Therapists in City of Industry, CA

Photo of Divina Gabuat, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Divina Gabuat
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Practicing for 7 years as a Mental Health Provider in the Emergency Room Department and 5 years at the State Hospital.
Practicing for 7 years as a Mental Health Provider in the Emergency Room Department and 5 years at the State Hospital.
(626) 602-7489 View (626) 602-7489
Photo of Eleanor Odermatt, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Eleanor Odermatt
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hello, my name is Eleanor Odermatt LCSW. I provide humor, warmth and a compassionate non-judgmental place where you can feel safe to share your concerns and thoughts, and as a team work on your individual situation. Together we will work to make goals and through a variety of goal directed activities and conversations that will help you be able to make those changes which will lead to a positive change in your life. I can also include faith-based in treatment if wanted by you. This will be work...but it will be worth it.
Hello, my name is Eleanor Odermatt LCSW. I provide humor, warmth and a compassionate non-judgmental place where you can feel safe to share your concerns and thoughts, and as a team work on your individual situation. Together we will work to make goals and through a variety of goal directed activities and conversations that will help you be able to make those changes which will lead to a positive change in your life. I can also include faith-based in treatment if wanted by you. This will be work...but it will be worth it.
(626) 702-2681 View (626) 702-2681
Photo of Onaje Smartt, Marriage & Family Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Onaje Smartt
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
I work with all clients who are willing and able to work on their relationships, whether that be a relationship with themselves or with a family member or significant other. I am most comfortable treating couples who are struggling with communication, conflict resolution, intimacy, and trust. I also work with individuals who are struggling with issues such as sex, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. I believe that everyone has the potential for healthy relationships, and I am committed to helping my clients reach their full potential.
I work with all clients who are willing and able to work on their relationships, whether that be a relationship with themselves or with a family member or significant other. I am most comfortable treating couples who are struggling with communication, conflict resolution, intimacy, and trust. I also work with individuals who are struggling with issues such as sex, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. I believe that everyone has the potential for healthy relationships, and I am committed to helping my clients reach their full potential.
(626) 779-8566 View (626) 779-8566
Photo of Asha Wilburn, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in City of Industry, CA
Asha Wilburn
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hello! My name is Asha Wilburn, and I am a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC) based in Los Angeles, California, and working with clients statewide via telehealth. I believe in a collaborative client-centered approach to therapy to allow clients to have an active role in the therapeutic journey. I have experience treating adolescents, young adults, and early middle age adults in areas of anxiety, depression, life transitions, mood disorders, interpersonal and family conflict, work stress, body image, and trauma.
Hello! My name is Asha Wilburn, and I am a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC) based in Los Angeles, California, and working with clients statewide via telehealth. I believe in a collaborative client-centered approach to therapy to allow clients to have an active role in the therapeutic journey. I have experience treating adolescents, young adults, and early middle age adults in areas of anxiety, depression, life transitions, mood disorders, interpersonal and family conflict, work stress, body image, and trauma.
(626) 618-9759 View (626) 618-9759
Photo of Heredia Therapy Group, Marriage & Family Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Heredia Therapy Group
Marriage & Family Therapist, PsyD, LMFT
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
We embrace a strength based, nonpathologizing (Meaning we will not label you with a diagnosis. Your experience is unique and your narrative will be told from your point of view and not a book) and collaborative form of therapy that will allow you to discover your natural capacity for personal growth and wellness. By providing a safe, supportive & nonjudgmental setting we will work together to guide you in the direction you are looking for. In voicing an alternative path we will reconstruct your desired story in order to highlight your unique qualities, strengths and natural competencies to guide your life.
We embrace a strength based, nonpathologizing (Meaning we will not label you with a diagnosis. Your experience is unique and your narrative will be told from your point of view and not a book) and collaborative form of therapy that will allow you to discover your natural capacity for personal growth and wellness. By providing a safe, supportive & nonjudgmental setting we will work together to guide you in the direction you are looking for. In voicing an alternative path we will reconstruct your desired story in order to highlight your unique qualities, strengths and natural competencies to guide your life.
(323) 746-0792 View (323) 746-0792
Photo of Desiree Harris, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in City of Industry, CA
Desiree Harris
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hello, my name is Desiree Harris, and I am a licensed therapist (LPCC). I am licensed in California and work from a CBT ad Solution Focused framework. In my practice, I use a mix of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Solution-focused Therapy to help clients understand how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interrelated while supporting them through changes without getting stuck in problems/challenges. Goal setting with my clients is a collaborative process. I will take the time to listen to your needs and concerns, engage you in reflective conversation, and pinpoint goals that meet your needs.
