Therapists in Coconino County, AZ

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Photo of Emily Bauerle, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Emily Bauerle
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CEIM
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86004
I am a Licensed Social Worker who provides professional counseling services to those seeking greater hope and healing in their mental, emotional, and behavioral health. I am a trauma oriented therapist specializing in PTSD, spiritual, and psychological abuse. I am passionate about the health and wholeness of people and believe that professional counseling is one way that God meets us and draws us towards living more complete, purposeful, and healed lives. I find incredible solace in prayer, and love to integrate faith and spirituality into the professional counseling work I do.
I am a Licensed Social Worker who provides professional counseling services to those seeking greater hope and healing in their mental, emotional, and behavioral health. I am a trauma oriented therapist specializing in PTSD, spiritual, and psychological abuse. I am passionate about the health and wholeness of people and believe that professional counseling is one way that God meets us and draws us towards living more complete, purposeful, and healed lives. I find incredible solace in prayer, and love to integrate faith and spirituality into the professional counseling work I do.
(928) 433-2228 View (928) 433-2228
Photo of Lindsay Seals - Equine Assisted Psychotherapy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Lindsay Seals - Equine Assisted Psychotherapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
Lindsay Seals, an LMSW practicing at Beyond the Pines, is offering Equine Assisted Psychotherapy in partnership with Horses, Heroes, and Hope. Lindsay is being trained under the principals of Natural Lifemanship in order to aid individauls who are experiencing trauma responses, relationship issues, anxiety, low self-esteem, challenging life transitions, and/or are in a state of overwhelm and are struggling to live balanced, healthy, and present lifestyles by developing deeper connection and relationship with oneself and their equine partners.
Lindsay Seals, an LMSW practicing at Beyond the Pines, is offering Equine Assisted Psychotherapy in partnership with Horses, Heroes, and Hope. Lindsay is being trained under the principals of Natural Lifemanship in order to aid individauls who are experiencing trauma responses, relationship issues, anxiety, low self-esteem, challenging life transitions, and/or are in a state of overwhelm and are struggling to live balanced, healthy, and present lifestyles by developing deeper connection and relationship with oneself and their equine partners.
(928) 224-3080 x3 View (928) 224-3080 x3
Photo of Christopher Schmelzle, Psychologist in Coconino County, AZ
Christopher Schmelzle
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86004  (Online Only)
I am a Licensed Clinical Psychologist with over 10 years of experience in mental health. I have worked and trained in a wide variety of professional settings including private practice, outpatient and inpatient treatment facilities (UCSD's Co-Occurring Disorders Clinic and the Community Research Foundation), college counseling centers, and post-doctoral studies at the San Diego Psychoanalytic Center where I have received advanced training in psychodynamic psychotherapy. I have a doctorate in clinical psychology from the California School of Professional Psychology. Also, I am licensed in Arizona and California.
I am a Licensed Clinical Psychologist with over 10 years of experience in mental health. I have worked and trained in a wide variety of professional settings including private practice, outpatient and inpatient treatment facilities (UCSD's Co-Occurring Disorders Clinic and the Community Research Foundation), college counseling centers, and post-doctoral studies at the San Diego Psychoanalytic Center where I have received advanced training in psychodynamic psychotherapy. I have a doctorate in clinical psychology from the California School of Professional Psychology. Also, I am licensed in Arizona and California.
(619) 473-2578 View (619) 473-2578
Photo of Cristina Piastrini, Licensed Professional Counselor in Coconino County, AZ
Cristina Piastrini
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, MC, LPC
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86005
As a therapist, my mission is to provide a compassionate and non-judgmental relational context so that I can help my clients in the resolution of their profound sense of loneliness and feelings that "no one can understand their pain". Within the therapeutic relationship, I can help my clients in reviewing and correcting maladaptive strategies of self-protection, and in finding ways to feel safe in a world that feels unsafe. I believe therapy can help immensely in resolving emotional self-isolation, and in reconnecting with the resilience, potential, and motivation necessary to work at, and achieve personal aspirations.
