Therapists in Gold Canyon, AZ

Photo of Nicoletta Alessandra Carbone (Tomasetti), Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Nicoletta Alessandra Carbone (Tomasetti)
Counselor, LAC, MSPC, BHT
Verified
4 Endorsed
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118
Accepting NEW clients 2024. Our lives are like a story book. We can't keep writing our story if we keep turning back to pages we already wrote.. re-reading and ruminating on our past selves or flipping ahead to blank pages trying to predict a story that hasn't been written. Life transitions, stress, trauma, grief and SO many other variables can get in the way of writing our story. I want help you learn to be present and grounded in your life. Process past experiences and move forward
Accepting NEW clients 2024. Our lives are like a story book. We can't keep writing our story if we keep turning back to pages we already wrote.. re-reading and ruminating on our past selves or flipping ahead to blank pages trying to predict a story that hasn't been written. Life transitions, stress, trauma, grief and SO many other variables can get in the way of writing our story. I want help you learn to be present and grounded in your life. Process past experiences and move forward
(480) 573-6916 View (480) 573-6916
Photo of Jon Rodis, Licensed Professional Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Jon Rodis
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118  (Online Only)
I provide hope and relief to people experiencing strain in their relationships. You and your partner may have been living through communication breakdowns, big life changes, or “couples drift” for years. If you're engaged or newlyweds, you might be hoping to avoid the pitfalls you've seen hurt your friends and family. If you and/or your partner are neurodivergent, you might need someone to help you speak the same language. If any of these struggles sound familiar, it might be time to rediscover the strengths that drew you to each other in the first place.
I provide hope and relief to people experiencing strain in their relationships. You and your partner may have been living through communication breakdowns, big life changes, or “couples drift” for years. If you're engaged or newlyweds, you might be hoping to avoid the pitfalls you've seen hurt your friends and family. If you and/or your partner are neurodivergent, you might need someone to help you speak the same language. If any of these struggles sound familiar, it might be time to rediscover the strengths that drew you to each other in the first place.
(480) 439-2470 View (480) 439-2470
Photo of AZ Whole Heart Connection, LLC in Gold Canyon, AZ
AZ Whole Heart Connection, LLC
MS, LPC , NCC
Verified
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118
Accepting New Clients at our Gold Canyon location, as well as telehealth if preferred. We are a private practice offering psychotherapy for adult individuals and relationship counseling. Psychotherapy and counseling share similarities but differ in scope and depth. Counseling tends to focus on immediate issues, offering guidance, and practical solutions for challenges like relationship problems or stress management. Psychotherapy delves deeper into long-standing patterns, exploring emotions, thoughts, and behaviors to address underlying issues such as trauma, complex mental health conditions, or deep-seated personality traits.
Accepting New Clients at our Gold Canyon location, as well as telehealth if preferred. We are a private practice offering psychotherapy for adult individuals and relationship counseling. Psychotherapy and counseling share similarities but differ in scope and depth. Counseling tends to focus on immediate issues, offering guidance, and practical solutions for challenges like relationship problems or stress management. Psychotherapy delves deeper into long-standing patterns, exploring emotions, thoughts, and behaviors to address underlying issues such as trauma, complex mental health conditions, or deep-seated personality traits.
(520) 827-3547 View (520) 827-3547
Photo of Christie Hebert - Ashbeck, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Christie Hebert - Ashbeck
Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC, E-AP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118
Waitlist for new clients
I work with individuals and couples utilizing a combination of trauma and relationship focused interventions such as Eye-Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Relational Life Therapy (RLT). Our time together will first be spent identifying and exploring negative patterns, emotional triggers and behaviors that are disrupting the harmony in your life and relationships, and then, utilizing the latest research on neurobiology, we will create the insight and awareness needed to guide you out of these dysfunctional cycles, and teach you the skills needed to maintain the change.
I work with individuals and couples utilizing a combination of trauma and relationship focused interventions such as Eye-Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Relational Life Therapy (RLT). Our time together will first be spent identifying and exploring negative patterns, emotional triggers and behaviors that are disrupting the harmony in your life and relationships, and then, utilizing the latest research on neurobiology, we will create the insight and awareness needed to guide you out of these dysfunctional cycles, and teach you the skills needed to maintain the change.
(520) 217-1419 View (520) 217-1419
Photo of Bonnie M McIrvin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Gold Canyon, AZ
Bonnie M McIrvin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CADCIII, NCGCII, CGACII, MAC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
