Therapists in Phoenix, AZ

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Photo of Jody Light Cecil, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Jody Light Cecil
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85027
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, my desire is to partner with clients to help them find hope and healing. Using evidenced-based treatments, I strive to be a light in the lives of my clients and provide them with insights and tools that will help them to accomplish their goals. Specific therapeutic approaches are important, and the unique relationship between client and counselor is also a major factor in the healing process. It is important to counsel the whole person: mind, body, and spirit. As a Christian, my beliefs guide me as I care for my clients.
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, my desire is to partner with clients to help them find hope and healing. Using evidenced-based treatments, I strive to be a light in the lives of my clients and provide them with insights and tools that will help them to accomplish their goals. Specific therapeutic approaches are important, and the unique relationship between client and counselor is also a major factor in the healing process. It is important to counsel the whole person: mind, body, and spirit. As a Christian, my beliefs guide me as I care for my clients.
(602) 483-4129 View (602) 483-4129
Photo of Bri French, Pre-Licensed Professional in Phoenix, AZ
Bri French
Pre-Licensed Professional, BS
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85016
I have a passion for working with individuals and couples who are experiencing depression, anxiety, trauma, or relationship difficulties. I also love to work with those who are interested in fostering deeper emotional connections to their partner or building back a better relationship after infidelity or violation of each others' trust. I also have experience working with individuals with sex addiction/ compulsive sexual behaviors and maintaining sobriety from substances and alcohol
I have a passion for working with individuals and couples who are experiencing depression, anxiety, trauma, or relationship difficulties. I also love to work with those who are interested in fostering deeper emotional connections to their partner or building back a better relationship after infidelity or violation of each others' trust. I also have experience working with individuals with sex addiction/ compulsive sexual behaviors and maintaining sobriety from substances and alcohol
(623) 257-6821 View (623) 257-6821
Photo of Lindsey R Buckman, Psychologist in Phoenix, AZ
Lindsey R Buckman
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85018
As a psychologist, my goal is to help you uncover your true potential and help you find ways to be your best self. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can use them to better understand and resolve the current challenges in your life. By working collaboratively, we will work to adjust behavior patterns or negative perceptions that may be holding you back from experiencing a more fulfilling and meaningful life.
As a psychologist, my goal is to help you uncover your true potential and help you find ways to be your best self. While we can't change difficult situations of the past, we can use them to better understand and resolve the current challenges in your life. By working collaboratively, we will work to adjust behavior patterns or negative perceptions that may be holding you back from experiencing a more fulfilling and meaningful life.
(480) 418-0894 View (480) 418-0894
Photo of Kim Vahjen, Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Kim Vahjen
Counselor, LAC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85029
I am a Licensed Associate Counselor (LAC) in Arizona who is accepting new clients in person and virtually. I graduated with a master’s degree in clinical mental health counseling from Grand Canyon University. I have had experience in the medical field since 2014 and have worked with various populations from adolescents to geriatrics.
I am a Licensed Associate Counselor (LAC) in Arizona who is accepting new clients in person and virtually. I graduated with a master’s degree in clinical mental health counseling from Grand Canyon University. I have had experience in the medical field since 2014 and have worked with various populations from adolescents to geriatrics.
(623) 267-0706 View (623) 267-0706
Photo of Betsy Tismeer, Marriage & Family Therapist in Phoenix, AZ
Betsy Tismeer
Marriage & Family Therapist, RN, LMFT
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85085
I'm a nurse/psychotherapist with over 45 years professional experience working with families, adults, and children. As a therapist I feel prepared to be your emotional advocate, and to assist you with the challenges you are facing. Building trust in the therapeutic relationship in a non-judgmental, respectful environment is essential. I believe every client situation is unique. I combine an eclectic theoretical approach with professional experience in order to assess, set goals, and implement a treatment plan that is specific to your needs.
I'm a nurse/psychotherapist with over 45 years professional experience working with families, adults, and children. As a therapist I feel prepared to be your emotional advocate, and to assist you with the challenges you are facing. Building trust in the therapeutic relationship in a non-judgmental, respectful environment is essential. I believe every client situation is unique. I combine an eclectic theoretical approach with professional experience in order to assess, set goals, and implement a treatment plan that is specific to your needs.
(928) 440-8675 View (928) 440-8675
Photo of Sara Spivey, Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Sara Spivey
Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85028
My name is Sara Spivey, and I am here to help anyone who wants to heal. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Masters Degree in Human Services specializing in Mental Health Counseling from Capella University. I have been given the opportunity to work with varying client populations including but have found my niche working with those who struggle from anxiety, depression, trauma, low self worth, and self compassion.
My name is Sara Spivey, and I am here to help anyone who wants to heal. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Masters Degree in Human Services specializing in Mental Health Counseling from Capella University. I have been given the opportunity to work with varying client populations including but have found my niche working with those who struggle from anxiety, depression, trauma, low self worth, and self compassion.