As a therapist, my mission is to provide a compassionate and non-judgmental relational context so that I can help my clients in the resolution of their profound sense of loneliness and feelings that "no one can understand their pain". Within the therapeutic relationship, I can help my clients in reviewing and correcting maladaptive strategies of self-protection, and in finding ways to feel safe in a world that feels unsafe. I believe therapy can help immensely in resolving emotional self-isolation, and in reconnecting with the resilience, potential, and motivation necessary to work at, and achieve personal aspirations.
(928) 295-6969 View (928) 295-6969
Photo of Lana Lee, Licensed Professional Counselor in Coconino County, AZ
Lana Lee
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86005  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My role as a therapist is to create a safe space where clients can unpack life’s troubles in their journey of finding freedom, healing, and wholeness. I take a strength-based and culturally sensitive approach with the goal of empowerment in personal growth and overcoming adversity.
My role as a therapist is to create a safe space where clients can unpack life’s troubles in their journey of finding freedom, healing, and wholeness. I take a strength-based and culturally sensitive approach with the goal of empowerment in personal growth and overcoming adversity.
(928) 256-5202 View (928) 256-5202
Photo of Mark S Anton, Licensed Professional Counselor in Coconino County, AZ
Mark S Anton
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC-BC, LCS
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
As an independently licensed therapist, and the owner of Northern Bliss Counseling Services my goal is to help you create and live out the best version of yourself. I am confident that we all have this inside, but might not know how to find it. Together, we will identify your goals and values and create a plan to live congruent with these values. We will identify what is important to you in life and find a way to get there together.
As an independently licensed therapist, and the owner of Northern Bliss Counseling Services my goal is to help you create and live out the best version of yourself. I am confident that we all have this inside, but might not know how to find it. Together, we will identify your goals and values and create a plan to live congruent with these values. We will identify what is important to you in life and find a way to get there together.
(928) 433-5186 View (928) 433-5186
Photo of Keith A. Cross (Prescott Relationship Center), Marriage & Family Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Keith A. Cross (Prescott Relationship Center)
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT
Verified Verified
13 Endorsed
Flagstaff, AZ 86001  (Online Only)
At the Prescott Relationship Center, PLLC, Dr. Cross will help you stop the pain and conflict so you can feel connected, safe, and appreciated in your relationship. Visit our website at www.prescottrelationshipcenter.com for more information. Dr. Cross is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with a passion for coaching individuals and couples. Because I am now exclusively offering coaching services, if you are interested in counseling services, please feel free to contact us to get scheduled with one of our relationship counseling experts!
At the Prescott Relationship Center, PLLC, Dr. Cross will help you stop the pain and conflict so you can feel connected, safe, and appreciated in your relationship. Visit our website at www.prescottrelationshipcenter.com for more information. Dr. Cross is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with a passion for coaching individuals and couples. Because I am now exclusively offering coaching services, if you are interested in counseling services, please feel free to contact us to get scheduled with one of our relationship counseling experts!
(928) 420-8300 View (928) 420-8300
Photo of Alicja B Stewart, Psychologist in Coconino County, AZ
Alicja B Stewart
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
Life with its transitions can be stressful and overwhelming. Even positive changes trigger distress. On this challenging path I offer my extensive training and experience to provide guidance helping you overcome obstacles to feeling better, to increase your curiosity and exploration of your self-growth, to understand yourself deeply, your relationship concerns; to make possible your working through the difficult situation. I have been successfully working with adolescents, adults, couples, and families. Together we identify long or short-term life difficulties such as helplessness, low self-esteem, relationship problems; we work them through, and increase satisfaction and meaning of life.
Life with its transitions can be stressful and overwhelming. Even positive changes trigger distress. On this challenging path I offer my extensive training and experience to provide guidance helping you overcome obstacles to feeling better, to increase your curiosity and exploration of your self-growth, to understand yourself deeply, your relationship concerns; to make possible your working through the difficult situation. I have been successfully working with adolescents, adults, couples, and families. Together we identify long or short-term life difficulties such as helplessness, low self-esteem, relationship problems; we work them through, and increase satisfaction and meaning of life.
