-1803 View (833) 420-1803
Photo of Jessyca Upton, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Garberville, CA
Jessyca Upton
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Verified Verified
Eureka, CA 95501  (Online Only)
Accepting new clients with immediate openings for online/video sessions. Getting help can be difficult, but you no longer have to struggle alone. As my client, you will feel heard, accepted, and supported while gaining insight and learning new skills. I can help you heal your past wounds and break the toxic patterns that aren't serving you.
Accepting new clients with immediate openings for online/video sessions. Getting help can be difficult, but you no longer have to struggle alone. As my client, you will feel heard, accepted, and supported while gaining insight and learning new skills. I can help you heal your past wounds and break the toxic patterns that aren't serving you.
(707) 414-8465 View (707) 414-8465
Photo of Vera J Dunlap, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Garberville, CA
Vera J Dunlap
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT, APCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Redding, CA 96001  (Online Only)
I'm passionate about destigmatizing society's outlook of mental health treatment, creating a safe space for you to be your authentic self. As humans, we all strive to be heard, seen and validated. My goals are to radiate empathy, compassion, true understanding and respect for you during your mental health journey. I will strive to create an environment where you are free to express your feelings, thoughts, needs and wants in therapy, judgement free
I'm passionate about destigmatizing society's outlook of mental health treatment, creating a safe space for you to be your authentic self. As humans, we all strive to be heard, seen and validated. My goals are to radiate empathy, compassion, true understanding and respect for you during your mental health journey. I will strive to create an environment where you are free to express your feelings, thoughts, needs and wants in therapy, judgement free
(530) 232-4331 View (530) 232-4331
Photo of Lindsey Hailston, Psychologist in Garberville, CA
Lindsey Hailston
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Redding, CA 96002  (Online Only)
I believe that people experience their own unique perspectives and ways of dealing with problems that can affect their day-to-day lives in significant ways. Not everyone might understand how hard it can be to move through life with added challenges that result from difficult life circumstancesI prefer to utilize an active approach to therapy; I want to help you reach your goals by understanding the factors that may contribute to you feeling overwhelmed and, at times, helpless.
I believe that people experience their own unique perspectives and ways of dealing with problems that can affect their day-to-day lives in significant ways. Not everyone might understand how hard it can be to move through life with added challenges that result from difficult life circumstancesI prefer to utilize an active approach to therapy; I want to help you reach your goals by understanding the factors that may contribute to you feeling overwhelmed and, at times, helpless.
(949) 806-4196 View (949) 806-4196
Photo of Kristin Flowers, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Kristin Flowers
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redding, CA 96001
Hi! My name is Kristin Flowers and I'm a licensed marriage and family therapist here in beautiful California. I specialize in helping anxious people to heal and recover from perfectionism, gas lighting, and toxic relationships, as well as past events or memories that may still be impacting life in a negative way. I help people who are trying to be perfect and feel exhausted and wondering who they are anymore. The people I help are feeling anxious, lonely, and stressed out to the breaking point. Sleep is difficult if not impossible. Asking for help is so hard because you're so used to fixing everything yourself.
Hi! My name is Kristin Flowers and I'm a licensed marriage and family therapist here in beautiful California. I specialize in helping anxious people to heal and recover from perfectionism, gas lighting, and toxic relationships, as well as past events or memories that may still be impacting life in a negative way. I help people who are trying to be perfect and feel exhausted and wondering who they are anymore. The people I help are feeling anxious, lonely, and stressed out to the breaking point. Sleep is difficult if not impossible. Asking for help is so hard because you're so used to fixing everything yourself.
(858) 201-5862 View (858) 201-5862
Photo of Meagan Robinson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Garberville, CA
Meagan Robinson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Redding, CA 96003
My name is Meagan Robinson, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. My approach is collaborative, compassionate, and inclusive. Whether you’re looking to manage symptoms of anxiety or depression, navigate interpersonal relationship challenges or life transitions, or are hoping to navigate school or work difficulties successfully, I want to hold a space for you to explore your feelings and learn more about yourself in a non-judgmental way. My approach is integrative and holistic to adapt to the unique needs of each individual, and includes Cognitive, Behavioral, Psychosocial Developmental, and Family Systems Theory modalities.
My name is Meagan Robinson, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. My approach is collaborative, compassionate, and inclusive. Whether you’re looking to manage symptoms of anxiety or depression, navigate interpersonal relationship challenges or life transitions, or are hoping to navigate school or work difficulties successfully, I want to hold a space for you to explore your feelings and learn more about yourself in a non-judgmental way. My approach is integrative and holistic to adapt to the unique needs of each individual, and includes Cognitive, Behavioral, Psychosocial Developmental, and Family Systems Theory modalities.
(530) 539-1570 View (530) 539-1570
Photo of Jonathan Perlman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Garberville, CA
Jonathan Perlman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Ukiah, CA 95482
