Therapists in Cotati, CA

Photo of Robert Herzog, PhD, Psychologist
Robert Herzog
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
I offer a healing-centered approach for individual therapy clients, with the client ultimately serving as the author of their own healing. I bring an eclectic and soul-informed approach to this kind of work, encouraging an unveiling of personal creativity, imagination, and ongoing encounter with the Sacred.
I offer a healing-centered approach for individual therapy clients, with the client ultimately serving as the author of their own healing. I bring an eclectic and soul-informed approach to this kind of work, encouraging an unveiling of personal creativity, imagination, and ongoing encounter with the Sacred.
(707) 846-1809 View (707) 846-1809
Photo of undefined - Couples Therapy for Business Partner Conflicts, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Couples Therapy for Business Partner Conflicts
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
Are you stuck in a cycle of tension, resentment and distrust with your business partner? Do you need help communicating effectively and moving past conflicts, leading to wasted time, money, and energy? Do you need to realign on vision, operations, or strategy? And ensure the survival of your personal and working relationships. As a therapist specializing in working with business partners and co-founders, I understand how these issues can impact your business and your life. Whether you're facing constant criticism, broken agreements, or disagreements about direction, I can help you both find solutions to collaborate and succeed.
Are you stuck in a cycle of tension, resentment and distrust with your business partner? Do you need help communicating effectively and moving past conflicts, leading to wasted time, money, and energy? Do you need to realign on vision, operations, or strategy? And ensure the survival of your personal and working relationships. As a therapist specializing in working with business partners and co-founders, I understand how these issues can impact your business and your life. Whether you're facing constant criticism, broken agreements, or disagreements about direction, I can help you both find solutions to collaborate and succeed.
(415) 849-3895 View (415) 849-3895
Photo of Sonya M Kelly, PhD, Psychologist
Sonya M Kelly
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
I have been licensed as a Psychologist (PhD-Doctor) since 2001. I received my Master's Degree in Psychology in December of 1988 and thus have 30 years of experience as a psychotherapist. In 2018, I published my first AudioBook, "Meditative Visualization; How 2 Minutes a Day Can Change Your Life," available via Amazon.com, iTunes.com, CDBaby.com, and more. I began meditating in 1998 & teaching Meditation +/-2004. My clients have asked me for years to publish my techniques on stress management, creating dynamically balanced lifestyles, problem-solving, goal setting, & creating internal resilience in our ever-changing world.
I have been licensed as a Psychologist (PhD-Doctor) since 2001. I received my Master's Degree in Psychology in December of 1988 and thus have 30 years of experience as a psychotherapist. In 2018, I published my first AudioBook, "Meditative Visualization; How 2 Minutes a Day Can Change Your Life," available via Amazon.com, iTunes.com, CDBaby.com, and more. I began meditating in 1998 & teaching Meditation +/-2004. My clients have asked me for years to publish my techniques on stress management, creating dynamically balanced lifestyles, problem-solving, goal setting, & creating internal resilience in our ever-changing world.
(707) 691-3851 View (707) 691-3851
Photo of Wesley Hamper, MA, LMFT, PATP, Marriage & Family Therapist
Wesley Hamper
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, PATP
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
I have completed the MAPS-endorsed program to become a certified Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy Provider (PATP) that prepared me for clinically guiding clients through Ketamine-assisted psychotherapy (KAP) and providing integration post-KAP infusion, which is offered on-site at Windows Health Clinic, along with training towards the anticipated medical release of psilocybin and MDMA. I am also beginning EMDR training in May to June 2024, which has been shown to be helpful for reprocessing trauma memories.
I have completed the MAPS-endorsed program to become a certified Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy Provider (PATP) that prepared me for clinically guiding clients through Ketamine-assisted psychotherapy (KAP) and providing integration post-KAP infusion, which is offered on-site at Windows Health Clinic, along with training towards the anticipated medical release of psilocybin and MDMA. I am also beginning EMDR training in May to June 2024, which has been shown to be helpful for reprocessing trauma memories.
(707) 659-2502 View (707) 659-2502