During this very challenging time of communities chaos, personal and career transitions and uncertainties, we are all seeking comfort, understanding, welcoming connection, and joining something that is both meaningful and personally fulfilling and safe to participate in. We seek others that can identify with our own experiences, our fears, and our perceived solutions. We feel guarded and suspicious, and alone and sometimes forgotten. We blame ourselves for feeling depressed or anxious, grief and heartbroken for our families, our future, and work environments. We want to work harder to feel better and yet, continue to struggle.
During this very challenging time of communities chaos, personal and career transitions and uncertainties, we are all seeking comfort, understanding, welcoming connection, and joining something that is both meaningful and personally fulfilling and safe to participate in. We seek others that can identify with our own experiences, our fears, and our perceived solutions. We feel guarded and suspicious, and alone and sometimes forgotten. We blame ourselves for feeling depressed or anxious, grief and heartbroken for our families, our future, and work environments. We want to work harder to feel better and yet, continue to struggle.
(520) 277-2378 View (520) 277-2378
Photo of Pamela Ryan-Hick, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Pamela Ryan-Hick
Counselor, MA, LAC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118
I am EMDR trained. I work with clients who have experienced trauma. I give many resources that help to deal with traumatic memories that may come up in between sessions. Not only do I work with EMDR but I do also use Mindfulness, CBT and DBT. I can help you with self-esteem issues, blocking beliefs and feeder memories so that you can live the life with reduced stress and so that you can live a life that you are meant to live.
I am EMDR trained. I work with clients who have experienced trauma. I give many resources that help to deal with traumatic memories that may come up in between sessions. Not only do I work with EMDR but I do also use Mindfulness, CBT and DBT. I can help you with self-esteem issues, blocking beliefs and feeder memories so that you can live the life with reduced stress and so that you can live a life that you are meant to live.
(480) 680-0073 View (480) 680-0073
Photo of Thriving Minds Academy in Gold Canyon, AZ
Thriving Minds Academy
BCBA, LBA
Verified
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118
At Thriving Minds Academy, we are dedicated to empowering children with autism to reach their full potential. We provide specialized education and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) one-on-one services in Apache Junction, Arizona. Our facility serves children on the autism spectrum, ranging from preschool to middle school age. Our clients face a variety of challenges, including social communication difficulties, sensory sensitivities, repetitive behaviors, and academic delays. We understand the unique needs of each child and tailor our programs to promote their social, emotional, and academic growth. Our team of highly qualified professionals, including special education teachers, ABA therapists, and speech and occupational therapists, work collaboratively to create individualized education plans (IEPs) that address each child's specific goals and accommodations. With a nurturing and inclusive environment, we strive to foster independence, self-confidence, and lifelong learning skills in our students. Join us at Thriving Minds Academy and embark on a journey of growth, empowerment, and success for your child with autism.
At Thriving Minds Academy, we are dedicated to empowering children with autism to reach their full potential. We provide specialized education and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) one-on-one services in Apache Junction, Arizona. Our facility serves children on the autism spectrum, ranging from preschool to middle school age. Our clients face a variety of challenges, including social communication difficulties, sensory sensitivities, repetitive behaviors, and academic delays. We understand the unique needs of each child and tailor our programs to promote their social, emotional, and academic growth. Our team of highly qualified professionals, including special education teachers, ABA therapists, and speech and occupational therapists, work collaboratively to create individualized education plans (IEPs) that address each child's specific goals and accommodations. With a nurturing and inclusive environment, we strive to foster independence, self-confidence, and lifelong learning skills in our students. Join us at Thriving Minds Academy and embark on a journey of growth, empowerment, and success for your child with autism.
(480) 933-5834 View (480) 933-5834
Photo of Gabriella Gibbs in Gold Canyon, AZ
Gabriella Gibbs
BCBA, LBA
Verified
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118
At Thriving Minds Academy, I've made it my mission to create a nurturing environment for children with autism, paying keen attention to their unique social, sensory, and academic challenges. I hold the belief that every child deserves a tailored education and therapy experience that fosters growth, independence, and confidence. With specialized education and personalized ABA services, I empower your child to excel academically, develop vital social skills, and successfully navigate sensory sensitivities.
At Thriving Minds Academy, I've made it my mission to create a nurturing environment for children with autism, paying keen attention to their unique social, sensory, and academic challenges. I hold the belief that every child deserves a tailored education and therapy experience that fosters growth, independence, and confidence. With specialized education and personalized ABA services, I empower your child to excel academically, develop vital social skills, and successfully navigate sensory sensitivities.
(480) 613-7240 View (480) 613-7240
Lori Smith
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MSPC
Verified
Gold Canyon, AZ 85118  (Online Only)
(520) 317-7628 View (520) 317-7628