Jonathan Perlman is a licensed clinical social worker with a background working with adults, young and old. Through his warm personable demeanor, clear communication style, and light-hearted humor, Jonathan utilizes cognitive behavioral therapy and Internal Family Systems approach when joining with clients to help them achieve the positive lasting change they are seeking. Jonathan has a warm personable demeanor, clear communication style, and light-hearted sense of humor with a focus on creating a comfortable and safe environment free of judgment.
Jonathan Perlman is a licensed clinical social worker with a background working with adults, young and old. Through his warm personable demeanor, clear communication style, and light-hearted humor, Jonathan utilizes cognitive behavioral therapy and Internal Family Systems approach when joining with clients to help them achieve the positive lasting change they are seeking. Jonathan has a warm personable demeanor, clear communication style, and light-hearted sense of humor with a focus on creating a comfortable and safe environment free of judgment.
(707) 940-3636 View (707) 940-3636
Photo of Inez Brabeck, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Inez Brabeck
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redding, CA 96002
Welcome! You’ve taken a big step in realizing you are a unique human being in your own right and deserve the best that life has to offer. I am available to assist you in navigating life transitions along your journey to being the best you can be. Dr. Inez Brabeck received her doctorate in clinical psychology, PsyD, and is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, LMFT, in practice for 32 years. She has held offices in both Southern and Northern California. She works with individuals and couples (18+).
Welcome! You’ve taken a big step in realizing you are a unique human being in your own right and deserve the best that life has to offer. I am available to assist you in navigating life transitions along your journey to being the best you can be. Dr. Inez Brabeck received her doctorate in clinical psychology, PsyD, and is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist, LMFT, in practice for 32 years. She has held offices in both Southern and Northern California. She works with individuals and couples (18+).
(818) 418-1537 View (818) 418-1537
Photo of Dr. Tonia Vojtkofsky, Psychologist in Garberville, CA
Dr. Tonia Vojtkofsky
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Mckinleyville, CA 95519
I believe there is hope for you, no matter what you are struggling with, or how intense your suffering is. I am dedicated to providing compassionate and evidenced-based treatments that empower people to learn, grow, and heal.
I believe there is hope for you, no matter what you are struggling with, or how intense your suffering is. I am dedicated to providing compassionate and evidenced-based treatments that empower people to learn, grow, and heal.
(707) 232-8492 View (707) 232-8492
Photo of Daniel Kerruish, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Daniel Kerruish
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Mendocino, CA 95460
At times we are thrown in to an experience of life that calls for a new way of responding. Thumped by unrelenting negative self-judgment, stuck in swamps of depression, seized by insecurities, paralyzing uncertainty, anxiety, panic, or held in the unforgiving clutches of recurring memories (trauma, grief, regret), the world can seem vast, uncaring, and harsh. And, in that world we may feel disconnected, alone, even fearful. Psychotherapy with me includes deeply confidential, trustworthy, empathic, accepting, sacred space in which I deeply listen, you explore, and come to understand your unique experience in pursuit of symptom reduction, increased self-reliance, and personal transformation.
At times we are thrown in to an experience of life that calls for a new way of responding. Thumped by unrelenting negative self-judgment, stuck in swamps of depression, seized by insecurities, paralyzing uncertainty, anxiety, panic, or held in the unforgiving clutches of recurring memories (trauma, grief, regret), the world can seem vast, uncaring, and harsh. And, in that world we may feel disconnected, alone, even fearful. Psychotherapy with me includes deeply confidential, trustworthy, empathic, accepting, sacred space in which I deeply listen, you explore, and come to understand your unique experience in pursuit of symptom reduction, increased self-reliance, and personal transformation.
(707) 669-4765 View (707) 669-4765
Photo of Hanna Kuyper, Marriage & Family Therapist in Garberville, CA
Hanna Kuyper
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Redding, CA 96002
Are you consumed with thoughts of food and your body? Do you feel out of control, like you can't trust yourself or your willpower isn't strong enough? I support clients who are ready to heal, grow and overcome their eating disorder, body image struggles or the yo yo cycle of constant diets and restriction. I can support you in necessary skills and tools to lead a more embodied and values driven life while connecting to your bodies cues and developing a trusting relationship with yourself . We will work together to understand your specific goals and needs to improve your overall health and well being.
Are you consumed with thoughts of food and your body? Do you feel out of control, like you can't trust yourself or your willpower isn't strong enough? I support clients who are ready to heal, grow and overcome their eating disorder, body image struggles or the yo yo cycle of constant diets and restriction. I can support you in necessary skills and tools to lead a more embodied and values driven life while connecting to your bodies cues and developing a trusting relationship with yourself . We will work together to understand your specific goals and needs to improve your overall health and well being.
(530) 288-4387 View (530) 288-4387

Nearby Searches for Garberville

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Garberville, CA

< 10

Therapists in Garberville, CA who prioritize treating:

100% Trauma and PTSD
100% Coping Skills
100% Stress
75% Relationship Issues
75% Depression
75% Anxiety
75% Grief

Average years in practice

6 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Beacon Health Options | Carelon
50% Medicare
50% Medi-Cal

How Therapists in Garberville, CA see their clients

50% In Person and Online
50% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
25% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Garberville?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.