Therapists in Fremont, CA

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Photo of Benedicte Last, Psychologist in Fremont, CA
Benedicte Last
Psychologist, LCP
Verified
Fremont, CA 94539
Hello, My name is Dr. Benedicte Last (PSY 30089). I practice clinical psychology in California. As a therapist, I support you in your journey toward the life you envision for yourself. In that process, we may process and heal the trauma that is holding you in the past, help you add or strengthen the tools to take care of yourself in the present, and in doing so, support you in laying the foundation of your future. In therapy, I use the theoretical approach that works for you. At times that could be psychodynamics, in which you work on understanding your emotions and unconscious patterns of behaviors.
Hello, My name is Dr. Benedicte Last (PSY 30089). I practice clinical psychology in California. As a therapist, I support you in your journey toward the life you envision for yourself. In that process, we may process and heal the trauma that is holding you in the past, help you add or strengthen the tools to take care of yourself in the present, and in doing so, support you in laying the foundation of your future. In therapy, I use the theoretical approach that works for you. At times that could be psychodynamics, in which you work on understanding your emotions and unconscious patterns of behaviors.
(510) 756-4786 View (510) 756-4786
Photo of Leilei Yuan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Fremont, CA
Leilei Yuan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified
Fremont, CA 94538
Do you feel depressed, anxious or emotionally stuck? Feeling lost or overwhelmed? Life is full of up and down, and a lot of us chose to hide true feeling and try to move on. However, like physical injury, emotional wound needs appropriate attention & treatment too. If you let me, I would appreciate this great opportunity to join you on your journey of feeling, healing and growing. As a licensed clinical social worker with 6 years’ experience in the field, I have worked passionately with individuals, families, adults, hospital patients and children to learn positive ways and skills to cope with many stressors in life.
Do you feel depressed, anxious or emotionally stuck? Feeling lost or overwhelmed? Life is full of up and down, and a lot of us chose to hide true feeling and try to move on. However, like physical injury, emotional wound needs appropriate attention & treatment too. If you let me, I would appreciate this great opportunity to join you on your journey of feeling, healing and growing. As a licensed clinical social worker with 6 years’ experience in the field, I have worked passionately with individuals, families, adults, hospital patients and children to learn positive ways and skills to cope with many stressors in life.
(410) 324-6761 View (410) 324-6761
Photo of Jennifer Haya, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Fremont, CA
Jennifer Haya
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fremont, CA 94538
I'm passionate about helping others who are earnestly seeking change, especially when their current state creates or sustains pain. It isn't an easy process, but positive change is possible when you have a safe space, compassionate support, and the right tools. Getting to witness clients find their voice and heal from their wounds is one of the best parts of this work.
I'm passionate about helping others who are earnestly seeking change, especially when their current state creates or sustains pain. It isn't an easy process, but positive change is possible when you have a safe space, compassionate support, and the right tools. Getting to witness clients find their voice and heal from their wounds is one of the best parts of this work.
(510) 738-0821 View (510) 738-0821
Photo of Lian Zhu, Psychologist in Fremont, CA
Lian Zhu
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Fremont, CA 94555  (Online Only)
I am a second generation Chinese-American clinical psychologist. I completed postdoctoral training at Stanford Medicine and have expertise in teaching tools to navigate intense emotions such as anxiety and anger, and improve self-confidence and relationship satisfaction. I also specialize in teaching communication skills for couples and families such as conflict resolution, setting and maintaining boundaries, and expressing and getting relationship needs met. I'm particularly passionate about working with individuals from multicultural backgrounds, such as being a first or second generation immigrant or mixed race.
I am a second generation Chinese-American clinical psychologist. I completed postdoctoral training at Stanford Medicine and have expertise in teaching tools to navigate intense emotions such as anxiety and anger, and improve self-confidence and relationship satisfaction. I also specialize in teaching communication skills for couples and families such as conflict resolution, setting and maintaining boundaries, and expressing and getting relationship needs met. I'm particularly passionate about working with individuals from multicultural backgrounds, such as being a first or second generation immigrant or mixed race.
