Therapists in Birmingham, AL

Photo of Zack McClain, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Birmingham, AL
Zack McClain
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35226  (Online Only)
As people, we all search for balance in this journey called life. I'm here for clients who look like I do because we've shared similar experiences and can relate as a result. I am here for clients who want to feel comfortable and seen before divulging information about their experiences but who are also ready to acknowledge their opportunities for personal growth and utilize them. Forward progression is a desire of many, but work will be required to achieve it. I am here to help others address childhood trauma, relationship struggles, grief, school/work life, and new environments or seasons of life.
As people, we all search for balance in this journey called life. I'm here for clients who look like I do because we've shared similar experiences and can relate as a result. I am here for clients who want to feel comfortable and seen before divulging information about their experiences but who are also ready to acknowledge their opportunities for personal growth and utilize them. Forward progression is a desire of many, but work will be required to achieve it. I am here to help others address childhood trauma, relationship struggles, grief, school/work life, and new environments or seasons of life.
(205) 751-5346 View (205) 751-5346
Photo of Rachel E Lawley, Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Rachel E Lawley
Counselor, MEd, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35226
Life problems can create feelings of depression, loneliness, hopelessness, and anxiety. In therapy we explore the reasons for self-defeating behavior. As we become more aware of what we do and why, we can begin to make the necessary changes for a happier, more fulfilling life. Who would you be if you were all that you can be? The ability to be fully yourself, comfortable in your own skin, enjoying your relationships - these possibilities are in you, no matter how great the obstacles you have met in your life. Working together, we will build on your strengths, heal your relationship with yourself, and create lasting change.
Life problems can create feelings of depression, loneliness, hopelessness, and anxiety. In therapy we explore the reasons for self-defeating behavior. As we become more aware of what we do and why, we can begin to make the necessary changes for a happier, more fulfilling life. Who would you be if you were all that you can be? The ability to be fully yourself, comfortable in your own skin, enjoying your relationships - these possibilities are in you, no matter how great the obstacles you have met in your life. Working together, we will build on your strengths, heal your relationship with yourself, and create lasting change.
(205) 289-7023 View (205) 289-7023
Photo of Caroline Baker, Licensed Professional Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Caroline Baker
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35209  (Online Only)
My ideal client is one who is ready to talk about their difficulties and problems and accept therapeutic relationship building, unconditional positive regard, feedback and reframing. I enjoy working with clients across the life continuum starting at age 4.
My ideal client is one who is ready to talk about their difficulties and problems and accept therapeutic relationship building, unconditional positive regard, feedback and reframing. I enjoy working with clients across the life continuum starting at age 4.
(205) 519-3873 View (205) 519-3873
Photo of Richard Fallin, Licensed Professional Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Richard Fallin
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCS
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35244
Many people believe therapy is a quick fix, or more accurately that a therapist can “fix” us or our problems. In reality, therapy is a process that can take time, but most importantly, hard work. Have you struggled with anxiety, depression, or maintaining social connections? Do you need to repair or restore your marriage? Take first steps in preparing for marriage? Learn how to connect as a family? Find a new normal after divorce? Heal from a loss? Navigate the waters of being a teenager and managing your parents and teacher's expectations? As a therapist with over 18 years of experience, I am excited to help you begin.
Many people believe therapy is a quick fix, or more accurately that a therapist can “fix” us or our problems. In reality, therapy is a process that can take time, but most importantly, hard work. Have you struggled with anxiety, depression, or maintaining social connections? Do you need to repair or restore your marriage? Take first steps in preparing for marriage? Learn how to connect as a family? Find a new normal after divorce? Heal from a loss? Navigate the waters of being a teenager and managing your parents and teacher's expectations? As a therapist with over 18 years of experience, I am excited to help you begin.
(205) 751-6905 View (205) 751-6905
Photo of Ginny Nix, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Birmingham, AL
Ginny Nix
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, PIP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35205
I believe that the first step in effecting positive change in your life begins with building self-awareness. So often, avoiding issues is the easier and more attractive option, but I firmly believe that ignorance is not bliss. As a therapist, my job is to provide a safe and judgement-free space for you to learn more about yourself in order to attain sustainable change. If you are experiencing things like issues in your relationships, loneliness, depression, anxiety, grief and loss, low self-esteem -- I can help you.
I believe that the first step in effecting positive change in your life begins with building self-awareness. So often, avoiding issues is the easier and more attractive option, but I firmly believe that ignorance is not bliss. As a therapist, my job is to provide a safe and judgement-free space for you to learn more about yourself in order to attain sustainable change. If you are experiencing things like issues in your relationships, loneliness, depression, anxiety, grief and loss, low self-esteem -- I can help you.