Photo of Jennifer Santos, MA, LMFT, PC, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jennifer Santos
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, PC
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
I specialize in high conflict divorce and anything divorce related. Whether you are needing co-parent counseling or therapy for your children, I can help. I also provide reunification counseling for children and parents that have been estranged for on reason or another. Parent Coordination (Special Master) is another specialty of mine.
I specialize in high conflict divorce and anything divorce related. Whether you are needing co-parent counseling or therapy for your children, I can help. I also provide reunification counseling for children and parents that have been estranged for on reason or another. Parent Coordination (Special Master) is another specialty of mine.
(707) 515-7980 View (707) 515-7980
Photo of Alexis-Rose Sullins, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Alexis-Rose Sullins
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
Alexis has supported clients of ranging ages and from different cultures and ethnicities through anxiety, depression, ADHD, stress and burnout, chronic pain, trauma and PTSD, abuse, relational stressors, communication obstacles, mood swings, developmental disabilities, and more. In goal setting with clients, she explores what is going positively, and then what clients would like to change through shifts toward responsibility, actionable tools, and emotional processing, while maintaining a compassionate lens of the self. Alexis is looking forward to connecting with you to start your journey towards healing and wholeness.
Alexis has supported clients of ranging ages and from different cultures and ethnicities through anxiety, depression, ADHD, stress and burnout, chronic pain, trauma and PTSD, abuse, relational stressors, communication obstacles, mood swings, developmental disabilities, and more. In goal setting with clients, she explores what is going positively, and then what clients would like to change through shifts toward responsibility, actionable tools, and emotional processing, while maintaining a compassionate lens of the self. Alexis is looking forward to connecting with you to start your journey towards healing and wholeness.
(707) 607-8891 View (707) 607-8891
Photo of Lori Jespersen, PsyD, Psychologist
Lori Jespersen
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931  (Online Only)
Practice areas include: diagnostics and understanding of complex issues including mood and thought disorders, trauma, substance abuse, marital and family struggles, phase of life challenges and aging & cognitive decline. Specialty work offered for identity-based communities. Practice limited to telehealth/online sessions only.
Practice areas include: diagnostics and understanding of complex issues including mood and thought disorders, trauma, substance abuse, marital and family struggles, phase of life challenges and aging & cognitive decline. Specialty work offered for identity-based communities. Practice limited to telehealth/online sessions only.
(707) 691-3797 View (707) 691-3797
Photo of undefined - Windows Health Clinic, LPCC
Windows Health Clinic
LPCC
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
Psychotherapy aims to equip us with tools for the difficulties of life. Anxiety, depression, stress, addiction, identity issues, and evidence of abuse may place demands on our ability to cope, and a trained professional is here to help. Couples therapy can create lasting positive change for couples encountering communication or intimacy roadblocks. It helps to identify patterns, triggers, and blindspots, and then provides approaches to help you feel understood and respected.
Psychotherapy aims to equip us with tools for the difficulties of life. Anxiety, depression, stress, addiction, identity issues, and evidence of abuse may place demands on our ability to cope, and a trained professional is here to help. Couples therapy can create lasting positive change for couples encountering communication or intimacy roadblocks. It helps to identify patterns, triggers, and blindspots, and then provides approaches to help you feel understood and respected.
(707) 397-9387 View (707) 397-9387
Photo of undefined - Dianna L. Grayer, Ph.D., LMFT, PhD, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dianna L. Grayer, Ph.D., LMFT
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931  (Online Only)
Do you feel you are not living authentically? Do you want to find your true self so that you can be fully present in your life and meet your goals and dreams? You will learn how to connect with yourself by learning creative ways for expression, removing obstacles, facing your fears, grieving, and ultimately finding your voice. My compassionate, direct, and humorous approach will help you feel safe as well as embraced and supported.
