Therapists in Chino Hills, CA

Photo of Lidia Manetta Escobar, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Lidia Manetta Escobar
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
In my practice, every contact is directly with me. In our time together, we will celebrate your strengths and develop goals to maximize your wellness, together. While we can't change our past, we can work together to process our story’s strengths and struggles. We can talk through your current challenges and quiet the noise around you. We can explore the barriers that may get in the way of enjoying life to the fullest. We can identify ways to find joy again. I look forward to working with you to achieve your goals.
In my practice, every contact is directly with me. In our time together, we will celebrate your strengths and develop goals to maximize your wellness, together. While we can't change our past, we can work together to process our story’s strengths and struggles. We can talk through your current challenges and quiet the noise around you. We can explore the barriers that may get in the way of enjoying life to the fullest. We can identify ways to find joy again. I look forward to working with you to achieve your goals.
(909) 473-4641 View (909) 473-4641
Photo of Judy Riggan, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Judy Riggan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFCC
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
I can help. Sometimes life can be difficult. You may need someone on your side. I have been educated and trained to come beside you while you work through your difficulties. I look forward to meeting you and am honored to work with you. With my Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology from Azusa Pacific University, I have been given the educational background that allows me to have the opportunity to counsel with amazing people like you. It is my greatest reward in life to meet and talk with those in pain, chaos, and depression over their life circumstances.
I can help. Sometimes life can be difficult. You may need someone on your side. I have been educated and trained to come beside you while you work through your difficulties. I look forward to meeting you and am honored to work with you. With my Masters Degree in Clinical Psychology from Azusa Pacific University, I have been given the educational background that allows me to have the opportunity to counsel with amazing people like you. It is my greatest reward in life to meet and talk with those in pain, chaos, and depression over their life circumstances.
(909) 584-5439 View (909) 584-5439
Photo of Thomas T Albers, Psychologist in Chino Hills, CA
Thomas T Albers
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Waitlist for new clients
Making a difficult Decision is often stressful and can produce strong emotional reactions. You may rationally know the right answer but cannot follow through in actions. You may even act in a manner that is contradictive to "the right answer" or inconsistent with whom you are. Simple awareness of this does not equal change. I provide a neutral setting where you can explore the various aspects of yourself and gain understanding of all the Dynamics involved. Making Goals as well as methods to achieve them is the road towards success.
Making a difficult Decision is often stressful and can produce strong emotional reactions. You may rationally know the right answer but cannot follow through in actions. You may even act in a manner that is contradictive to "the right answer" or inconsistent with whom you are. Simple awareness of this does not equal change. I provide a neutral setting where you can explore the various aspects of yourself and gain understanding of all the Dynamics involved. Making Goals as well as methods to achieve them is the road towards success.
(909) 730-6400 View (909) 730-6400
Photo of Carolina Sagastume, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Carolina Sagastume
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
My name is Carolina Sagastume and I have been working as a bilingual (Spanish/English) mental health therapist for the past 16 years. I currently hold an active license as a Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT 52852) and have extensive experience providing individual, family, and group therapy. I have found that my style and approach are a good fit with adolescents, young adults, and older adults who may be experiencing different challenges in life. I work with anxiety, depression, ADHD, grief, trauma, life transitions, and relationship difficulties.
My name is Carolina Sagastume and I have been working as a bilingual (Spanish/English) mental health therapist for the past 16 years. I currently hold an active license as a Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT 52852) and have extensive experience providing individual, family, and group therapy. I have found that my style and approach are a good fit with adolescents, young adults, and older adults who may be experiencing different challenges in life. I work with anxiety, depression, ADHD, grief, trauma, life transitions, and relationship difficulties.
(657) 571-1896 View (657) 571-1896
Photo of Jesus Aceves, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Jesus Aceves
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Hello my name is Jesus Aceves, LCSW, I approach therapy as a safe place for clients to explore their true feelings and a safe environment for them to process their lived experiences. I focus on helping clients with depression, childhood and adult traumas, and anxiety disorders. My clinical focuses has been helping clients who are experiencing depression, PTSD and anxiety. I have a history working with childhood, sexual and adulthood traumas.
Hello my name is Jesus Aceves, LCSW, I approach therapy as a safe place for clients to explore their true feelings and a safe environment for them to process their lived experiences. I focus on helping clients with depression, childhood and adult traumas, and anxiety disorders. My clinical focuses has been helping clients who are experiencing depression, PTSD and anxiety. I have a history working with childhood, sexual and adulthood traumas.