(928) 298-4912 View (928) 298-4912
Photo of Lorraine Young, Psychologist in Coconino County, AZ
Lorraine Young
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
Your life is a divine gift and worthy of the time and attention you can provide it - especially during challenging times when your life is turned upside down, relationships are troubled, life is confusing and painful, past experiences make the present hard to navigate, or sadness or fears make coping difficult. It is my goal to create with you a place of safety, understanding, acceptance and exploration so that you can experience the changes and growth that you desire.
Your life is a divine gift and worthy of the time and attention you can provide it - especially during challenging times when your life is turned upside down, relationships are troubled, life is confusing and painful, past experiences make the present hard to navigate, or sadness or fears make coping difficult. It is my goal to create with you a place of safety, understanding, acceptance and exploration so that you can experience the changes and growth that you desire.
(928) 358-4253 View (928) 358-4253
Photo of Osvelia Deeds, Psychologist in Coconino County, AZ
Osvelia Deeds
Psychologist, PhD, MA, MSCP
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
Not accepting new clients
I am a licensed clinical psychologist; I provide psychotherapy and psychological testing for adults, children, and adolescents. Feeling stuck? I hear you. My primary aim is to help people help themselves, not by changing who they are, but by helping them take ownership of their authentic selves, minus the self-imposed roadblocks. Individuals, couples, and families have much to gain when they are ready to take charge, gain control, and move forward with their lives. OFFERING TELEHEALTH ONLY.
I am a licensed clinical psychologist; I provide psychotherapy and psychological testing for adults, children, and adolescents. Feeling stuck? I hear you. My primary aim is to help people help themselves, not by changing who they are, but by helping them take ownership of their authentic selves, minus the self-imposed roadblocks. Individuals, couples, and families have much to gain when they are ready to take charge, gain control, and move forward with their lives. OFFERING TELEHEALTH ONLY.
(505) 847-3293 x850 View (505) 847-3293 x850
Photo of Shane Noel Canitz Cultivate Counseling, Counselor in Coconino County, AZ
Shane Noel Canitz Cultivate Counseling
Counselor, MA, LAC
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86004
As a writer and counselor, I believe in the power of words and stories for healing. We are exposed to many messages as we journey through life, both from others and ourselves. These messages have a profound impact, influencing our thoughts, emotions and behaviors, and can become detrimental to our mental health. Thus, my goal as a therapist is to provide a safe, affirming atmosphere for you to explore these personal messages, and to walk beside you as you create a more hopeful and meaningful narrative. I believe you already contain the seeds of hope and recovery within you; I would be honored to help you discover and cultivate them.
As a writer and counselor, I believe in the power of words and stories for healing. We are exposed to many messages as we journey through life, both from others and ourselves. These messages have a profound impact, influencing our thoughts, emotions and behaviors, and can become detrimental to our mental health. Thus, my goal as a therapist is to provide a safe, affirming atmosphere for you to explore these personal messages, and to walk beside you as you create a more hopeful and meaningful narrative. I believe you already contain the seeds of hope and recovery within you; I would be honored to help you discover and cultivate them.
(928) 585-6487 View (928) 585-6487
Photo of Bethany Camp, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Bethany Camp
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LCSW-S
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
I offer psychotherapy for individual adults. Psychotherapy with me is a confidential, nonjudgmental, collaborative, and compassionate process. This means that we work together to find the root cause of your issues rather than focus on quick fixes and bandaids. Your reality, core beliefs, narratives, and relationships are shaped by your conscious and unconscious mind & your attachment style. Together, we work through your past to rebuild a new way of viewing and being in the world that serves who you are today. When working with me, you can expect an approach that is highly personalized to your personal growth and values.
