Therapists in Maricopa County, AZ

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Photo of Marie Haddox PhD, PhD, Licensed Professional Counselor
Marie Haddox PhD
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD
Verified Verified
Gilbert, AZ 85296
I strongly believe in the quote "the best way out is through." This is the essence of therapy. Often clients will contact me after realizing that what they have been trying to avoid or put off is only causing more suffering. This is the fork in the road. As a therapist, my role is providing clients the skills they need to face these challenges, for true growth and change. I love the work that I do because I have the privilege of witnessing these changes as they develop.
I strongly believe in the quote "the best way out is through." This is the essence of therapy. Often clients will contact me after realizing that what they have been trying to avoid or put off is only causing more suffering. This is the fork in the road. As a therapist, my role is providing clients the skills they need to face these challenges, for true growth and change. I love the work that I do because I have the privilege of witnessing these changes as they develop.
(480) 782-0113 View (480) 782-0113
Photo of Denielle Eaker, Pre-Licensed Professional
Denielle Eaker
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mesa, AZ 85209
Imagine feeling overwhelmed by the weight of past traumas, battling with the darkness of depression, or navigating the complex emotions of grief. If this resonates with you, know that you've found a safe space here with me. As your dedicated mental health counseling intern, I'm here to support you on your journey toward healing and growth.
Imagine feeling overwhelmed by the weight of past traumas, battling with the darkness of depression, or navigating the complex emotions of grief. If this resonates with you, know that you've found a safe space here with me. As your dedicated mental health counseling intern, I'm here to support you on your journey toward healing and growth.
(480) 530-6457 x702 View (480) 530-6457 x702
Photo of Nancy Ann Brown, MFT, Pre-Licensed Professional
Nancy Ann Brown
Pre-Licensed Professional, MFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Gilbert, AZ 85234
I work with a broad area of care including: Divorce, co-parenting and reunification. understanding the needs of children and family after divorce and adjusting to a new life. I also work with the unique needs of families with special needs kids, siblings and caregivers. I also have a passion for Religious trauma and the adjustment to a new life post faith changes. I have a passion for teaching boundaries and why they are important in our life and family system.
I work with a broad area of care including: Divorce, co-parenting and reunification. understanding the needs of children and family after divorce and adjusting to a new life. I also work with the unique needs of families with special needs kids, siblings and caregivers. I also have a passion for Religious trauma and the adjustment to a new life post faith changes. I have a passion for teaching boundaries and why they are important in our life and family system.
(480) 908-8437 View (480) 908-8437
Photo of Lauren Megrew, PhD, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lauren Megrew
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
Cave Creek, AZ 85331  (Online Only)
I specialize in helping people with neurodiversity (high functioning Autism/Asperger's profiles and ADHD) in children, teens, and adults. I specialize in adult diagnosis and neurodiversity in females. I provide ND diagnostics, ND individual & couples therapy, as well as parent coaching & therapy, executive functioning coaching, and behavior planning/modification.
I specialize in helping people with neurodiversity (high functioning Autism/Asperger's profiles and ADHD) in children, teens, and adults. I specialize in adult diagnosis and neurodiversity in females. I provide ND diagnostics, ND individual & couples therapy, as well as parent coaching & therapy, executive functioning coaching, and behavior planning/modification.
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Jessica Mormann
CNP, PMHNP
Verified Verified
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Are you struggling to balance your physical and mental health? Are things becoming unmanageable? Is your time limited? Then welcome to WellPsyche! WellPsyche provides experts in the field of Adult and Child/Adolescent Psychiatry. Our practice offers the latest in psychiatry including Telemedicine! Now you can visit with your psychiatrist from the privacy and convenience of your home or work. Our providers take a Conservative and Effective approach to medication management and can help you balance your life.
Are you struggling to balance your physical and mental health? Are things becoming unmanageable? Is your time limited? Then welcome to WellPsyche! WellPsyche provides experts in the field of Adult and Child/Adolescent Psychiatry. Our practice offers the latest in psychiatry including Telemedicine! Now you can visit with your psychiatrist from the privacy and convenience of your home or work. Our providers take a Conservative and Effective approach to medication management and can help you balance your life.