(480) 531-6813 View (480) 531-6813
Photo of Lauren Shavers, Marriage & Family Therapist in Phoenix, AZ
Lauren Shavers
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Hi, I'm Lauren Shavers, a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I have over 10 years of experience in the mental health field. I provide a caring and safe environment for children, teens, adults and families who may be experiencing difficulties such as life transitions, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, trauma, emotional/behavioral dysregulation, and relational issues.
Hi, I'm Lauren Shavers, a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I have over 10 years of experience in the mental health field. I provide a caring and safe environment for children, teens, adults and families who may be experiencing difficulties such as life transitions, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, trauma, emotional/behavioral dysregulation, and relational issues.
(480) 351-6205 View (480) 351-6205
Photo of Genaro Huerta, Psychologist in Phoenix, AZ
Genaro Huerta
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85044
Our mission at Coral Valley is to support you through the ups, downs, and in-betweens of life through the provision of evidence-based, culturally curious psychological interventions within the frame of an empathic, therapeutic relationship—in English, Spanish, or both. Coral Valley Clinicians strive to offer a therapeutic "holding environment" in which we truly hear, not just what you say, but also what you may struggle to convey. We incorporate relational, person-centered, cognitive behavioral, mindfulness-based, and other evidence-based interventions.
Our mission at Coral Valley is to support you through the ups, downs, and in-betweens of life through the provision of evidence-based, culturally curious psychological interventions within the frame of an empathic, therapeutic relationship—in English, Spanish, or both. Coral Valley Clinicians strive to offer a therapeutic "holding environment" in which we truly hear, not just what you say, but also what you may struggle to convey. We incorporate relational, person-centered, cognitive behavioral, mindfulness-based, and other evidence-based interventions.
(520) 502-5975 View (520) 502-5975
Photo of Cynthia D Berry, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Cynthia D Berry
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHI
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85016
I am accepting new clients! My experience in the field has led me to understand that everyone is unique and comes to healing in their own ways. My role is to provide a safe and nurturing environment and assist individuals in understanding and achieving their goals during the therapeutic process.
I am accepting new clients! My experience in the field has led me to understand that everyone is unique and comes to healing in their own ways. My role is to provide a safe and nurturing environment and assist individuals in understanding and achieving their goals during the therapeutic process.
(623) 286-2699 View (623) 286-2699
Photo of Quin Washington, Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Quin Washington
Counselor
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85027
I strive to help people holistically. The treatment modalities I use include CBT, DBT, REBT, Mindfulness- based and SFBT. I provide psychoeducation on different topics such as, coping with anxiety & stress, healing depression, & building self-esteem & other interpersonal skills. My goal is for my clients to leave therapy feeling heard, valued, supported, & with long-lasting skills. The first step is always the hardest, but people are capable of extraordinary things when the leap of faith is taken & there is someone waiting to provide guidance during the journey.
I strive to help people holistically. The treatment modalities I use include CBT, DBT, REBT, Mindfulness- based and SFBT. I provide psychoeducation on different topics such as, coping with anxiety & stress, healing depression, & building self-esteem & other interpersonal skills. My goal is for my clients to leave therapy feeling heard, valued, supported, & with long-lasting skills. The first step is always the hardest, but people are capable of extraordinary things when the leap of faith is taken & there is someone waiting to provide guidance during the journey.
(480) 725-7665 View (480) 725-7665
Photo of Healing Oak Counseling Services, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Healing Oak Counseling Services
Licensed Professional Counselor, MAPC, LPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85044
Kandi Crandell's clinical approach to therapy is creating space to envision a different future while consciously examining past traumas through the lens of understanding and compassion. She believes all clients have the strength within themselves to grow, change, and ultimately accomplish their goals to better enrich their lives. She believes therapy is a space where the client is the healer in the room, and she exists to help clients discover their own superpowers. Kandi creates a nonjudgemental space to allow the client to share their unique story while also focusing on daily habits that support change.
Kandi Crandell's clinical approach to therapy is creating space to envision a different future while consciously examining past traumas through the lens of understanding and compassion. She believes all clients have the strength within themselves to grow, change, and ultimately accomplish their goals to better enrich their lives. She believes therapy is a space where the client is the healer in the room, and she exists to help clients discover their own superpowers. Kandi creates a nonjudgemental space to allow the client to share their unique story while also focusing on daily habits that support change.
(520) 391-6490 View (520) 391-6490
Photo of Christopher DeFranco, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Christopher DeFranco
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC-S
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85012  (Online Only)
Christopher specializes in working with adolescents and adults struggling with a variety of life's stressors that include, but are not limited to: LGBTQ+ issues, trauma, grief, anger management, impulsivity, chemical dependency, depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. He has over 10 years of clinical experience from a wide variety of settings that includes schools, research clinics, inpatient and residential treatment, and outpatient private practice. He also has extensive experience working with PTSD, gender dysphoria, and individuals on the autism spectrum.