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Photo of Michelle Pack, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Michelle Pack
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94538
Hello, I am Michelle Pack, LMFT. I focus on building positive relationships with my clients and reducing negative symptoms. I have many years of experience working with foster care and adoption and issues relating to trauma, grief/loss and adoption. I mostly work with individuals, from pre-teen to adult, and sometimes couples. I'm comfortable addressing anxiety, depression, sleep issues, work problems, grief/loss, adoption-related issues, difficulties of being a foster parent, relationship and parenting problems.
Hello, I am Michelle Pack, LMFT. I focus on building positive relationships with my clients and reducing negative symptoms. I have many years of experience working with foster care and adoption and issues relating to trauma, grief/loss and adoption. I mostly work with individuals, from pre-teen to adult, and sometimes couples. I'm comfortable addressing anxiety, depression, sleep issues, work problems, grief/loss, adoption-related issues, difficulties of being a foster parent, relationship and parenting problems.
(510) 953-4469 View (510) 953-4469
Photo of Amanda Hagos, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Fremont, CA
Amanda Hagos
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PPSC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fremont, CA 94536
Finding a therapist that is the right fit can be hard. I am a Licensed psychotherapist who partners with families to support their children and young adults through these challenging times. With a focus on anxiety, depression and disordered eating, I support children/teens and families in developing resiliency and thriving. By partnering with families, I believe that we can work together to support your child in overcoming struggles and develop a resiliency that can benefit them the rest of their lives. I am strength-based, trauma informed, anti-racist, ally to LGBTQ+ community and Health at Every Size aligned.
Finding a therapist that is the right fit can be hard. I am a Licensed psychotherapist who partners with families to support their children and young adults through these challenging times. With a focus on anxiety, depression and disordered eating, I support children/teens and families in developing resiliency and thriving. By partnering with families, I believe that we can work together to support your child in overcoming struggles and develop a resiliency that can benefit them the rest of their lives. I am strength-based, trauma informed, anti-racist, ally to LGBTQ+ community and Health at Every Size aligned.
(510) 674-0147 View (510) 674-0147
Photo of Ang Li, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Ang Li
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94538  (Online Only)
Life can be hard, and we carry so much burden by ourselves because of the fear of being a hassle to others, but you're not a burden or a hassle, you're invited to take a rest and hopefully find that much needed solace. I look forward to accompanying you on this excursion, and I wish you wellness and peace.
Life can be hard, and we carry so much burden by ourselves because of the fear of being a hassle to others, but you're not a burden or a hassle, you're invited to take a rest and hopefully find that much needed solace. I look forward to accompanying you on this excursion, and I wish you wellness and peace.
(510) 544-6828 View (510) 544-6828
Photo of Bernadette G Murphy, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Bernadette G Murphy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94536
If your browsing this site it might be safe to say that you want to change something about your life. I welcome hearing your story and offer you a safe place to share your concerns. Sometimes we can find ourselves stuck and unsure how to make the shift away from dysfunctional patterns or lifestyles. Perhaps it's ongoing negative mental chatter, low self-worth, anger, addiction or heightened anxiety from a stressed out way of living that blocks that inner peace. I recognize your courage in reaching out. Please know that I am here to patiently offer guidance and reassurance as we journey together towards learning the tools of change.
If your browsing this site it might be safe to say that you want to change something about your life. I welcome hearing your story and offer you a safe place to share your concerns. Sometimes we can find ourselves stuck and unsure how to make the shift away from dysfunctional patterns or lifestyles. Perhaps it's ongoing negative mental chatter, low self-worth, anger, addiction or heightened anxiety from a stressed out way of living that blocks that inner peace. I recognize your courage in reaching out. Please know that I am here to patiently offer guidance and reassurance as we journey together towards learning the tools of change.