(623) 526-5548 View (623) 526-5548
Photo of Chelsea Francis, LAMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Chelsea Francis
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, LAMFT
Verified Verified
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Chelsea is a Licensed Associate Marriage and Family Therapist and received her masters from ASU in Marriage and Family Therapy. Chelsea is trained in Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and is a member of AAMFT organization. Chelsea is a wife of 16 years and a mother to three children and values the importance of family relationships. Chelsea strives to provide a space of acceptance and openness to the experience of each client that enters her office. Chelsea hopes to facilitate honest conversations between couples or families and create safety in relationships to share genuine and authentic emotions.
Chelsea is a Licensed Associate Marriage and Family Therapist and received her masters from ASU in Marriage and Family Therapy. Chelsea is trained in Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and is a member of AAMFT organization. Chelsea is a wife of 16 years and a mother to three children and values the importance of family relationships. Chelsea strives to provide a space of acceptance and openness to the experience of each client that enters her office. Chelsea hopes to facilitate honest conversations between couples or families and create safety in relationships to share genuine and authentic emotions.
(480) 351-4572 View (480) 351-4572
Photo of Alexander Piatka - Therapy Institute at Midwestern University, PhD, Psychologist
Therapy Institute at Midwestern University
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Glendale, AZ 85308
Clients visit the Therapy Institute to address a range of concerns, from mild-to-moderate depression or anxiety to better understanding and coping with relationship difficulties or a recent life transition. After a comprehensive initial assessment, treatment options and recommendations are provided. Clients choosing to start services at the Therapy Institute will have the opportunity to work with doctoral-level psychology students supervised by licensed psychologists.
Clients visit the Therapy Institute to address a range of concerns, from mild-to-moderate depression or anxiety to better understanding and coping with relationship difficulties or a recent life transition. After a comprehensive initial assessment, treatment options and recommendations are provided. Clients choosing to start services at the Therapy Institute will have the opportunity to work with doctoral-level psychology students supervised by licensed psychologists.
(623) 343-8189 View (623) 343-8189
Photo of Joan Marie Polansky, PhD, Psychologist
Joan Marie Polansky
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Scottsdale, AZ 85254  (Online Only)
I am in the business of helping people change. My ideal client is motivated to change their life for the better. I assume that you would prefer to live your life with joy and satisfaction as quickly as possible. Therefore, we will work together to reach that end. Depending on the client, I utilize a number of approaches including cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, education and behavioral approaches. As a generalist, I can keep fresh and maintain a passion about my work. My clients concerns are varied including: anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, medical conditions, life transitions and relationship issues.
I am in the business of helping people change. My ideal client is motivated to change their life for the better. I assume that you would prefer to live your life with joy and satisfaction as quickly as possible. Therefore, we will work together to reach that end. Depending on the client, I utilize a number of approaches including cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, education and behavioral approaches. As a generalist, I can keep fresh and maintain a passion about my work. My clients concerns are varied including: anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, medical conditions, life transitions and relationship issues.
(480) 769-5678 View (480) 769-5678
Photo of Margaret (Peggy) Feehan, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Margaret (Peggy) Feehan
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Mesa, AZ 85210  (Online Only)
It takes courage to ask for help, therefore, I offer clients a safe, non-judgmental, person-centered environment, where they can heal and grow. Each individual is unique, so are their needs, and desires. As your therapist, I am committed to helping you recognize, and accept your intrinsic worth in order to make changes that lead to a happier and more fulfilling life. I am passionate about being able to provide you with the tools you need to overcome challenges, and be able to use these resources for the rest of your life.
It takes courage to ask for help, therefore, I offer clients a safe, non-judgmental, person-centered environment, where they can heal and grow. Each individual is unique, so are their needs, and desires. As your therapist, I am committed to helping you recognize, and accept your intrinsic worth in order to make changes that lead to a happier and more fulfilling life. I am passionate about being able to provide you with the tools you need to overcome challenges, and be able to use these resources for the rest of your life.