Hello, my name is Desiree Harris, and I am a licensed therapist (LPCC). I am licensed in California and work from a CBT ad Solution Focused framework. In my practice, I use a mix of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Solution-focused Therapy to help clients understand how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interrelated while supporting them through changes without getting stuck in problems/challenges. Goal setting with my clients is a collaborative process. I will take the time to listen to your needs and concerns, engage you in reflective conversation, and pinpoint goals that meet your needs.
(626) 240-5890 View (626) 240-5890
Photo of Margarita Abramov, Psychologist in City of Industry, CA
Margarita Abramov
Psychologist, LCP
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Greetings. I’m Margarita. I am a Licensed Clinical Psychologist. It is a pleasure to meet you and I am excited to know that we can work together to help you live a life you are longing for. I have been working in healthcare for over 28 years as a nurse, an executive manager, an educator, and a therapist. I work with adults and elderly. My specialty is depression/anxiety, chronic pain management, trauma and PTSD, existential issues, and adjustment to life changes.
Greetings. I’m Margarita. I am a Licensed Clinical Psychologist. It is a pleasure to meet you and I am excited to know that we can work together to help you live a life you are longing for. I have been working in healthcare for over 28 years as a nurse, an executive manager, an educator, and a therapist. I work with adults and elderly. My specialty is depression/anxiety, chronic pain management, trauma and PTSD, existential issues, and adjustment to life changes.
(626) 263-4131 View (626) 263-4131
Photo of Jodi Tompkins, Psychologist in City of Industry, CA
Jodi Tompkins
Psychologist, CP
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hi there, my name is Dr. Jodi Tompkins and I am a licensed psychologist working in La Jolla, CA. I provide a unique combination of psychotherapy and coaching that builds on individual strengths to improve personal, relational, professional, and family lives. By understanding unhelpful patterns and experiences from our past, we can cultivate healthy awareness and coping tools in the present, which optimize our ability to grow and thrive in the future. My goal is to create a space that feels safe and welcoming. We all long to be seen and heard and valued and it is in those conditions that we optimize our capacity to grow and thrive.
Hi there, my name is Dr. Jodi Tompkins and I am a licensed psychologist working in La Jolla, CA. I provide a unique combination of psychotherapy and coaching that builds on individual strengths to improve personal, relational, professional, and family lives. By understanding unhelpful patterns and experiences from our past, we can cultivate healthy awareness and coping tools in the present, which optimize our ability to grow and thrive in the future. My goal is to create a space that feels safe and welcoming. We all long to be seen and heard and valued and it is in those conditions that we optimize our capacity to grow and thrive.
(626) 542-7426 View (626) 542-7426
Photo of Michelle Magee-Lopez, Marriage & Family Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Michelle Magee-Lopez
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hi there, I'm Michelle, a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with a background in Theatre Arts. I have experience working with adolescents, adults, and children in a variety of settings. I prefer to work with populations 18 years and older, specifically dealing with anxiety/depressive symptoms. My approach to psychotherapy varies and is dependent on "where the client is" as well as what the situation calls for. Although I prefer Family systems, Existential and Person-centered approaches toward therapy, I am flexible with respect to my approaches and often merge theatrical and theoretical techniques.
Hi there, I'm Michelle, a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with a background in Theatre Arts. I have experience working with adolescents, adults, and children in a variety of settings. I prefer to work with populations 18 years and older, specifically dealing with anxiety/depressive symptoms. My approach to psychotherapy varies and is dependent on "where the client is" as well as what the situation calls for. Although I prefer Family systems, Existential and Person-centered approaches toward therapy, I am flexible with respect to my approaches and often merge theatrical and theoretical techniques.
(909) 403-4154 View (909) 403-4154
Photo of Marisa Garcia, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Marisa Garcia
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
My name is Marisa Garcia, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW). My focus is to meet you where you are at and walk with you in the stage of life you are currently in. I am major believer in a strength-based setting that feels safe and welcoming to all. My main focus is assisting patients in meeting the goals they have set out for themselves. I am comfortable working with individuals struggling with depressive symptoms, anxiety, eating disorders, substance use and trauma.
My name is Marisa Garcia, and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW). My focus is to meet you where you are at and walk with you in the stage of life you are currently in. I am major believer in a strength-based setting that feels safe and welcoming to all. My main focus is assisting patients in meeting the goals they have set out for themselves. I am comfortable working with individuals struggling with depressive symptoms, anxiety, eating disorders, substance use and trauma.
(707) 368-3939 View (707) 368-3939
Photo of Lourdes Castro, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Lourdes Castro
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91746