(909) 757-0959 View (909) 757-0959
Photo of Linda Abdelsayed, Psychologist in Chino Hills, CA
Linda Abdelsayed
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709  (Online Only)
I have been practicing therapy since 2005. My focus when working with clients is holistic. This means I want to help you work toward the best possible whole you - incorporating your best academic, vocational, familial, relational, spiritual, emotional, physical you! My approach is one that uses the best scientifically proven and modern methods with a heart of empathy, genuineness, safety and hope. Together we can transform your difficult, hurting life experiences into new meaning and purpose. Please email, call or visit me at www.healingpeace.weebly.com!
I have been practicing therapy since 2005. My focus when working with clients is holistic. This means I want to help you work toward the best possible whole you - incorporating your best academic, vocational, familial, relational, spiritual, emotional, physical you! My approach is one that uses the best scientifically proven and modern methods with a heart of empathy, genuineness, safety and hope. Together we can transform your difficult, hurting life experiences into new meaning and purpose. Please email, call or visit me at www.healingpeace.weebly.com!
(626) 624-4081 View (626) 624-4081
Photo of Arezu Alemi, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Arezu Alemi
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Hello and Welcome! My name is Arezu Alemi, LMFT. I have had the opportunity to work with children, teens, families, couples, and adults throughout my career. Together we will look for solutions to help you overcome the challenges you face. In therapy, I utilize cognitive behavioral therapy, solution-focused, and collaborative therapy to focus on building a strong rapport in a safe and supportive environment, while allowing clients to adapt therapy to their direct needs and goals.
Hello and Welcome! My name is Arezu Alemi, LMFT. I have had the opportunity to work with children, teens, families, couples, and adults throughout my career. Together we will look for solutions to help you overcome the challenges you face. In therapy, I utilize cognitive behavioral therapy, solution-focused, and collaborative therapy to focus on building a strong rapport in a safe and supportive environment, while allowing clients to adapt therapy to their direct needs and goals.
(714) 752-4594 View (714) 752-4594
Photo of Jane Jacob, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Jane Jacob
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Hello, I'm Jane Jacob, an LCSW practicing in California and offering telehealth services statewide. My academic journey, which includes graduate studies at the University of Southern California (USC), is complemented by a profound interest in neuropsychology, supported by years of dedicated research. I specialize in working with children (0-17), adults, and geriatrics, focusing on anxiety, depression, and stress. Using evidence-based modalities, I tailor therapeutic approaches to empower individuals on their journey to positive transformations and improved well-being.
Hello, I'm Jane Jacob, an LCSW practicing in California and offering telehealth services statewide. My academic journey, which includes graduate studies at the University of Southern California (USC), is complemented by a profound interest in neuropsychology, supported by years of dedicated research. I specialize in working with children (0-17), adults, and geriatrics, focusing on anxiety, depression, and stress. Using evidence-based modalities, I tailor therapeutic approaches to empower individuals on their journey to positive transformations and improved well-being.
(909) 323-1763 View (909) 323-1763
Photo of Bill Valdez Cifuentes, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Bill Valdez Cifuentes
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Hello my name is Bill Valdez, and I am here to provide support with any depression and anxiety issues due to the stressors of everyday life, role transitions, relationship/family issues. I believe that we should all have the space to share our thoughts, and be able to process them to develop effective solutions. We will work together to identify goals and coping strategies needed to help you improve your thoughts, feelings and behaviors. I am here to provide you with coping strategies that will help you improve your mood while also giving you the space to develop personal growth.
Hello my name is Bill Valdez, and I am here to provide support with any depression and anxiety issues due to the stressors of everyday life, role transitions, relationship/family issues. I believe that we should all have the space to share our thoughts, and be able to process them to develop effective solutions. We will work together to identify goals and coping strategies needed to help you improve your thoughts, feelings and behaviors. I am here to provide you with coping strategies that will help you improve your mood while also giving you the space to develop personal growth.
(909) 378-9185 View (909) 378-9185
Photo of Martha Gonzalez, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Martha Gonzalez
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Finding the right therapist can be difficult and time consuming, especially when we are in the middle of emotional stress and strain. Hello, my name is Martha Gonzalez, I am a bilingual Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist Spanish/English. I will do my best, help make the process as easy and comfortable as possible.
Finding the right therapist can be difficult and time consuming, especially when we are in the middle of emotional stress and strain. Hello, my name is Martha Gonzalez, I am a bilingual Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist Spanish/English. I will do my best, help make the process as easy and comfortable as possible.
(909) 784-2023 View (909) 784-2023
Photo of Judith Besteman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Judith Besteman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Parenting can be difficult even in the best of times. Parenting may become overwhelming when there are complications such as divorce, grief, or other transitions. I am able to offer help as you go through those difficult periods in your life. My compassion for children and families and individuals in transition has grown through m experience as a teacher and school counselor.
Parenting can be difficult even in the best of times. Parenting may become overwhelming when there are complications such as divorce, grief, or other transitions. I am able to offer help as you go through those difficult periods in your life. My compassion for children and families and individuals in transition has grown through m experience as a teacher and school counselor.
(909) 784-5984 View (909) 784-5984
Photo of Stephanie Lynn Vrabel, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Stephanie Lynn Vrabel
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Hello! My name is Stephanie and I am a licensed marriage and family therapist who specializes in treating anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). I enjoy working with these particular areas of mental health while offering a safe, compassionate, and empathetic environment so my client's can receive the fullest benefit of our sessions together. My priority goals as your therapist are to help you develop hope and to motivate you to lead a healthy and fulfilling life. We will work together to overcome reoccurring negative thoughts and behaviors that may be preventing you from reaching your goals. I strongly belie
Hello! My name is Stephanie and I am a licensed marriage and family therapist who specializes in treating anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). I enjoy working with these particular areas of mental health while offering a safe, compassionate, and empathetic environment so my client's can receive the fullest benefit of our sessions together. My priority goals as your therapist are to help you develop hope and to motivate you to lead a healthy and fulfilling life. We will work together to overcome reoccurring negative thoughts and behaviors that may be preventing you from reaching your goals. I strongly belie
(909) 675-1190 View (909) 675-1190
Photo of Paulina Gutierrez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Paulina Gutierrez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Hello, I'm Paulina Gutierrez and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. With a client-centered and strengths-based approach, I provide a safe and empathetic space for individuals to explore their emotional well-being. My practice focuses on areas such as anxiety, depression, work-related stress, and relationship issues, aiming to empower clients to achieve their personal growth and mental health goals.
Hello, I'm Paulina Gutierrez and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker. With a client-centered and strengths-based approach, I provide a safe and empathetic space for individuals to explore their emotional well-being. My practice focuses on areas such as anxiety, depression, work-related stress, and relationship issues, aiming to empower clients to achieve their personal growth and mental health goals.
(909) 552-8520 View (909) 552-8520
Photo of Ying Lau, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Ying Lau
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Making the decision to seek help in order to make a change in your life can be difficult. However, change doesn’t need to occur overnight but rather can occur on a day-to-day basis. Within the safe environment that therapy can provide, you can start on your own journey of healing and leading the life that you want.
Making the decision to seek help in order to make a change in your life can be difficult. However, change doesn’t need to occur overnight but rather can occur on a day-to-day basis. Within the safe environment that therapy can provide, you can start on your own journey of healing and leading the life that you want.
(626) 869-7646 View (626) 869-7646
Photo of Sherilyn H Fox, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Sherilyn H Fox
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Chino Hills, CA 91709  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
To that one soul reading this. I know that you are tired and fed up. I know that you feel as though you are about to break. Wounds from your past have been carried for too long, they have leaked into the present and tainted your view on life. You can rise above it and heal. You have a new story to write and it looks nothing like your past. I would like to walk you through that journey to find healing. To find your true, whole self and find the happiness and peace you deserve. Processing trauma can be done effectively using evidence based techniques that will give you back your life.
To that one soul reading this. I know that you are tired and fed up. I know that you feel as though you are about to break. Wounds from your past have been carried for too long, they have leaked into the present and tainted your view on life. You can rise above it and heal. You have a new story to write and it looks nothing like your past. I would like to walk you through that journey to find healing. To find your true, whole self and find the happiness and peace you deserve. Processing trauma can be done effectively using evidence based techniques that will give you back your life.
(626) 317-6233 View (626) 317-6233
Photo of Cindy Benavides, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Cindy Benavides
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chino Hills, CA 91709  (Online Only)
Do you question whether or not your relationship will survive? Perhaps you have experienced the devastating impact from infidelity, addiction, or betrayal trauma. It is possible to attain relational health and experience deeper and more meaningful connections. You may be struggling with uncertainty, anxiety, or depression which can be immobilizing. Imagine a day where feelings of exhaustion or dread can become hope again. I am here to help!
Do you question whether or not your relationship will survive? Perhaps you have experienced the devastating impact from infidelity, addiction, or betrayal trauma. It is possible to attain relational health and experience deeper and more meaningful connections. You may be struggling with uncertainty, anxiety, or depression which can be immobilizing. Imagine a day where feelings of exhaustion or dread can become hope again. I am here to help!
(909) 406-7596 View (909) 406-7596
Photo of Avery Centre (Trauma, Grief, Loss, PTSD) in Chino Hills, CA
Avery Centre (Trauma, Grief, Loss, PTSD)
MA, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Chino Hills, CA 91709
The Avery Centre has experienced and compassionate therapists ready to help children and adults suffering from trauma, grief, loss, and/or PTSD. After a crisis, loss, or trauma, each individual has their own way of grieving, and coping. Sadness, guilt, shock, anger, frustration, rage, and feelings of helplessness may occur. The healing process may begin with the passage of time and the support of loved ones; however, professional help may be needed for support during the initial shock of the situation and later on while experiencing different stages of the grief cycle. The Avery Centre was created to provide clients with support, guidance, understanding, and empathy during these most difficult times.
The Avery Centre has experienced and compassionate therapists ready to help children and adults suffering from trauma, grief, loss, and/or PTSD. After a crisis, loss, or trauma, each individual has their own way of grieving, and coping. Sadness, guilt, shock, anger, frustration, rage, and feelings of helplessness may occur. The healing process may begin with the passage of time and the support of loved ones; however, professional help may be needed for support during the initial shock of the situation and later on while experiencing different stages of the grief cycle. The Avery Centre was created to provide clients with support, guidance, understanding, and empathy during these most difficult times.
(909) 740-3398 View (909) 740-3398
Photo of Marie Honda, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Marie Honda
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Are you struggling with important life changes, marriage or relationship issues, and can't figure out how to move forward or reconnect? During times like this, I can help. I provide psychotherapy services in English or Spanish for couples, families and individuals and can help with various problems. I specialize in Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and use attachment theory to guide my work. EFT has significant research behind it indicating high rates of effectiveness with couples. This model is also effective with individuals and families. Using EFT as a guide, my approach to treatment is personalized to meet the individual needs of each client.
Are you struggling with important life changes, marriage or relationship issues, and can't figure out how to move forward or reconnect? During times like this, I can help. I provide psychotherapy services in English or Spanish for couples, families and individuals and can help with various problems. I specialize in Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and use attachment theory to guide my work. EFT has significant research behind it indicating high rates of effectiveness with couples. This model is also effective with individuals and families. Using EFT as a guide, my approach to treatment is personalized to meet the individual needs of each client.
(714) 215-9267 View (714) 215-9267
Photo of Aleena Commandeur, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Aleena Commandeur
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
Aleena Commandeur is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) providing individual psychotherapy. Among some of her areas of expertise are anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, anger management, mindfulness, chronic pain, self-esteem issues, and communication skills. Aleena also has extensive experience working with all age groups and the LGBTQ community. Aleena is an advocate for social justice, and she believes in the dignity and worth of every person.
Aleena Commandeur is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) providing individual psychotherapy. Among some of her areas of expertise are anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, anger management, mindfulness, chronic pain, self-esteem issues, and communication skills. Aleena also has extensive experience working with all age groups and the LGBTQ community. Aleena is an advocate for social justice, and she believes in the dignity and worth of every person.
(909) 324-5578 View (909) 324-5578
Photo of Victoria Marie Pappas, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chino Hills, CA
Victoria Marie Pappas
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chino Hills, CA 91709
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over 18 years of experience assisting adults, teens, children, couples, and families with a wide range of personal challenges. Just a few of the issues I can help with include, but are not limited to: stress, anxiety, depression, anger management, trauma/Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, self-concept and self-esteem, relationship and marital problems, women's issues, single parents' issues, LGBTQ-related issues, parenting difficulties, and educational, career, and employment-related concerns.
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with over 18 years of experience assisting adults, teens, children, couples, and families with a wide range of personal challenges. Just a few of the issues I can help with include, but are not limited to: stress, anxiety, depression, anger management, trauma/Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, self-concept and self-esteem, relationship and marital problems, women's issues, single parents' issues, LGBTQ-related issues, parenting difficulties, and educational, career, and employment-related concerns.
(909) 757-5119 View (909) 757-5119

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Chino Hills, CA

100+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Chino Hills, CA who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
85% Depression
72% Relationship Issues
72% Grief
69% Stress
68% Self Esteem
67% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% Aetna
70% Cigna and Evernorth
67% Anthem | Elevance

How Therapists in Chino Hills, CA see their clients

69% In Person and Online
31% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
19% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Chino Hills?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.