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Lourdes M Iannello, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Lourdes M Iannello
Counselor, MC, LPC
Verified
Apache Junction, AZ 85218
Not accepting new clients
I am a bilingual Child and Family Counselor. My goal as a counselor is to offer clients a safe and warm environment in which they have the opportunity to explore their options for change and growth. My clients then have the chance to develop different perspectives toward the issues that afflicted them. They can discover solutions that feel right for them and regain a sense of hope and trust in themselves.
I am a bilingual Child and Family Counselor. My goal as a counselor is to offer clients a safe and warm environment in which they have the opportunity to explore their options for change and growth. My clients then have the chance to develop different perspectives toward the issues that afflicted them. They can discover solutions that feel right for them and regain a sense of hope and trust in themselves.
(480) 285-1900 View (480) 285-1900
Photo of Matthew Lewis in Gold Canyon, AZ
Matthew Lewis
MEd
San Tan Valley, AZ 85140
I want to “Know Your Why”-Embarking on a "growth journey" can be a life-changing experience, especially if you're driven by a deep desire to evolve and improve. At the heart of every step towards growth lies a powerful question: "Why is this important to me?" This question isn't just a query; it's the fuel that propels you forward. We're here to guide those passionate about reaching new heights in all of our service areas of sports performances, enriching the depth of their intimate relationships, and providing strong mentorship to your children.
I want to “Know Your Why”-Embarking on a "growth journey" can be a life-changing experience, especially if you're driven by a deep desire to evolve and improve. At the heart of every step towards growth lies a powerful question: "Why is this important to me?" This question isn't just a query; it's the fuel that propels you forward. We're here to guide those passionate about reaching new heights in all of our service areas of sports performances, enriching the depth of their intimate relationships, and providing strong mentorship to your children.
(520) 366-3473 View (520) 366-3473