I offer psychotherapy for individual adults. Psychotherapy with me is a confidential, nonjudgmental, collaborative, and compassionate process. This means that we work together to find the root cause of your issues rather than focus on quick fixes and bandaids. Your reality, core beliefs, narratives, and relationships are shaped by your conscious and unconscious mind & your attachment style. Together, we work through your past to rebuild a new way of viewing and being in the world that serves who you are today. When working with me, you can expect an approach that is highly personalized to your personal growth and values.
(928) 267-0873 View (928) 267-0873
Photo of Ron Paul, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Ron Paul
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
Not accepting new clients
I see the work that I do with my clients as a journey, an inner journey, to help clients discover why they sometimes think, feel, and act in unsatisfying ways. My objective is to encourage them to use their strengths and resources to rediscover the whole and complete person that is their authentic self. Through this journey, I strive to help clients achieve the change required to view things differently and to live a more joyful and peaceful existence with meaning and purpose.
I see the work that I do with my clients as a journey, an inner journey, to help clients discover why they sometimes think, feel, and act in unsatisfying ways. My objective is to encourage them to use their strengths and resources to rediscover the whole and complete person that is their authentic self. Through this journey, I strive to help clients achieve the change required to view things differently and to live a more joyful and peaceful existence with meaning and purpose.
(928) 379-6272 View (928) 379-6272
Photo of Craig Mahaffy - Abundant Hope Integrated Solutions, Counselor in Coconino County, AZ
Craig Mahaffy - Abundant Hope Integrated Solutions
Counselor, MSc, LAC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Flagstaff, AZ 86001  (Online Only)
Welcome! I am dedicated to co-creating a space for you to heal, learn, and ultimately thrive. I believe that courage, humor, and being actively engaged in the process are essential components to successful therapy. I will invite you to explore your inner world, try on new ideas, and get in touch with what it’s like to be you. I aim for therapy to be fun, rewarding and to help you grow in the ways that you want to. You get to decide where we are going, and I will walk alongside.
Welcome! I am dedicated to co-creating a space for you to heal, learn, and ultimately thrive. I believe that courage, humor, and being actively engaged in the process are essential components to successful therapy. I will invite you to explore your inner world, try on new ideas, and get in touch with what it’s like to be you. I aim for therapy to be fun, rewarding and to help you grow in the ways that you want to. You get to decide where we are going, and I will walk alongside.
(928) 754-8678 View (928) 754-8678
Photo of Sandra Seby, Licensed Professional Counselor in Coconino County, AZ
Sandra Seby
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
I understand life can throw curveballs, causing us to feel unbalanced and uncertain how to proceed. During these times, I can provide guidance and strategies to help you regain stability and hope. I do this using evidenced-based strategies such as CBT, EMDR, DBT, IFS Parts Work, mindfulness, to name a few modalities.
I understand life can throw curveballs, causing us to feel unbalanced and uncertain how to proceed. During these times, I can provide guidance and strategies to help you regain stability and hope. I do this using evidenced-based strategies such as CBT, EMDR, DBT, IFS Parts Work, mindfulness, to name a few modalities.
(928) 228-5862 View (928) 228-5862
Photo of Austin Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Austin Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
I have spent 10 years in the mental health field focusing my passions on mediation and conciliation for couples, families, churches, and organizations as well as childhood behavior, transition to young adulthood, and trauma. I am available for faith-affirming and Christ-centered sessions, upon request. I am trained in DBT-Informed services and utilize a strengths-based perspective as well as a solution-focused approach. I will provide a validating and supportive environment to partner with you for your desired goals. I run Peaks Counseling LLC. as a practice start-up in Downtown Flagstaff affiliated with Balance Health and Wellness.
I have spent 10 years in the mental health field focusing my passions on mediation and conciliation for couples, families, churches, and organizations as well as childhood behavior, transition to young adulthood, and trauma. I am available for faith-affirming and Christ-centered sessions, upon request. I am trained in DBT-Informed services and utilize a strengths-based perspective as well as a solution-focused approach. I will provide a validating and supportive environment to partner with you for your desired goals. I run Peaks Counseling LLC. as a practice start-up in Downtown Flagstaff affiliated with Balance Health and Wellness.