(480) 741-1462 View (480) 741-1462
Photo of Echo Cochrell-Gretz, LPC, LMHC, PMH-C, Licensed Professional Counselor
Echo Cochrell-Gretz
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMHC, PMH-C
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85027
I truly care about what you are facing. Life can be overwhelming, and it's not always easy to navigate the challenges that come our way. Whether you're struggling with anxiety, depression, relationship issues, or the aftermath of trauma, know that you don't have to face it alone. I am here to offer you the compassionate support and guidance you deserve. Together, we will explore the depths of your experiences, untangle the complexities, and pave the way for healing and personal growth. You deserve to live a life that is aligned with your values, filled with joy, and enriched by meaningful connections.
I truly care about what you are facing. Life can be overwhelming, and it's not always easy to navigate the challenges that come our way. Whether you're struggling with anxiety, depression, relationship issues, or the aftermath of trauma, know that you don't have to face it alone. I am here to offer you the compassionate support and guidance you deserve. Together, we will explore the depths of your experiences, untangle the complexities, and pave the way for healing and personal growth. You deserve to live a life that is aligned with your values, filled with joy, and enriched by meaningful connections.
(623) 281-3753 View (623) 281-3753
Photo of Tracy Palmer, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Tracy Palmer
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Mesa, AZ 85206
I am passionate about working with adults and helping them with overcoming their trauma. I am EMDR trained and I specialize in abuse, trauma and deprivation. I will work with adolescence ages 16+. "Of all the things trauma takes away from us, the worst is our willingness, or even our ability, to be vulnerable. There's a reclaiming that has to happen." - Brené Brown, Rising Strong: The Reckoning.
I am passionate about working with adults and helping them with overcoming their trauma. I am EMDR trained and I specialize in abuse, trauma and deprivation. I will work with adolescence ages 16+. "Of all the things trauma takes away from us, the worst is our willingness, or even our ability, to be vulnerable. There's a reclaiming that has to happen." - Brené Brown, Rising Strong: The Reckoning.
(928) 436-6695 View (928) 436-6695
Photo of Dr. Dwan Reed, PhD, LCSW-S, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Dr. Dwan Reed
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW-S
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85022  (Online Only)
I am certified in anxiety and trauma (EMDR). I am also a relationship expert with a PhD in marriage and family therapy and a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW-S, LICSW). I have over 19 years of experience providing therapy to individuals, couples, groups, and families. Many of my clients choose alternative methods for dealing with anxiety and depression instead of prescription medication. I am also a certified herbalist and a practitioner of yoga. I'm not just EMDR "trained", but also certified with advanced hours in trauma. Best times to reach me for a free phone consultation - before 10 am, between 1-2:00 and after 6 pm.
I am certified in anxiety and trauma (EMDR). I am also a relationship expert with a PhD in marriage and family therapy and a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW-S, LICSW). I have over 19 years of experience providing therapy to individuals, couples, groups, and families. Many of my clients choose alternative methods for dealing with anxiety and depression instead of prescription medication. I am also a certified herbalist and a practitioner of yoga. I'm not just EMDR "trained", but also certified with advanced hours in trauma. Best times to reach me for a free phone consultation - before 10 am, between 1-2:00 and after 6 pm.
(520) 200-3830 View (520) 200-3830
Photo of Vienna Aslanian, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Vienna Aslanian
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Chandler, AZ 85286  (Online Only)
I chose to become a therapist after doing social work with children and families. Witnessing the trauma and the way that trauma impacted those individual lives caused me to develop an interest in and concern for individuals struggling with CPTSD, PTSD and childhood trauma. I have always enjoyed listening to people's stories and making a genuine connection. I believe in the healing power of therapy and the importance of the therapeutic relationship. I believe in the importance of active listening and making you feel truly heard, cared about, safe, and understood. The majority of my experience is as a child and family therapist.