Online Therapists

Photo of Charlotte A Peper, Licensed Professional Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Charlotte A Peper
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, TAP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Tucson, AZ 85705
I believe that life, like art, is a masterpiece in progress. It may take a few accidents to discover the hidden essence of the picture – and beauty can emerge from error. My work in human services began over 35 years ago. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, a certified Transactional Analysis Practitioner (TAP), EMDR Trained, CAPACITAR Practitioner and Trainer, and a Trainer in Sex Trafficking Research through ASU. I worked with homeless young adults for 11 years and with survivors of trauma for 15 years. I accept client ages 16+.
I believe that life, like art, is a masterpiece in progress. It may take a few accidents to discover the hidden essence of the picture – and beauty can emerge from error. My work in human services began over 35 years ago. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, a certified Transactional Analysis Practitioner (TAP), EMDR Trained, CAPACITAR Practitioner and Trainer, and a Trainer in Sex Trafficking Research through ASU. I worked with homeless young adults for 11 years and with survivors of trauma for 15 years. I accept client ages 16+.
(928) 212-2960 View (928) 212-2960
Photo of Kayla Chamberlain, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Kayla Chamberlain
Counselor, BC-TMH
Verified
Tempe, AZ 85281  (Online Only)
My therapeutic approach is eclectic and client centered. I am a supportive, active listener challenging and guiding clients to create an abundant life worth living. I create a space of safety where together clients and I dive deep addressing root causes of issues. I assist clients in acquiring tools to cope with life's challenges building healthier strategies for life long healing.
My therapeutic approach is eclectic and client centered. I am a supportive, active listener challenging and guiding clients to create an abundant life worth living. I create a space of safety where together clients and I dive deep addressing root causes of issues. I assist clients in acquiring tools to cope with life's challenges building healthier strategies for life long healing.
(623) 343-8745 View (623) 343-8745
Photo of Keoni Sablan, Marriage & Family Therapist in Gold Canyon, AZ
Keoni Sablan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT, BC-TMHP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Gilbert, AZ 85296
As a Catholic, you are struggling to improve your marriage, family, career, performance, or spiritual life. You’re someone who desires more for yourself and those you love but still find yourself struggling to progress, feeling like your efforts never seem to move the needle, leaving you more and more burnt out. You’re feeling dissatisfied, like you're just going through the motions, but you’re ready to make a change. You’re ready to understand what's tripping you up. You’re ready to learn new skills to improve. Most of all, you’re ready to live with purpose and find a sense of peace. I want to help you get there.
As a Catholic, you are struggling to improve your marriage, family, career, performance, or spiritual life. You’re someone who desires more for yourself and those you love but still find yourself struggling to progress, feeling like your efforts never seem to move the needle, leaving you more and more burnt out. You’re feeling dissatisfied, like you're just going through the motions, but you’re ready to make a change. You’re ready to understand what's tripping you up. You’re ready to learn new skills to improve. Most of all, you’re ready to live with purpose and find a sense of peace. I want to help you get there.
(480) 470-8838 View (480) 470-8838
Photo of Mary Martin Hayden, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Gold Canyon, AZ
Mary Martin Hayden
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Tucson, AZ 85748  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
For many people, searching for a therapist that they can trust is intimidating. I want to make this process as comfortable and stress-free as possible. I promise to offer you a safe and non-judgmental place where you can talk and be heard. I believe that the answers lie within you and processing how you feel inside is the first step in unlocking the life that you seek. I will gently nudge but never push you towards your goals. Step into my virtual room and let me help you achieve the solutions you are looking for in your life.
For many people, searching for a therapist that they can trust is intimidating. I want to make this process as comfortable and stress-free as possible. I promise to offer you a safe and non-judgmental place where you can talk and be heard. I believe that the answers lie within you and processing how you feel inside is the first step in unlocking the life that you seek. I will gently nudge but never push you towards your goals. Step into my virtual room and let me help you achieve the solutions you are looking for in your life.
(520) 412-2781 View (520) 412-2781
Photo of Kari L Hesketh, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Kari L Hesketh
Counselor, MA, LAC
Verified
3 Endorsed
Chandler, AZ 85248
I believe people are courageous to face their individual and relationship challenges. My role as a therapist is to assist my clients toward a more desirable future and provide a safe, non-judgmental, supportive environment that nurtures growth and healing. I approach therapy from an integrative holistic perspective. My approach is influenced largely by but not limited to Client-centered, CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy), DBT (dialectical behavioral therapy), EMDR (Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing) trauma therapy, play therapy, sandtray, expressive arts, and Neurofeedback Brain Training for individuals and families.