Christopher specializes in working with adolescents and adults struggling with a variety of life's stressors that include, but are not limited to: LGBTQ+ issues, trauma, grief, anger management, impulsivity, chemical dependency, depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. He has over 10 years of clinical experience from a wide variety of settings that includes schools, research clinics, inpatient and residential treatment, and outpatient private practice. He also has extensive experience working with PTSD, gender dysphoria, and individuals on the autism spectrum.
(512) 722-7342 View (512) 722-7342
Photo of Linda Schwartz, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Linda Schwartz
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85014  (Online Only)
My work is exclusively as a couples therapist using the most-effective approach, Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy, or EFT. I believe there's a distinct difference between a marriage-counseling specialist and a therapist who "also" works with couples. This singular focus enables me to bring to my couples work years of experience and a depth of practice helping couples resolve a complexity of challenges, including infidelity, sexual disconnection, endless arguing and differences related to parenting and finances. EFT is both gentle and effective; neither partner is favored or judged. A brief model, EFT offers lasting results.
My work is exclusively as a couples therapist using the most-effective approach, Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy, or EFT. I believe there's a distinct difference between a marriage-counseling specialist and a therapist who "also" works with couples. This singular focus enables me to bring to my couples work years of experience and a depth of practice helping couples resolve a complexity of challenges, including infidelity, sexual disconnection, endless arguing and differences related to parenting and finances. EFT is both gentle and effective; neither partner is favored or judged. A brief model, EFT offers lasting results.
(480) 568-2770 View (480) 568-2770
Photo of Sherry Borlabi, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Sherry Borlabi
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSMHC, LPC-S, NCC, CSAT, BSP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85016  (Online Only)
I am a dedicated, compassionate licensed professional therapist who is passionate about helping others in their healing process. My experience is providing counseling services to individuals, couples and families who are struggling with issues such as, chemical addiction, PTSD, depression, anxiety, sex addiction, Love addiction, combat trauma, codependency, intimacy issues, couples therapy, personality disorders, eating disorders, as well as other process addictions.
I am a dedicated, compassionate licensed professional therapist who is passionate about helping others in their healing process. My experience is providing counseling services to individuals, couples and families who are struggling with issues such as, chemical addiction, PTSD, depression, anxiety, sex addiction, Love addiction, combat trauma, codependency, intimacy issues, couples therapy, personality disorders, eating disorders, as well as other process addictions.
(480) 418-3636 View (480) 418-3636
Photo of Brooke Bendix, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Phoenix, AZ
Brooke Bendix
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Growing up in today’s world isn’t easy! As a parent you want to ensure your 'GenZ'er has the emotional support they need to thrive in life. Imagine your child or teen with an improved sense of self-awareness and confidence in themselves. I provide a safe space to explore and manage their emotions and thoughts so they can develop a better sense of self. Our mission at Therapyology is to empower the next generation to lead a more valued life! It takes a village, am I right? I practice with a team approach working together with parents/doctors/teachers/school counselors to ensure each individual and family receives the best care.
Growing up in today’s world isn’t easy! As a parent you want to ensure your 'GenZ'er has the emotional support they need to thrive in life. Imagine your child or teen with an improved sense of self-awareness and confidence in themselves. I provide a safe space to explore and manage their emotions and thoughts so they can develop a better sense of self. Our mission at Therapyology is to empower the next generation to lead a more valued life! It takes a village, am I right? I practice with a team approach working together with parents/doctors/teachers/school counselors to ensure each individual and family receives the best care.
(248) 229-1198 View (248) 229-1198
Photo of Robert W Daughenbaugh Jr, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Robert W Daughenbaugh Jr
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, MSAC, LISAC, BHP
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85028
No one started gambling or using mind-altering substances with the idea of becoming addicted. At first it was fun and provided a way to escape the pains and drudgeries of life. Soon, gambling, drugs and alcohol were easy solutions to one’s problems: Fear, abandonment issues, domestic violence, low self-esteem, low self-worth, anger, anxiety, depression, codependency . . . and more. The sad truth is that all addictions ruins lives and families. However, . . . one does not have to let addiction control one’s life. There is a healthier solution.
No one started gambling or using mind-altering substances with the idea of becoming addicted. At first it was fun and provided a way to escape the pains and drudgeries of life. Soon, gambling, drugs and alcohol were easy solutions to one’s problems: Fear, abandonment issues, domestic violence, low self-esteem, low self-worth, anger, anxiety, depression, codependency . . . and more. The sad truth is that all addictions ruins lives and families. However, . . . one does not have to let addiction control one’s life. There is a healthier solution.