I chose to become a therapist after doing social work with children and families. Witnessing the trauma and the way that trauma impacted those individual lives caused me to develop an interest in and concern for individuals struggling with CPTSD, PTSD and childhood trauma. I have always enjoyed listening to people's stories and making a genuine connection. I believe in the healing power of therapy and the importance of the therapeutic relationship. I believe in the importance of active listening and making you feel truly heard, cared about, safe, and understood. The majority of my experience is as a child and family therapist.
(928) 421-2385 View (928) 421-2385
Photo of Mary Vucurevich, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Mary Vucurevich
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85014
Seeking a therapist can be an unsettling endeavor. I can provide a free 10-minute phone consultation to help you determine whether or not we are a good fit. As your therapist, I bring a whole-person approach to healing the past and maximizing the present. My approach is an eclectic one and with over 30 years counseling experience, my "toolbox" is "well-stocked". We all have our own intuitive wisdom to guide us but we may need help in learning how to hear and honor these messages. I am confident that we can work collaboratively to create the life that you desire.
Seeking a therapist can be an unsettling endeavor. I can provide a free 10-minute phone consultation to help you determine whether or not we are a good fit. As your therapist, I bring a whole-person approach to healing the past and maximizing the present. My approach is an eclectic one and with over 30 years counseling experience, my "toolbox" is "well-stocked". We all have our own intuitive wisdom to guide us but we may need help in learning how to hear and honor these messages. I am confident that we can work collaboratively to create the life that you desire.
(602) 663-9770 View (602) 663-9770
Photo of Gabriella Montgomery, LPC, Counselor
Gabriella Montgomery
Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Phoenix, AZ 85028
My goal as a therapist is to best support you in your journey as well as to support you in being/becoming your best self and creating your best life. Through this process we may encounter many feelings and emotions as well as behaviors that are best addressed in a safe therapeutic environment. My intention is to create that space and navigate the process together and provide tools and resources for you to do the same in the future for yourself.
My goal as a therapist is to best support you in your journey as well as to support you in being/becoming your best self and creating your best life. Through this process we may encounter many feelings and emotions as well as behaviors that are best addressed in a safe therapeutic environment. My intention is to create that space and navigate the process together and provide tools and resources for you to do the same in the future for yourself.
(602) 532-6364 View (602) 532-6364
Photo of Valerie J Southwick - Arizona Connection Counseling, Licensed Professional Counselor
Arizona Connection Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mesa, AZ 85204
Currently accepting new clients. Arizona Connection Counseling is a licensed counseling agency providing Emotionally Focused therapy (EFT) and EMDR to individuals, couples, families, and groups. We have a team of specialists who focus on treating relational distress within couples and families, infidelity, trauma, and sexual difficulties. We also offer mindfulness and client centered therapy for individuals seeking personal growth.
Currently accepting new clients. Arizona Connection Counseling is a licensed counseling agency providing Emotionally Focused therapy (EFT) and EMDR to individuals, couples, families, and groups. We have a team of specialists who focus on treating relational distress within couples and families, infidelity, trauma, and sexual difficulties. We also offer mindfulness and client centered therapy for individuals seeking personal growth.
(928) 660-6094 View (928) 660-6094
Photo of Mackenzie A. Cortese, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Mackenzie A. Cortese
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
10 Endorsed
Glendale, AZ 85308
Not accepting new clients
Not accepting new clients (06/2024). Agave Counseling Services has Administrative Assistants to return your call within 24-48 hours. Mackenzie A. Cortese, LPC, is a Master's level Professional Counselor licensed with the Arizona Board of Behavioral Health. She has worked with teens and adults in the field assisting trauma survivors utilizing Brainspotting, EMDR, IFS and DBT to better provide services for clients with serious mental health concerns.
Not accepting new clients (06/2024). Agave Counseling Services has Administrative Assistants to return your call within 24-48 hours. Mackenzie A. Cortese, LPC, is a Master's level Professional Counselor licensed with the Arizona Board of Behavioral Health. She has worked with teens and adults in the field assisting trauma survivors utilizing Brainspotting, EMDR, IFS and DBT to better provide services for clients with serious mental health concerns.