(520) 523-7670 View (520) 523-7670
Photo of Kate Needle, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Kate Needle
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86004
I am passionate about holistic wellness and seek to integrate a trauma-informed approach that recognizes the dynamic interplay of the mind, body, and spirit. I am particularly interested in the exploration of childhood experiences, relationships and their influence on the development and functioning of the ego, subconscious mind, core beliefs, and subsequent behavior. I believe there is no “one fits all” method to treatment and consider a client-centered approach as the foundation that guides the therapeutic process.
I am passionate about holistic wellness and seek to integrate a trauma-informed approach that recognizes the dynamic interplay of the mind, body, and spirit. I am particularly interested in the exploration of childhood experiences, relationships and their influence on the development and functioning of the ego, subconscious mind, core beliefs, and subsequent behavior. I believe there is no “one fits all” method to treatment and consider a client-centered approach as the foundation that guides the therapeutic process.
(928) 504-2572 View (928) 504-2572
Photo of Claire Allan Camp, Psychologist in Coconino County, AZ
Claire Allan Camp
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
Not accepting new clients
As people we are faced with many different trials and challenges throughout our lives and if you are reading this, you are likely thinking about talking to someone about the things you are facing. I appreciate how much courage it can take to begin the search of finding the therapeutic relationship that best fits you. I have a diversity of experience in working with older adults, adults, adolescents and children with a wide range of concerns including depression, anxiety, phase of life difficulties, trauma, drug and alcohol issues, and relationship problems.
As people we are faced with many different trials and challenges throughout our lives and if you are reading this, you are likely thinking about talking to someone about the things you are facing. I appreciate how much courage it can take to begin the search of finding the therapeutic relationship that best fits you. I have a diversity of experience in working with older adults, adults, adolescents and children with a wide range of concerns including depression, anxiety, phase of life difficulties, trauma, drug and alcohol issues, and relationship problems.
(928) 550-7858 View (928) 550-7858
Photo of Managing With Mindfulness, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Managing With Mindfulness
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-AZ, LCSW-IL
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001  (Online Only)
I strive to hold a safe space to navigate the highs and lows of this journey called life! I align with mindfulness-based practice along IFS (Internal Family Systems). We can explore together how past events can impact our present day relationships with self and others. Challenging childhoods, relationships and experiences may have resulted in picking up old belief systems that no longer serve us.
I strive to hold a safe space to navigate the highs and lows of this journey called life! I align with mindfulness-based practice along IFS (Internal Family Systems). We can explore together how past events can impact our present day relationships with self and others. Challenging childhoods, relationships and experiences may have resulted in picking up old belief systems that no longer serve us.
(928) 668-8932 View (928) 668-8932
Photo of Connie Krug, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Coconino County, AZ
Connie Krug
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Flagstaff, AZ 86001  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My approach is based upon mutual respect, kindness and an appreciation for all life events that have helped to shape who you are today. I focus on strength, collaboration and a nonjudgmental approach. I enjoy working with adults who are motivated in overcoming the difficulties that are a part of their journey.
My approach is based upon mutual respect, kindness and an appreciation for all life events that have helped to shape who you are today. I focus on strength, collaboration and a nonjudgmental approach. I enjoy working with adults who are motivated in overcoming the difficulties that are a part of their journey.
(928) 233-6116 View (928) 233-6116

See more therapy options for Coconino County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Coconino County, AZ

200+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Coconino County, AZ who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
85% Depression
76% Relationship Issues
75% Trauma and PTSD
72% Self Esteem
68% Stress
64% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

73% BlueCross and BlueShield
64% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
62% Aetna

How Therapists in Coconino County, AZ see their clients

61% In Person and Online
39% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
18% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Coconino County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.