I believe people are courageous to face their individual and relationship challenges. My role as a therapist is to assist my clients toward a more desirable future and provide a safe, non-judgmental, supportive environment that nurtures growth and healing. I approach therapy from an integrative holistic perspective. My approach is influenced largely by but not limited to Client-centered, CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy), DBT (dialectical behavioral therapy), EMDR (Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing) trauma therapy, play therapy, sandtray, expressive arts, and Neurofeedback Brain Training for individuals and families.
(520) 376-1502 View (520) 376-1502
Photo of Amber Twigg, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Amber Twigg
Counselor, MC, LAC, NCC
Verified
Queen Creek, AZ 85142
Mental health is an important part of overall well-being. My mission is to provide counseling services that focus on the relational and developmental aspects of mental health. I embrace a comprehensive approach to mental health counseling, customizing services to suit every individual's distinctive requirements. The primary aim is to support clients in attaining their best possible mental health and overall well-being.
Mental health is an important part of overall well-being. My mission is to provide counseling services that focus on the relational and developmental aspects of mental health. I embrace a comprehensive approach to mental health counseling, customizing services to suit every individual's distinctive requirements. The primary aim is to support clients in attaining their best possible mental health and overall well-being.
(520) 827-2936 View (520) 827-2936
Photo of Gary Miller, Master Social Work in Gold Canyon, AZ
Gary Miller
Master Social Work, DBH, LMSW
Verified
Chandler, AZ 85248  (Online Only)
You are here because you are ready for something to change in your life. I will work with you to identify problem areas, achieve peace and improve your relationships. I will help ease your frustration, irritability and make sense of your world. Life is hard, let me help you make it more manageable. Together, we will work on symptoms and stressors to help you experience a more meaningful, satisfying life.
You are here because you are ready for something to change in your life. I will work with you to identify problem areas, achieve peace and improve your relationships. I will help ease your frustration, irritability and make sense of your world. Life is hard, let me help you make it more manageable. Together, we will work on symptoms and stressors to help you experience a more meaningful, satisfying life.
(480) 690-1665 View (480) 690-1665
Photo of Tina Minchella, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Tina Minchella
Counselor, LAC
Verified
Chandler, AZ 85224
Waitlist for new clients
While there are common challenges encountered in life, such as anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, and stress, they often leave us feeling alone; but we are not meant to heal alone! By nurturing an empathetic, client-centered counseling relationship, I strive to create a space that honors the unique stories and lived experiences of each client, couple, and family while supporting clients as they build a toolkit that promotes balance, growth, and improved relationships with self and others.
While there are common challenges encountered in life, such as anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, and stress, they often leave us feeling alone; but we are not meant to heal alone! By nurturing an empathetic, client-centered counseling relationship, I strive to create a space that honors the unique stories and lived experiences of each client, couple, and family while supporting clients as they build a toolkit that promotes balance, growth, and improved relationships with self and others.
(928) 628-7746 View (928) 628-7746
Photo of Dana Tate, Counselor in Gold Canyon, AZ
Dana Tate
Counselor, MS/CCMH, LAC, LMHCA
Verified
Laveen, AZ 85339  (Online Only)
Through the use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) I help clients to identify how their thoughts and attitudes impact their behaviors and feelings. As we work through identifying those thoughts, we focus on building up coping skills and new techniques that can help them to sustain the changes they work on, while focusing on achieving their overall goals.
Through the use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) I help clients to identify how their thoughts and attitudes impact their behaviors and feelings. As we work through identifying those thoughts, we focus on building up coping skills and new techniques that can help them to sustain the changes they work on, while focusing on achieving their overall goals.
(623) 304-9843 View (623) 304-9843

See more therapy options for Gold Canyon

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Gold Canyon, AZ

< 10

Therapists in Gold Canyon, AZ who prioritize treating:

67% Depression
67% Anxiety
67% Trauma and PTSD
67% Family Conflict
56% Coping Skills
44% Relationship Issues
44% Eating Disorders

Average years in practice

3 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

83% Aetna
83% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
67% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Gold Canyon, AZ see their clients

67% In Person and Online
33% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
12% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Gold Canyon?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.