(623) 300-1292 View (623) 300-1292
Photo of Amanda B McCarron, MA, LPC, LCPC, LMHC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Amanda B McCarron
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LCPC, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Litchfield Park, AZ 85340  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I have experience working with many areas, including anxiety, depression, any of life's necessary adjustments, marriage and family concerns, and more. I appreciate when a client is willing to consider new ideas, to practice what we've worked on together, and to implement those new ideas into practice in day to day life. My ideal client is a collaborative individual, excited for new perspective and willing to meet those challenges head on. Tell me what you think! We are partners through this process together.
I have experience working with many areas, including anxiety, depression, any of life's necessary adjustments, marriage and family concerns, and more. I appreciate when a client is willing to consider new ideas, to practice what we've worked on together, and to implement those new ideas into practice in day to day life. My ideal client is a collaborative individual, excited for new perspective and willing to meet those challenges head on. Tell me what you think! We are partners through this process together.
(623) 343-0272 View (623) 343-0272
Photo of Sharon McCarthy Wright …. Inspiring Hope Therapy, MAC, LPC, NCC, EMDR, CFTP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sharon McCarthy Wright …. Inspiring Hope Therapy
Licensed Professional Counselor, MAC, LPC, NCC, EMDR, CFTP
Verified Verified
Chandler, AZ 85226  (Online Only)
I specialize in Trauma and EMDR Therapy. Difficult experiences in life can bring up feelings of anxiety, depression, or lack of motivation/direction. As an ADHD and chronic fatigue informed provider, I understand the frustration and feelings of shame and disappointment when you’re struggling to function, focus and complete tasks. I can help you process difficult memories, that negative inner voice you can’t seem to ignore and take your power back. I am passionate about working with people who are hurting, to inspire hope, strengthen resiliency, and empower clients to live authentically and regain confidence and joy.
I specialize in Trauma and EMDR Therapy. Difficult experiences in life can bring up feelings of anxiety, depression, or lack of motivation/direction. As an ADHD and chronic fatigue informed provider, I understand the frustration and feelings of shame and disappointment when you’re struggling to function, focus and complete tasks. I can help you process difficult memories, that negative inner voice you can’t seem to ignore and take your power back. I am passionate about working with people who are hurting, to inspire hope, strengthen resiliency, and empower clients to live authentically and regain confidence and joy.
(928) 379-7872 View (928) 379-7872
Photo of Coreen Talbot, MA, LPC , Counselor
Coreen Talbot
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Phoenix, AZ 85020
Accepting New Clients; Coreen is a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Master's degree in Counseling. Coreen has experience and training working with adults experiencing thought disorders, anxiety, depression, mood disorders, traumatic life experiences, interpersonal-relationship challenges, co-occurring disorders, people pleasers, fearful, or avoidant, (Individual Adults Counseling only, No couples or family counseling) Her approach is building comfort by living in the moment and aims to support you in evolving to connect with your true self, adapting unhelpful life strategies into more helpful methods. www.comeasyouarellc.com/
Accepting New Clients; Coreen is a Licensed Professional Counselor with a Master's degree in Counseling. Coreen has experience and training working with adults experiencing thought disorders, anxiety, depression, mood disorders, traumatic life experiences, interpersonal-relationship challenges, co-occurring disorders, people pleasers, fearful, or avoidant, (Individual Adults Counseling only, No couples or family counseling) Her approach is building comfort by living in the moment and aims to support you in evolving to connect with your true self, adapting unhelpful life strategies into more helpful methods. www.comeasyouarellc.com/
(623) 304-5116 View (623) 304-5116
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See more therapy options for Maricopa County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Maricopa County, AZ

3,000+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Maricopa County, AZ who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
85% Depression
75% Self Esteem
74% Relationship Issues
73% Trauma and PTSD
69% Stress
68% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

84% Aetna
70% BlueCross and BlueShield
61% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Maricopa County, AZ see their clients

71% In Person and Online
29% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
17% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Maricopa County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.