Do you feel you are not living authentically? Do you want to find your true self so that you can be fully present in your life and meet your goals and dreams? You will learn how to connect with yourself by learning creative ways for expression, removing obstacles, facing your fears, grieving, and ultimately finding your voice. My compassionate, direct, and humorous approach will help you feel safe as well as embraced and supported.
(707) 387-1207 View (707) 387-1207
Photo of Carlos Alberto Juarez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carlos Alberto Juarez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94928
I seek to partner with individuals who have been impacted by the stressors brought on by these uncertainties. Whether you are dealing with stress related mental health challenges, acute psychiatric disorder, just want to vent, or feel heard and listened to. I am here to help.
I seek to partner with individuals who have been impacted by the stressors brought on by these uncertainties. Whether you are dealing with stress related mental health challenges, acute psychiatric disorder, just want to vent, or feel heard and listened to. I am here to help.
(707) 625-5411 View (707) 625-5411
Photo of Dr. Lacey Lynn Palmer, CDS, C-PD, LMFT, PhD, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. Lacey Lynn Palmer
Marriage & Family Therapist, CDS, C-PD, LMFT, PhD
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
Welcome! I recently completed my PhD in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, meaning I have a more in-depth understanding of the intersection between the mental health and criminal justice systems - this does not make me a clinical psychologist. I have also been recently certified as a Certified Personality Disorder Provider (C-PD). My primary therapeutic modality is Dialectical Behavior Therapy, which has been empirically proven to help individuals struggling with self-harm, suicidal ideation, intense mood fluctuations, unstable relationships, poor emotion regulation capabilities, and frequent impulsive & risk-taking behaviors.
Welcome! I recently completed my PhD in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, meaning I have a more in-depth understanding of the intersection between the mental health and criminal justice systems - this does not make me a clinical psychologist. I have also been recently certified as a Certified Personality Disorder Provider (C-PD). My primary therapeutic modality is Dialectical Behavior Therapy, which has been empirically proven to help individuals struggling with self-harm, suicidal ideation, intense mood fluctuations, unstable relationships, poor emotion regulation capabilities, and frequent impulsive & risk-taking behaviors.
(415) 358-3840 View (415) 358-3840
Photo of Carol Oppenheimer, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carol Oppenheimer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94926
Is your teen anxious, withdrawn, or engaging in behaviors that concern you? Is your child experiencing difficulty in school, with friendships, or managing their emotions? Young people often express their needs and emotions differently than adults, and it can be difficult for parents to understand or know what to do. In my practice, I help young people process what they are experiencing, and help parents understand and feel confident supporting their child's growth and development. In addition, I have extensive experience working with adults struggling with transitions, relationship issues, anxiety, and depression.
Is your teen anxious, withdrawn, or engaging in behaviors that concern you? Is your child experiencing difficulty in school, with friendships, or managing their emotions? Young people often express their needs and emotions differently than adults, and it can be difficult for parents to understand or know what to do. In my practice, I help young people process what they are experiencing, and help parents understand and feel confident supporting their child's growth and development. In addition, I have extensive experience working with adults struggling with transitions, relationship issues, anxiety, and depression.
(707) 329-4523 View (707) 329-4523
Photo of Richard Giovannoli, PhD, Psychologist
Richard Giovannoli
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cotati, CA 94931
There is nothing quite like emotional pain. We carry it with us everywhere. It messes up our life. Sometimes it makes us want to hide from other people; sometimes from ourselves. Sometimes we turn to various escapes to quiet that insistent feeling in our bodies. We look to one solution after another until we learn to mistrust every solution. And we are right. There is no one-size-fits-all answer. In fact, there isn't even a one-size-fits-all question. You are unique, and only you have the answer. My role is to help you find it.
There is nothing quite like emotional pain. We carry it with us everywhere. It messes up our life. Sometimes it makes us want to hide from other people; sometimes from ourselves. Sometimes we turn to various escapes to quiet that insistent feeling in our bodies. We look to one solution after another until we learn to mistrust every solution. And we are right. There is no one-size-fits-all answer. In fact, there isn't even a one-size-fits-all question. You are unique, and only you have the answer. My role is to help you find it.