(925) 241-5924 View (925) 241-5924
Photo of Allison B. Pentecost, Psychologist in Fremont, CA
Allison B. Pentecost
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
4 Endorsed
Fremont, CA 94539
Waitlist for new clients
Do you struggle with worried thinking, periods of sadness or a nagging feeling that your mental health could be better ? I provide Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and mindfulness practices to treat your anxiety and depression, support your personal goals and help you find your greater purpose in life.
Do you struggle with worried thinking, periods of sadness or a nagging feeling that your mental health could be better ? I provide Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and mindfulness practices to treat your anxiety and depression, support your personal goals and help you find your greater purpose in life.
(510) 647-6242 View (510) 647-6242
Photo of Harold Carrier, Counselor in Fremont, CA
Harold Carrier
Counselor, LCPC
Verified
Fremont, CA 94536
Hello, my name is Harold Ray Carrier, I am a licensed professional clinical counselor (LPCC). I utilize various approaches with therapy, and I’m known for experience with anxiety, depression, conflict resolution, relationship challenges, adjustment challenges, and alcohol/other substance use challenges. I am comfortable working with all clients. I am experienced with males and females from the ages of 16-80. I am comfortable with a variety of challenges involving anxiety, depression, dual diagnosis, conflict resolution, relationship challenges, adjustment/change challenges, substance use, and more.
Hello, my name is Harold Ray Carrier, I am a licensed professional clinical counselor (LPCC). I utilize various approaches with therapy, and I’m known for experience with anxiety, depression, conflict resolution, relationship challenges, adjustment challenges, and alcohol/other substance use challenges. I am comfortable working with all clients. I am experienced with males and females from the ages of 16-80. I am comfortable with a variety of challenges involving anxiety, depression, dual diagnosis, conflict resolution, relationship challenges, adjustment/change challenges, substance use, and more.
(510) 913-9962 View (510) 913-9962
Photo of Annemarie Ballinger, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Annemarie Ballinger
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94536
I know that finding a therapist can be a daunting task, especially when things are hard enough already! Maybe you are new to therapy or have been struggling for years to resolve anxiety, depression, relationship stress or past hurts and still unable to find relief. For 30 years I have been helping clients work through these and similar issues. Research and experience has taught me that a positive client-therapist relationship is key to a good therapy outcome. We are all authorities on our own life experience. Through active listening and dialogue, I strive to understand and attune to your unique experience with respect and care.
I know that finding a therapist can be a daunting task, especially when things are hard enough already! Maybe you are new to therapy or have been struggling for years to resolve anxiety, depression, relationship stress or past hurts and still unable to find relief. For 30 years I have been helping clients work through these and similar issues. Research and experience has taught me that a positive client-therapist relationship is key to a good therapy outcome. We are all authorities on our own life experience. Through active listening and dialogue, I strive to understand and attune to your unique experience with respect and care.
(510) 924-0828 View (510) 924-0828
Photo of Denise Lew, Psychologist in Fremont, CA
Denise Lew
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
2 Endorsed
Fremont, CA 94536  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Good therapy should feel like a good match - you're inspired, excited, and look forward to diving into the issues that you want to solve. Also I embrace the idea of therapy being like work - it takes some commitment and an ability to roll up your sleeves after all. But unlike work, I see therapy as a place for having fun and if it's a good match you'll see that you and I could dig in together, laugh, and have you taking control of your life and making progress on your goals with time.
Good therapy should feel like a good match - you're inspired, excited, and look forward to diving into the issues that you want to solve. Also I embrace the idea of therapy being like work - it takes some commitment and an ability to roll up your sleeves after all. But unlike work, I see therapy as a place for having fun and if it's a good match you'll see that you and I could dig in together, laugh, and have you taking control of your life and making progress on your goals with time.