(205) 880-0881 View (205) 880-0881
Photo of Kade Boliek, Associate Licensed Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Kade Boliek
Associate Licensed Counselor, MA, ALC, NCC
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35244
We each have our individual struggles which can prevent us from moving forward in our lives. Do you deal with overwhelming feelings of anxiety, guilt, or shame? Do you struggle with your identity or self-esteem? Are you looking to learn more about yourself and find ways that you can live life more authentically and with less fear? I'm here to assist you in identifying those unique needs and constructing a plan that enhances your strengths while supporting you to make the changes you want in life. I'm a therapist who values transparency. I want my clients to feel they never have to guess what I'm thinking.
We each have our individual struggles which can prevent us from moving forward in our lives. Do you deal with overwhelming feelings of anxiety, guilt, or shame? Do you struggle with your identity or self-esteem? Are you looking to learn more about yourself and find ways that you can live life more authentically and with less fear? I'm here to assist you in identifying those unique needs and constructing a plan that enhances your strengths while supporting you to make the changes you want in life. I'm a therapist who values transparency. I want my clients to feel they never have to guess what I'm thinking.
(205) 751-6756 View (205) 751-6756
Photo of Erica Wilbanks, Licensed Professional Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Erica Wilbanks
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
7 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35244
Are you ready for change? Austrian psychiatrist and psychotherapist, Viktor Frankl stated “When we are no longer able to change a situation, we are challenged to change ourselves”. I have built most of my work around studying trauma and the effects it has on a human. Trauma defined is an event or circumstance that is beyond a person's ability to cope properly. Many symptoms like anxiety, depression, dissociation, fatigue, and guilt follow trauma. Trauma is scary and I do not believe we were meant to do life alone. I offer to serve as someone who can collaboratively walk through the trauma with you.
Are you ready for change? Austrian psychiatrist and psychotherapist, Viktor Frankl stated “When we are no longer able to change a situation, we are challenged to change ourselves”. I have built most of my work around studying trauma and the effects it has on a human. Trauma defined is an event or circumstance that is beyond a person's ability to cope properly. Many symptoms like anxiety, depression, dissociation, fatigue, and guilt follow trauma. Trauma is scary and I do not believe we were meant to do life alone. I offer to serve as someone who can collaboratively walk through the trauma with you.
(205) 883-8517 View (205) 883-8517
Photo of Strive Counseling Services, L.L.C. , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Birmingham, AL
Strive Counseling Services, L.L.C.
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, PIP, RPT
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35203
“Building A Foundation For A Healthier You is paramount at Strive Counseling Services.” I provide the highest quality of therapeutic counseling to children and adults. I utilize evidenced-based approaches to assist clients with identifying their strengths to reach their optimal potential by developing confidence, skills for coping, and problem solving. I look forward to working with you to identify the best treatment modality to address your mental health needs. When you are ready to schedule your initial session please be prepared to provide your insurance information. “Let’s Strive Together!"
“Building A Foundation For A Healthier You is paramount at Strive Counseling Services.” I provide the highest quality of therapeutic counseling to children and adults. I utilize evidenced-based approaches to assist clients with identifying their strengths to reach their optimal potential by developing confidence, skills for coping, and problem solving. I look forward to working with you to identify the best treatment modality to address your mental health needs. When you are ready to schedule your initial session please be prepared to provide your insurance information. “Let’s Strive Together!"
(205) 512-3242 View (205) 512-3242
Photo of Falyn Cochran, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Birmingham, AL
Falyn Cochran
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35223  (Online Only)
Falyn Cochran is a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker (LICSW) with over 6 years of experience in the mental health field and counseling. She has a driven passion to help adults overcome life's unique challenges and gain interest in living a fulfilling life. Falyn specializes in depression, anxiety, relationship issues, women's issues, and adjustment disorders.
Falyn Cochran is a Licensed Independent Clinical Social Worker (LICSW) with over 6 years of experience in the mental health field and counseling. She has a driven passion to help adults overcome life's unique challenges and gain interest in living a fulfilling life. Falyn specializes in depression, anxiety, relationship issues, women's issues, and adjustment disorders.
(205) 740-4908 View (205) 740-4908
Photo of Stewart A Jackson, Marriage & Family Therapist in Birmingham, AL
Stewart A Jackson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, D, Min
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35205
Not accepting new clients
Life is often harder than we expect. Transitions, stresses, and becoming stuck in a relationship is all a part of a normal life. If you are open to another way of thinking about your life, counseling can help. