Therapists in Arleta, CA

Photo of Sani Patel, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Sani Patel
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, APCC, MA-Psy
Verified
Arleta, CA 91331
Background: A little about me- as an empath and intuitive individual - I aim to provide efficient, concrete, and genuine services to individuals suffering in the areas of mental illness, addiction, anxiety, depression, PTSD, life coaching, connecting to spirituality or the higher self, development, and more. He helps you overcome challenges to help bring forth healing in all aspects of life.
Background: A little about me- as an empath and intuitive individual - I aim to provide efficient, concrete, and genuine services to individuals suffering in the areas of mental illness, addiction, anxiety, depression, PTSD, life coaching, connecting to spirituality or the higher self, development, and more. He helps you overcome challenges to help bring forth healing in all aspects of life.
(818) 334-6681 View (818) 334-6681
Photo of Gabriela Garcia, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Gabriela Garcia
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Arleta, CA 91331  (Online Only)
Life is filled with constant changes and challenges. Therapy is a powerful tool that helps navigate your way through confusing times. My approach to therapy is collaborative with an emphasis on establishing a warm supportive relationship. I create a therapeutic relationship to help clients develop insight and awareness of the unconscious that have a strong impact on their lives. I assist every client to create a deep meaning and address internal obstacles to accomplishing personal goals.
Life is filled with constant changes and challenges. Therapy is a powerful tool that helps navigate your way through confusing times. My approach to therapy is collaborative with an emphasis on establishing a warm supportive relationship. I create a therapeutic relationship to help clients develop insight and awareness of the unconscious that have a strong impact on their lives. I assist every client to create a deep meaning and address internal obstacles to accomplishing personal goals.
(747) 302-3062 View (747) 302-3062
Photo of Krista H Renella, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Krista H Renella
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified
4 Endorsed
Arleta, CA 91331  (Online Only)
Are you feeling taken advantage of and have trouble setting boundaries? I understand the struggles with codependency and can assist in the process of setting healthy boundaries. One of my specialties is the recovery from narcissistic abuse. This emotional abuse is manipulative and destructive, all while publicly presenting as charming, helpful, and normal. Anxiety, depression, gastrointestinal issues, other manifestations of trauma can occur after suffering through emotional abuse and trauma. There is help for it and I'm here to help you.
Are you feeling taken advantage of and have trouble setting boundaries? I understand the struggles with codependency and can assist in the process of setting healthy boundaries. One of my specialties is the recovery from narcissistic abuse. This emotional abuse is manipulative and destructive, all while publicly presenting as charming, helpful, and normal. Anxiety, depression, gastrointestinal issues, other manifestations of trauma can occur after suffering through emotional abuse and trauma. There is help for it and I'm here to help you.
(818) 280-7291 View (818) 280-7291
Photo of Dr. Alberto Lopez, LCSW , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Arleta, CA
Dr. Alberto Lopez, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, DSW, MSW, PPSC
Verified
Arleta, CA 91331
Asking for help or seeking therapy might be new to you, but it is something many individuals do when they are overwhelmed by life stressors such as relationships and work. As a Latino psychotherapist, I am aware of how our upbringing and culture can make seeing a therapist difficult. I want to make this process and experience a positive one. My goal is to assist individuals in how they manage stress, and anxiety in their life. Together we can develop healthy coping skills as well as behavioral changes. I will help you use the strengths you already have to be more effective. Are you ready to embark on a journey of self-awareness
Asking for help or seeking therapy might be new to you, but it is something many individuals do when they are overwhelmed by life stressors such as relationships and work. As a Latino psychotherapist, I am aware of how our upbringing and culture can make seeing a therapist difficult. I want to make this process and experience a positive one. My goal is to assist individuals in how they manage stress, and anxiety in their life. Together we can develop healthy coping skills as well as behavioral changes. I will help you use the strengths you already have to be more effective. Are you ready to embark on a journey of self-awareness
(747) 302-3704 View (747) 302-3704
Photo of Virginia Orantes, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Arleta, CA
Virginia Orantes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Arleta, CA 91331  (Online Only)
Do you feel constantly lost, exhausted, or overwhelmed and you are just trying to survive and make it through another day? Do you wonder how you can better manage your life or make it easier for yourself? Now more than ever as women we are feeling anxious, depressed, and overwhelmed about how we are supposed to manage our relationships, careers, and life transitions. Pushing away our needs and not taking time for ourselves can lead to long-term issues for our mind and body. I believe it shouldn’t be so hard to live a better life and we are more than capable of blooming into the best version of ourselves.
Do you feel constantly lost, exhausted, or overwhelmed and you are just trying to survive and make it through another day? Do you wonder how you can better manage your life or make it easier for yourself? Now more than ever as women we are feeling anxious, depressed, and overwhelmed about how we are supposed to manage our relationships, careers, and life transitions. Pushing away our needs and not taking time for ourselves can lead to long-term issues for our mind and body. I believe it shouldn’t be so hard to live a better life and we are more than capable of blooming into the best version of ourselves.
(818) 740-4919 View (818) 740-4919

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Jessica Hancock, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Jessica Hancock
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Panorama City, CA 91402
I have been working in community mental health for 14 years and have focused my clinical lens on treating trauma, anxiety, depression, substance use, and Borderline Personality Disorder utilizing DBT, ACT, and Harm Reduction. My goal as your therapist is to support you in developing an authentic relationship with yourself, integrating challenges, and achieving your identified goals for therapy. I enjoy working with clients who are open to learning and utilizing new skills. Therapy is typically only an hour a week, so clients need to practice skills outside of therapy to see progress.
I have been working in community mental health for 14 years and have focused my clinical lens on treating trauma, anxiety, depression, substance use, and Borderline Personality Disorder utilizing DBT, ACT, and Harm Reduction. My goal as your therapist is to support you in developing an authentic relationship with yourself, integrating challenges, and achieving your identified goals for therapy. I enjoy working with clients who are open to learning and utilizing new skills. Therapy is typically only an hour a week, so clients need to practice skills outside of therapy to see progress.
(747) 298-7413 View (747) 298-7413
Photo of Camille Reinecker, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Camille Reinecker
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
San Fernando, CA 91340  (Online Only)
I help individuals identifying as people pleasers or caretakers who put aside their own needs, wants or desires for others. They also struggle to make time for themselves. My clients have trouble like you do. They are giving, strong, determined and intelligent individuals who don’t see how to give care to themselves. When they first come in they are exhausted and expressing needing a break, wanting to take a step away from their family and friends. Feeling guilting for wanting to get away from the people they love. What do they need? What do you need? You, like my clients, need love, self-care and peace of mind.
I help individuals identifying as people pleasers or caretakers who put aside their own needs, wants or desires for others. They also struggle to make time for themselves. My clients have trouble like you do. They are giving, strong, determined and intelligent individuals who don’t see how to give care to themselves. When they first come in they are exhausted and expressing needing a break, wanting to take a step away from their family and friends. Feeling guilting for wanting to get away from the people they love. What do they need? What do you need? You, like my clients, need love, self-care and peace of mind.
(818) 274-2227 View (818) 274-2227
Photo of Christian Tony Savoie, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Arleta, CA
Christian Tony Savoie
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT
Verified
Mission Hills, CA 91345
It's not unusual for people to experience moments of disconnection or imbalance with themselves, with their families, or with society. Most of us tend to immediately react with, "I must be broken, or I'm different." You are not broken, you are who you are as a result of something that occurred. I am passionate about exploring where the root cause of that fear, pain, and uncertainty might be coming from. We are all products of our past events. It doesn't always mean that it is someone else's fault, it may be a result of our painful past resulting in our distorted self-perception. I listen without judgment, and with compassion.
It's not unusual for people to experience moments of disconnection or imbalance with themselves, with their families, or with society. Most of us tend to immediately react with, "I must be broken, or I'm different." You are not broken, you are who you are as a result of something that occurred. I am passionate about exploring where the root cause of that fear, pain, and uncertainty might be coming from. We are all products of our past events. It doesn't always mean that it is someone else's fault, it may be a result of our painful past resulting in our distorted self-perception. I listen without judgment, and with compassion.
(818) 641-5440 View (818) 641-5440
Photo of Wing Yee Wong, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Wing Yee Wong
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Pacoima, CA 91331
Hi there, I'm Wing Yee! You may have been feeling anxious for a while or persistently sad; you may want to correct some dysfunctional patterns in your life and improve the quality of your relationships; you may feel stuck and unable to move forward in life. Perhaps you have found yourself entangled with self-blame or even self-hatred. Whatever you have gone through in the past or what you are going through right now, you do not have to continue to suffer. You have taken the first step towards change.
Hi there, I'm Wing Yee! You may have been feeling anxious for a while or persistently sad; you may want to correct some dysfunctional patterns in your life and improve the quality of your relationships; you may feel stuck and unable to move forward in life. Perhaps you have found yourself entangled with self-blame or even self-hatred. Whatever you have gone through in the past or what you are going through right now, you do not have to continue to suffer. You have taken the first step towards change.
(619) 754-9699 View (619) 754-9699
Photo of Dale Simpson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Arleta, CA
Dale Simpson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Panorama City, CA 91402
I believe that everyone can find purpose and solutions to personal and relationship challenges in each season of life through personal self-discoveries. I serve as a partner and guide to aid you in gaining more clarity and understanding in navigating those self-discoveries. I am open, patient, and nonjudgmental, and am coming from a place of compassion and understanding. I strive to create a space that can foster safety to allow your truest and most authentic self to show up and be present. It is important for us to create a space for you to feel your wounds as well as your hopes and dreams.
I believe that everyone can find purpose and solutions to personal and relationship challenges in each season of life through personal self-discoveries. I serve as a partner and guide to aid you in gaining more clarity and understanding in navigating those self-discoveries. I am open, patient, and nonjudgmental, and am coming from a place of compassion and understanding. I strive to create a space that can foster safety to allow your truest and most authentic self to show up and be present. It is important for us to create a space for you to feel your wounds as well as your hopes and dreams.
(747) 237-4897 View (747) 237-4897
Photo of Marlee Simon, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Arleta, CA
Marlee Simon
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, AMFT, APCC, MT-BC
Verified
Mission Hills, CA 91345
Life can have difficult moments. Sometimes, those moments add up and can lead to difficult thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that feel unmanageable. When our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors feel unmanageable, it can be difficult to get our needs met. When our needs go unmet in relationship, work, and life, it can lead to deep pain and suffering. My philosophy on healing involves exploring the source of our challenges and resolving our unmet needs. Therapy can provide a space for you to identify and explore your unmet needs while learning tools to empower you to get your needs met in healthful and healing ways.
Life can have difficult moments. Sometimes, those moments add up and can lead to difficult thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that feel unmanageable. When our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors feel unmanageable, it can be difficult to get our needs met. When our needs go unmet in relationship, work, and life, it can lead to deep pain and suffering. My philosophy on healing involves exploring the source of our challenges and resolving our unmet needs. Therapy can provide a space for you to identify and explore your unmet needs while learning tools to empower you to get your needs met in healthful and healing ways.
(818) 483-9707 View (818) 483-9707
Photo of Evette Duren, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Evette Duren
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
San Fernando, CA 91340
Is perfectionism and people pleasing leaving you feeling blue? Do you struggle with brain fog and have no idea what brain fog is? Does cynicism know you too well? If any of this fits you, hit that reset button. I’m that clinician with direction. You are meant to have a thriving headspace. I've been here before so I will assist you with returning to your authentic self. Anxiety, depression, PTSD, and other stressors that are unwelcome in your headspace will not be in control. I gotcha you. Experienced with working in a diverse population, ethnicity, gender, spirituality, age, nationality, socio-economic status, and belief system.
Is perfectionism and people pleasing leaving you feeling blue? Do you struggle with brain fog and have no idea what brain fog is? Does cynicism know you too well? If any of this fits you, hit that reset button. I’m that clinician with direction. You are meant to have a thriving headspace. I've been here before so I will assist you with returning to your authentic self. Anxiety, depression, PTSD, and other stressors that are unwelcome in your headspace will not be in control. I gotcha you. Experienced with working in a diverse population, ethnicity, gender, spirituality, age, nationality, socio-economic status, and belief system.
(661) 475-6238 View (661) 475-6238
Photo of Maribel Munguia Dugas, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Arleta, CA
Maribel Munguia Dugas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PPSC, CIMHP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Mission Hills, CA 91345
As a Latina provider, I am mindful of how our culture and upbringing can impact our sense of self and how we handle challenges. I believe in being culturally mindful and also consider how physical, social and other factors impact our mental health. I am also open to discussing your spiritual journey if you would like. My clients usually appreciate a tailored approach that incorporates the most appropriate treatment for their specific situation. As professionals, we can also get very busy but with the availability of services via Telehealth, you can easily schedule this time for yourself and your growth. Hablo Espanol!!
As a Latina provider, I am mindful of how our culture and upbringing can impact our sense of self and how we handle challenges. I believe in being culturally mindful and also consider how physical, social and other factors impact our mental health. I am also open to discussing your spiritual journey if you would like. My clients usually appreciate a tailored approach that incorporates the most appropriate treatment for their specific situation. As professionals, we can also get very busy but with the availability of services via Telehealth, you can easily schedule this time for yourself and your growth. Hablo Espanol!!
(818) 900-7409 View (818) 900-7409
Photo of Amanda Michelle Peterson, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Amanda Michelle Peterson
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Pacoima, CA 91331  (Online Only)
Therapy is an investment that can increase our personal growth, improve management of stress, and support emotional stability. We all have the tools to grow, sometimes we need a bit of help getting there. I'd be happy to talk with you further through a 15 min consultation to see if I am a good fit for you.
Therapy is an investment that can increase our personal growth, improve management of stress, and support emotional stability. We all have the tools to grow, sometimes we need a bit of help getting there. I'd be happy to talk with you further through a 15 min consultation to see if I am a good fit for you.
(209) 379-0102 View (209) 379-0102
Photo of Merla Huntley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Arleta, CA
Merla Huntley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Sun Valley, CA 91352
I am Merla Huntley, Licensed Clinical Social Worker. I am Passionate about my work and strive to give my clients the tools and assistance they need to meet their goals. I believe each client is unique and not one modality fits every client. We will "tailor" a plan that best fits the client and fits what they want to get out of therapy. I work with children as young as 3 and range to older adults. Most of my clients deal with various symptoms that we target and address to change.
I am Merla Huntley, Licensed Clinical Social Worker. I am Passionate about my work and strive to give my clients the tools and assistance they need to meet their goals. I believe each client is unique and not one modality fits every client. We will "tailor" a plan that best fits the client and fits what they want to get out of therapy. I work with children as young as 3 and range to older adults. Most of my clients deal with various symptoms that we target and address to change.
(619) 586-6067 View (619) 586-6067
Photo of Eliana Palacio Salazar, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Eliana Palacio Salazar
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Mission Hills, CA 91345  (Online Only)
My approach to treatment is to provide a safe and open space that can enhance a unique journey toward healing and growth. I believe that each person has an innate feeling and wisdom of where they want to see themselves. My role is to help them explore those feelings and support them along the way. I enjoy working with diverse clients, of all ages, races, ethnicities, gender identities, and sexual orientations.
My approach to treatment is to provide a safe and open space that can enhance a unique journey toward healing and growth. I believe that each person has an innate feeling and wisdom of where they want to see themselves. My role is to help them explore those feelings and support them along the way. I enjoy working with diverse clients, of all ages, races, ethnicities, gender identities, and sexual orientations.
(661) 466-2297 View (661) 466-2297
Photo of Susannah Reynolds, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Susannah Reynolds
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
San Fernando, CA 91340
Hello, my name is Susannah Reynolds and I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT). I have a Master's in Marriage and Family Therapy with a specialization in Trauma. I work with adults (18+) and provide a non-judgmental environment for my clients. I utilized techniques from Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Attachment Theory, and Client-Centered. My goal in sessions is to build on your current strengths while diving deeper into the triggers/drivers for your current functioning to get each person to what "better" looks like for them.
Hello, my name is Susannah Reynolds and I am a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (LMFT). I have a Master's in Marriage and Family Therapy with a specialization in Trauma. I work with adults (18+) and provide a non-judgmental environment for my clients. I utilized techniques from Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Attachment Theory, and Client-Centered. My goal in sessions is to build on your current strengths while diving deeper into the triggers/drivers for your current functioning to get each person to what "better" looks like for them.
(818) 924-3497 View (818) 924-3497
Photo of KN Therapy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Arleta, CA
KN Therapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified
San Fernando, CA 91340
KN Therapy is a group of licensed mental health professionals and associates. We provide individual, couples, and family therapy for children, adolescents, and adults. We treat depression, anxiety, addictions, trauma, and grief & loss to name a few. We pride ourselves in our work with children of first-generation immigrants, veterans and their families, the LGBTQIA community, and are passionate about helping those who have experienced trauma.
KN Therapy is a group of licensed mental health professionals and associates. We provide individual, couples, and family therapy for children, adolescents, and adults. We treat depression, anxiety, addictions, trauma, and grief & loss to name a few. We pride ourselves in our work with children of first-generation immigrants, veterans and their families, the LGBTQIA community, and are passionate about helping those who have experienced trauma.
(562) 735-2086 View (562) 735-2086
Photo of Karin M Romp, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Karin M Romp
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT
Verified
San Fernando, CA 91340
Not accepting new clients
I focus on finding solutions for clients who are at a point in their lives where they feel stuck, whether it be in relationships, work, or problems of life
I focus on finding solutions for clients who are at a point in their lives where they feel stuck, whether it be in relationships, work, or problems of life
(818) 293-1747 View (818) 293-1747
Photo of Lorena Diaz, Marriage & Family Therapist in Arleta, CA
Lorena Diaz
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
Pacoima, CA 91331  (Online Only)
Sometimes it's difficult to share what hurts inside. Maybe you've tried different tools, yet things have not changed. That hurting may be preventing you from making decisions, connecting with others, or feeling like yourself ... I'd love to help you see through unresolved conflicts that are keeping you down. My approach is gentle, open, and curious. In our sessions, we'll build safety and we'll explore what hurts at your pace.
Sometimes it's difficult to share what hurts inside. Maybe you've tried different tools, yet things have not changed. That hurting may be preventing you from making decisions, connecting with others, or feeling like yourself ... I'd love to help you see through unresolved conflicts that are keeping you down. My approach is gentle, open, and curious. In our sessions, we'll build safety and we'll explore what hurts at your pace.
(408) 606-2824 View (408) 606-2824

See more therapy options for Arleta

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Arleta, CA

< 10

Therapists in Arleta, CA who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Trauma and PTSD
60% Grief
60% Domestic Violence
60% Coping Skills
60% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% Aetna
60% Cigna and Evernorth
60% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Arleta, CA see their clients

60% Online Only
40% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

60% Female
40% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Arleta?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.