(510) 674-1473 View (510) 674-1473
Photo of Hui Chen Huang, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Fremont, CA
Hui Chen Huang
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA
Verified
3 Endorsed
Fremont, CA 94538
Jenny is fluent in English and Mandarin. This skill is helpful for clients who struggle with changes in culture when moving to the United States. She is passionate and skilled in helping couples improve their communication skills, and she also enjoys working with individual adult clients on issues related to parenting, work stress, depression, and anxiety. As a bicultural therapist, She is interested in multicultural issues. She would like to help individuals with acculturation and adjustment issues.
Jenny is fluent in English and Mandarin. This skill is helpful for clients who struggle with changes in culture when moving to the United States. She is passionate and skilled in helping couples improve their communication skills, and she also enjoys working with individual adult clients on issues related to parenting, work stress, depression, and anxiety. As a bicultural therapist, She is interested in multicultural issues. She would like to help individuals with acculturation and adjustment issues.
(408) 454-8097 View (408) 454-8097
Photo of Lilia Gonzalez-Joly, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Lilia Gonzalez-Joly
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94538
Welcome! My name is Lilia Gonzalez-Joly, I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist working in the mental health field for over 10 years. I offer individual and relationship psychotherapy. My goal is to help people develop sustainable coping skills to deal with a variety of issues. My sessions are both reflective and informative. These are some of the challenges I've helped people with: anxiety; depression; adjustment difficulties; communication break-down; past trauma; difficulty setting boundaries; bi-cultural differences and parenting dilemmas. I am bilingual, speak fluent Spanish and truly enjoy working with diverse clients.
Welcome! My name is Lilia Gonzalez-Joly, I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist working in the mental health field for over 10 years. I offer individual and relationship psychotherapy. My goal is to help people develop sustainable coping skills to deal with a variety of issues. My sessions are both reflective and informative. These are some of the challenges I've helped people with: anxiety; depression; adjustment difficulties; communication break-down; past trauma; difficulty setting boundaries; bi-cultural differences and parenting dilemmas. I am bilingual, speak fluent Spanish and truly enjoy working with diverse clients.
(510) 560-7396 View (510) 560-7396
Photo of Aimen Bukhari, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Aimen Bukhari
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94536  (Online Only)
Do you ever feel disconnected from yourself or others? Although our country has made progress in raising mental health awareness, a great deal of stigma remains. In many communities, these issues are often shrouded by silence and shame, fostering mental health minimization. I have experience working with individuals and family relationships. I work with problems that arise in blended families, work, health, and career, trying to create better relationships and less conflict. Through role-plays, Gestalt techniques, and mindfulness, you can gain the power to reflect on your feelings, understand yourself and feel better.
Do you ever feel disconnected from yourself or others? Although our country has made progress in raising mental health awareness, a great deal of stigma remains. In many communities, these issues are often shrouded by silence and shame, fostering mental health minimization. I have experience working with individuals and family relationships. I work with problems that arise in blended families, work, health, and career, trying to create better relationships and less conflict. Through role-plays, Gestalt techniques, and mindfulness, you can gain the power to reflect on your feelings, understand yourself and feel better.
(510) 216-1517 View (510) 216-1517
Photo of Nahid Fattahi Lmft 129036, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Nahid Fattahi Lmft 129036
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94536  (Online Only)
Are you ready to embark on a journey of personal growth and emotional well-being? I'm here to be your guide and support you every step of the way. I'm a compassionate psychotherapist fluent in both English and Farsi, and I can converse in Hindi and Urdu as well. My mission is to create a collaborative partnership with each client, empowering you to take charge of your life and develop the skills needed to overcome challenges. Whether you're dealing with anxiety, depression, navigating life's transitions, or seeking to improve your relationships, I'm here to help.
Are you ready to embark on a journey of personal growth and emotional well-being? I'm here to be your guide and support you every step of the way. I'm a compassionate psychotherapist fluent in both English and Farsi, and I can converse in Hindi and Urdu as well. My mission is to create a collaborative partnership with each client, empowering you to take charge of your life and develop the skills needed to overcome challenges. Whether you're dealing with anxiety, depression, navigating life's transitions, or seeking to improve your relationships, I'm here to help.