I am a bilingual (Spanish and English) Licensed Clinical Social Worker who has assisted clients suffering from depression, anxiety, and substance use. Having worked with individuals who have endured and experienced emotionally stressful situations, I believe it is important to have a supportive guide help you take it day by day in your journey to find peace.
I am a bilingual (Spanish and English) Licensed Clinical Social Worker who has assisted clients suffering from depression, anxiety, and substance use. Having worked with individuals who have endured and experienced emotionally stressful situations, I believe it is important to have a supportive guide help you take it day by day in your journey to find peace.
(916) 796-1310 View (916) 796-1310
Photo of Sandy Lim, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Sandy Lim
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hi, my name is Sandy Lim. My pronouns are she/her/hers and I am Korean and Filipino American born and raised in the Bay Area, California. I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 10 years of experience in the mental health field. I look forward to building connections and cultivating a safe space with folks in their journey of self exploration and healing. I have specific experience working with people of color, young adults and teenagers dealing with life transitions, poverty and homelessness, anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship and self-esteem issues. I have also worked with adults who are formerly incarcerated.
Hi, my name is Sandy Lim. My pronouns are she/her/hers and I am Korean and Filipino American born and raised in the Bay Area, California. I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 10 years of experience in the mental health field. I look forward to building connections and cultivating a safe space with folks in their journey of self exploration and healing. I have specific experience working with people of color, young adults and teenagers dealing with life transitions, poverty and homelessness, anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship and self-esteem issues. I have also worked with adults who are formerly incarcerated.
(661) 438-0384 View (661) 438-0384
Photo of April Hayes, Marriage & Family Therapist in City of Industry, CA
April Hayes
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
My name is April Hayes and I am a seasoned Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I work with a wide range of clients and guide them in improving their strengths on various issues. When I'm not providing therapy, I enjoy spending time with my culturally diverse and active family.
My name is April Hayes and I am a seasoned Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I work with a wide range of clients and guide them in improving their strengths on various issues. When I'm not providing therapy, I enjoy spending time with my culturally diverse and active family.
(661) 387-2561 View (661) 387-2561
Photo of Danielle Austin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Danielle Austin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hello, my name is Danielle Austin, LCSW and my approach to the therapeutic process is to authentically engage with my client in their process to act as a guid and support when someone is looking for changes but may not know where to begin or how to move forward on their own. My main focus is in trauma work, and trauma looks different for everyone so my work is very individualized for each person. I have extensive experience with the following populations, older adults, parents, veterans, LGBTQIA+, domestic violence survivors, people experiencing anxiety, PTSD, psychosis, and substance use.
Hello, my name is Danielle Austin, LCSW and my approach to the therapeutic process is to authentically engage with my client in their process to act as a guid and support when someone is looking for changes but may not know where to begin or how to move forward on their own. My main focus is in trauma work, and trauma looks different for everyone so my work is very individualized for each person. I have extensive experience with the following populations, older adults, parents, veterans, LGBTQIA+, domestic violence survivors, people experiencing anxiety, PTSD, psychosis, and substance use.
(626) 873-8414 View (626) 873-8414
Photo of Dr. Camille Griffith, Psychologist in City of Industry, CA
Dr. Camille Griffith
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
Hi, I’m Dr. Camille Griffith—I’m so glad you’re here! I am a licensed clinical psychologist (PsyD) with 7+ years of clinical experience. I specialize in helping women heal, grow, and thrive by combining a holistic approach with traditional therapeutic modalities. I have experience helping women cope with anxiety, panic attacks, depression, trauma, a history of domestic violence/ toxic relationships, ADHD, mood difficulties, chronic stress, perfectionism, being a high-achiever, being the primary household earner, high-stress career difficulties, people pleasing, and so much more. Dr. Griffith is only accepting female clients.
Hi, I’m Dr. Camille Griffith—I’m so glad you’re here! I am a licensed clinical psychologist (PsyD) with 7+ years of clinical experience. I specialize in helping women heal, grow, and thrive by combining a holistic approach with traditional therapeutic modalities. I have experience helping women cope with anxiety, panic attacks, depression, trauma, a history of domestic violence/ toxic relationships, ADHD, mood difficulties, chronic stress, perfectionism, being a high-achiever, being the primary household earner, high-stress career difficulties, people pleasing, and so much more. Dr. Griffith is only accepting female clients.
(562) 374-7072 View (562) 374-7072
Photo of Jessica Weisz, Licensed Professional Counselor in City of Industry, CA
Jessica Weisz
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