(602) 975-2321 View (602) 975-2321
Photo of Kim Romen, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Phoenix, AZ
Kim Romen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified
8 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85044
You said you would never stay with someone who cheated. You can’t believe he did this. It's like a nightmare. You are considering divorce but you want to believe him and deep down you want to get through this if it’s possible. You thought you knew him. Could it be possible he loves you like he says he does when he hurt you like this? Did he even consider you? It’s embarrassing to bring this up to anyone. You wonder if people will judge you if you stay and will they ever be able to see him in the same light if you tell people and are able to work it out? You have already talked for hours and don't know how you can get through this.
You said you would never stay with someone who cheated. You can’t believe he did this. It's like a nightmare. You are considering divorce but you want to believe him and deep down you want to get through this if it’s possible. You thought you knew him. Could it be possible he loves you like he says he does when he hurt you like this? Did he even consider you? It’s embarrassing to bring this up to anyone. You wonder if people will judge you if you stay and will they ever be able to see him in the same light if you tell people and are able to work it out? You have already talked for hours and don't know how you can get through this.
(520) 999-2307 View (520) 999-2307
Photo of Dr. Tricia Groff, Executive Coach - High Achievers, Psychologist in Phoenix, AZ
Dr. Tricia Groff, Executive Coach - High Achievers
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85022
Board-licensed psychologist who combines business and psychology to provide executive coaching and advisement to Founders, CEOs, senior executives, and their teams. My clients are High Achievers who seek ongoing excellence. Many have backgrounds in engineering, finance, technology, healthcare, or law; however, their personalities are the common denominator. Intellectually, they are analytical, ambitious, opinionated, and open-minded. They are fun, kind, and dedicated people of high integrity.
Board-licensed psychologist who combines business and psychology to provide executive coaching and advisement to Founders, CEOs, senior executives, and their teams. My clients are High Achievers who seek ongoing excellence. Many have backgrounds in engineering, finance, technology, healthcare, or law; however, their personalities are the common denominator. Intellectually, they are analytical, ambitious, opinionated, and open-minded. They are fun, kind, and dedicated people of high integrity.
(623) 343-7585 View (623) 343-7585
Photo of Maria C Avena, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Maria C Avena
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Saturday appointments available. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Master of Arts of Professional Counseling from Ottawa University. I have a concentration on Trauma Abuse and Depravation, EMDR certified, 12 years of experience in the counseling field working in the following areas; anxiety, depression, PTSD, trauma, sexual, physical and mental abuse, attachment issues, self-esteem issues, shame, anger management, relationships issues, alcohol and substance abuse, addictive behaviors, life transitions, grief and loss and domestic violence.
Saturday appointments available. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Master of Arts of Professional Counseling from Ottawa University. I have a concentration on Trauma Abuse and Depravation, EMDR certified, 12 years of experience in the counseling field working in the following areas; anxiety, depression, PTSD, trauma, sexual, physical and mental abuse, attachment issues, self-esteem issues, shame, anger management, relationships issues, alcohol and substance abuse, addictive behaviors, life transitions, grief and loss and domestic violence.
(602) 833-7246 View (602) 833-7246
Photo of Ina E Hilgers, Licensed Professional Counselor in Phoenix, AZ
Ina E Hilgers
Licensed Professional Counselor, PsyD, LPC, NCC
Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85016
I am a Behavioral Health Psychologist and LPC, that works with adults, adolescents, and children that have experienced trauma. Sometimes, our traumatic experiences can leave a wound that interferes with our ability to connect with ourselves, others, and the world. Often, we can feel incredibly isolated and misunderstood in our pain. Working with trauma includes building safety with the person, providing warmth and stability in the environment, and consistency in their treatment. While you may feel like there is no hope, there are gentle and effective ways, that we can work together to find, that will support your healing.
I am a Behavioral Health Psychologist and LPC, that works with adults, adolescents, and children that have experienced trauma. Sometimes, our traumatic experiences can leave a wound that interferes with our ability to connect with ourselves, others, and the world. Often, we can feel incredibly isolated and misunderstood in our pain. Working with trauma includes building safety with the person, providing warmth and stability in the environment, and consistency in their treatment. While you may feel like there is no hope, there are gentle and effective ways, that we can work together to find, that will support your healing.
(480) 531-6611 View (480) 531-6611

See more therapy options for Phoenix

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Phoenix, AZ

1,000+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Phoenix, AZ who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
84% Depression
77% Self Esteem
76% Relationship Issues
75% Trauma and PTSD
72% Stress
69% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

82% Aetna
67% BlueCross and BlueShield
64% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Phoenix, AZ see their clients

70% In Person and Online
30% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
19% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Phoenix?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.