(510) 529-2083 View (510) 529-2083
Photo of Alejandra Landavazo, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Alejandra Landavazo
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Fremont, CA 94555
Alejandra Landavazo, Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist. My approach to therapy is a collaborative one. I see clients as the agents of change in their own lives and take a supportive role in developing and formulating a vision of where clients see themselves. I like to collaborate with clients in determining motives for initiating therapy. I like to support clients in developing and formulating short-term and long-term goals during our work together. I initiate goal discussion at intake and expand during future therapy sessions to formulate an appropriate treatment plan.
Alejandra Landavazo, Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist. My approach to therapy is a collaborative one. I see clients as the agents of change in their own lives and take a supportive role in developing and formulating a vision of where clients see themselves. I like to collaborate with clients in determining motives for initiating therapy. I like to support clients in developing and formulating short-term and long-term goals during our work together. I initiate goal discussion at intake and expand during future therapy sessions to formulate an appropriate treatment plan.
(510) 990-9274 View (510) 990-9274
Photo of Angela Topcu, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Angela Topcu
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fremont, CA 94536
Despite your best efforts to be happy, are you finding that a sense of contentment, authenticity and self-confidence continues to elude you? Do you long for a way to finally feel that you are managing your anxiety rather than your anxiety is managing you? What would it feel like to begin healing the pain of your past, including your most painful losses, and move forward into new possibilities? I work with a variety of issues including depression and anxiety and I specialize in the challenges of grief & loss and low self-esteem.
Despite your best efforts to be happy, are you finding that a sense of contentment, authenticity and self-confidence continues to elude you? Do you long for a way to finally feel that you are managing your anxiety rather than your anxiety is managing you? What would it feel like to begin healing the pain of your past, including your most painful losses, and move forward into new possibilities? I work with a variety of issues including depression and anxiety and I specialize in the challenges of grief & loss and low self-esteem.
(510) 771-7382 View (510) 771-7382
Photo of Nicholas Ramirez, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Nicholas Ramirez
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Fremont, CA 94536
Life can feel tedious, or even unbearable at times. Relationship, work, and family issues can make us overwhelmed or underwhelmed with life.
Life can feel tedious, or even unbearable at times. Relationship, work, and family issues can make us overwhelmed or underwhelmed with life.
(510) 544-8074 View (510) 544-8074
Photo of Gaik Kee 'Grace' Khoo, Marriage & Family Therapist in Fremont, CA
Gaik Kee 'Grace' Khoo
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Fremont, CA 94538
Feeling tired from constant arguing with your partner? You want to get closer to him/her but you can't move past the anger/hurt/pain that he/she has caused you? And all you want is for him/her to validate you and to tell you that he/she cares. While ignoring it may work for a little while, but over time unresolved relationship issues can affect other areas of your life, including physical health, sleep, mood, work and other relationships. I can help you to get unstuck, work through your emotional wounds, communicate what you want from your partner in a helpful way, and have the connection that you've always wanted.
Feeling tired from constant arguing with your partner? You want to get closer to him/her but you can't move past the anger/hurt/pain that he/she has caused you? And all you want is for him/her to validate you and to tell you that he/she cares. While ignoring it may work for a little while, but over time unresolved relationship issues can affect other areas of your life, including physical health, sleep, mood, work and other relationships. I can help you to get unstuck, work through your emotional wounds, communicate what you want from your partner in a helpful way, and have the connection that you've always wanted.
(510) 592-6124 View (510) 592-6124

See more therapy options for Fremont

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Fremont, CA

300+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in Fremont, CA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
73% Relationship Issues
70% Self Esteem
70% Stress
65% Coping Skills
64% Grief

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% Aetna
73% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
70% Optum

How Therapists in Fremont, CA see their clients

70% In Person and Online
30% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
15% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Fremont?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.