(707) 520-4995 View (707) 520-4995
Photo of Janine Orri (Hoffman Reyes), MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Janine Orri (Hoffman Reyes)
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cotati, CA 94931  (Online Only)
I am a licensed psychotherapist and former hospice grief counselor. I am founder of The Way Through - Grief and Loss Services, in Sebastopol, CA. I offer a multi-dimensional approach to clients facing grief and loss life situations. If you or someone you know is having difficulty with a divorce, separation, death or dying of loved one, or loss of life situation we can help you find The Way Through. Services include crisis intervention, biopsychosocial assessment, grief counseling, EMDR treatment, PTSD treatment, support groups and couples counseling. We also work with loss through drug and alcohol addiction and recovery, providing support and community resources.
I am a licensed psychotherapist and former hospice grief counselor. I am founder of The Way Through - Grief and Loss Services, in Sebastopol, CA. I offer a multi-dimensional approach to clients facing grief and loss life situations. If you or someone you know is having difficulty with a divorce, separation, death or dying of loved one, or loss of life situation we can help you find The Way Through. Services include crisis intervention, biopsychosocial assessment, grief counseling, EMDR treatment, PTSD treatment, support groups and couples counseling. We also work with loss through drug and alcohol addiction and recovery, providing support and community resources.
(707) 419-3322 View (707) 419-3322
Photo of Jill Kane, PsyD, Psychologist
Jill Kane
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cotati, CA 94928
I know how hard it can be to ask for help. This can be even more difficult when you are feeling vulnerable, depressed, anxious or stressed. Therapy is enormously helpful. My goal is to provide a safe, non judgemental environment in which to discuss your concerns and help you feel better. We will work collaboratively to develop a treatment plan that works for you.
I know how hard it can be to ask for help. This can be even more difficult when you are feeling vulnerable, depressed, anxious or stressed. Therapy is enormously helpful. My goal is to provide a safe, non judgemental environment in which to discuss your concerns and help you feel better. We will work collaboratively to develop a treatment plan that works for you.
(650) 209-7920 View (650) 209-7920
Photo of Kim Buksa, MFT, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kim Buksa
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, MA
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Cotati, CA 94926
Hello! Is your child or teen struggling? Are you a young adult looking for support? I specialize in helping children, teens and young adults get through tough times. Kids often have a harder time knowing when they need help. They may act out with eccentric behavior, or keep it all in, seeming suddenly sad and reserved. Young adults can often use a supportive space to open up about their own unique challenges. In therapy, we find tools to communicate what's hard and develop confidence and a strong sense of self along the way.
Hello! Is your child or teen struggling? Are you a young adult looking for support? I specialize in helping children, teens and young adults get through tough times. Kids often have a harder time knowing when they need help. They may act out with eccentric behavior, or keep it all in, seeming suddenly sad and reserved. Young adults can often use a supportive space to open up about their own unique challenges. In therapy, we find tools to communicate what's hard and develop confidence and a strong sense of self along the way.
(707) 847-5677 View (707) 847-5677
Photo of Diana Breeze Holloway, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Diana Breeze Holloway
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
Waitlist for new clients
We all come with baggage. It makes us who we are and yet it can be so heavy. My idea of therapy's purpose is to help clients lighten their load. Everybody wants to make healthier choices, to find joy in life. How that is done is individual and to be discovered. I have interest in and respect for the differences in people's experience. I also have faith in each person's ability to find a path to wholeness. If you have experienced trauma, suffer from anxiety, depression, or other disturbances we can find the way to access your own inner healing power.
We all come with baggage. It makes us who we are and yet it can be so heavy. My idea of therapy's purpose is to help clients lighten their load. Everybody wants to make healthier choices, to find joy in life. How that is done is individual and to be discovered. I have interest in and respect for the differences in people's experience. I also have faith in each person's ability to find a path to wholeness. If you have experienced trauma, suffer from anxiety, depression, or other disturbances we can find the way to access your own inner healing power.
(707) 377-3039 View (707) 377-3039
Photo of Kimberly Jordan, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kimberly Jordan
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94928
Hello, my name is Kimberly Jordan, and my license number is 105037. I offer a blended approach to therapy incorporating many different methods and approaches so that I may tailor each plan to the unique individual. Some of the approaches I use are Client-Centered Therapy, Solution-Focused Therapy, Psychoanalytic, Somatic, Gestalt, and Positive Psychology. I enjoy working with many different types of clients but my greatest experience is with individuals between the ages of 5 and 99. I am experienced and comfortable dealing with anxiety, depression, PTSD, LGBQ, and other forms of trauma.
Hello, my name is Kimberly Jordan, and my license number is 105037. I offer a blended approach to therapy incorporating many different methods and approaches so that I may tailor each plan to the unique individual. Some of the approaches I use are Client-Centered Therapy, Solution-Focused Therapy, Psychoanalytic, Somatic, Gestalt, and Positive Psychology. I enjoy working with many different types of clients but my greatest experience is with individuals between the ages of 5 and 99. I am experienced and comfortable dealing with anxiety, depression, PTSD, LGBQ, and other forms of trauma.
(818) 659-9597 View (818) 659-9597
Photo of Karen E. Prosen, LMFT, CHT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Karen E. Prosen
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, CHT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Cotati, CA 94928
You deserve to live a life of alignment and fulfillment and to receive support as you do so. Taking the step to speak to a therapist is an act of self-honoring as you move in a new direction in your life. My ideal client is motivated and seeks a caring therapist willing to individualize treatment. If this is you, and you are interested in EMDR, parts work/IFS, and a somatic orientation, please don't hesitate to reach out to connect further.
You deserve to live a life of alignment and fulfillment and to receive support as you do so. Taking the step to speak to a therapist is an act of self-honoring as you move in a new direction in your life. My ideal client is motivated and seeks a caring therapist willing to individualize treatment. If this is you, and you are interested in EMDR, parts work/IFS, and a somatic orientation, please don't hesitate to reach out to connect further.
(707) 606-0216 View (707) 606-0216
Photo of undefined - Cofounder and Business Partner Executive Coaching, MA, Marriage & Family Therapist
Cofounder and Business Partner Executive Coaching
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
Cotati, CA 94931
Are you and your co-founder and business partner on the verge of a transition or expansion? You’ve put in tremendous effort to build your business, overcoming countless obstacles. While you’re proud of your achievements, the long hours and dedication have taken a toll on you both. You want your business to have a greater impact, but you're also fearful of losing the original spirit and dream as the expansion gains momentum. Before moving forward, address the cracks in the foundations of your business and partnership, and further grow your capacities. Misalignments make transitions and expansions even more difficult and complicated.
Are you and your co-founder and business partner on the verge of a transition or expansion? You’ve put in tremendous effort to build your business, overcoming countless obstacles. While you’re proud of your achievements, the long hours and dedication have taken a toll on you both. You want your business to have a greater impact, but you're also fearful of losing the original spirit and dream as the expansion gains momentum. Before moving forward, address the cracks in the foundations of your business and partnership, and further grow your capacities. Misalignments make transitions and expansions even more difficult and complicated.
(707) 415-4454 View (707) 415-4454

See more therapy options for Cotati

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Cotati, CA

20+

Average cost per session

$180

Therapists in Cotati, CA who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
86% Depression
86% Self Esteem
76% Relationship Issues
76% Coping Skills
71% Trauma and PTSD
71% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

73% Cigna and Evernorth
73% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
64% Optum

How Therapists in Cotati, CA see their clients

86% In Person and Online
14% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
15% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Cotati?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.