During the therapy process, my goal is to aid clients in the discovery of their strengths, increase positive coping skills, build support systems, and develop a healthy lifestyle to set the foundation for life's success. My approach helps to identify negative thought patterns, learn and understand where they come from, and work to change them. I create a non-judgmental, warm, empathic environment, aiming to help you feel comfortable talking honestly about your life. Together we can design a plan for mind, body, and spirit to heal your past, create the future you want, and optimize your overall mental fitness.
During the therapy process, my goal is to aid clients in the discovery of their strengths, increase positive coping skills, build support systems, and develop a healthy lifestyle to set the foundation for life's success. My approach helps to identify negative thought patterns, learn and understand where they come from, and work to change them. I create a non-judgmental, warm, empathic environment, aiming to help you feel comfortable talking honestly about your life. Together we can design a plan for mind, body, and spirit to heal your past, create the future you want, and optimize your overall mental fitness.
(209) 638-7795 View (209) 638-7795
Photo of Kristen Johnson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Kristen Johnson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
My name is Kristen Johnson. I am an LCSW and have been licensed since 2000. I work with youth and adults who struggle with stress, depression, anxiety, trauma, relational problems and phase of life problems. I work with youth, adults, and the Veteran population. I help people who struggle with stress, depression, anxiety, trauma, relationship issues, and phase of life problems. When working with someone, I individualize my approach to help them achieve their goal(s) for treatment. I draw from CBT, DBT, ACT and Interpersonal psychotherapy as my theoretical approaches to treatment.
My name is Kristen Johnson. I am an LCSW and have been licensed since 2000. I work with youth and adults who struggle with stress, depression, anxiety, trauma, relational problems and phase of life problems. I work with youth, adults, and the Veteran population. I help people who struggle with stress, depression, anxiety, trauma, relationship issues, and phase of life problems. When working with someone, I individualize my approach to help them achieve their goal(s) for treatment. I draw from CBT, DBT, ACT and Interpersonal psychotherapy as my theoretical approaches to treatment.
(831) 319-5137 View (831) 319-5137
Photo of Rikayah Benoit, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Rikayah Benoit
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91745
I am a culturally competent Licensed Clinical Therapist with 20 years of providing psychotherapy, counseling, and supportive services to diverse populations.
I am a culturally competent Licensed Clinical Therapist with 20 years of providing psychotherapy, counseling, and supportive services to diverse populations.
(949) 216-5660 View (949) 216-5660
Photo of Kiah Marks, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Kiah Marks
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91748
I am a licensed clinical social worker that specializes working with women and children. With a strong sense of compassion and counseling skills, a space is created that leads to successful treatment outcomes and a transformative therapeutic experience. This is because I acknowledge the importance of healing as women in effort to create healthy relationships with ourselves, partners and children in our lives. I draw from a variety of methods that are best fit to your needs and current stage in life.
I am a licensed clinical social worker that specializes working with women and children. With a strong sense of compassion and counseling skills, a space is created that leads to successful treatment outcomes and a transformative therapeutic experience. This is because I acknowledge the importance of healing as women in effort to create healthy relationships with ourselves, partners and children in our lives. I draw from a variety of methods that are best fit to your needs and current stage in life.
(661) 451-5667 View (661) 451-5667
Photo of Erika Ciriano Chavez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in City of Industry, CA
Erika Ciriano Chavez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
City of Industry, CA 91789
My name is Erika Ciriano and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in California. I specialize in utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to work with individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, and trauma. I am dedicated to helping clients navigate and overcome challenges and promoting positive change and emotional well-being. I specialize in working with both teens and adults, providing tailored therapeutic support for a diverse range of needs including addressing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and trauma. I also find I'm a good fit and a source of support for clients going through life transitions and stressors.
My name is Erika Ciriano and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in California. I specialize in utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to work with individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, and trauma. I am dedicated to helping clients navigate and overcome challenges and promoting positive change and emotional well-being. I specialize in working with both teens and adults, providing tailored therapeutic support for a diverse range of needs including addressing symptoms of depression, anxiety, and trauma. I also find I'm a good fit and a source of support for clients going through life transitions and stressors.
(949) 694-1465 View (949) 694-1465

See more therapy options for City of Industry

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in City of Industry, CA

80+

Average cost per session

$120

Therapists in City of Industry, CA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
89% Depression
67% Stress
66% Coping Skills
60% Trauma and PTSD
58% Self Esteem
54% Grief

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% MHN | Health Net
99% Aetna
99% Health Net

How Therapists in City of Industry, CA see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

93% Female
7% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in City of Industry?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.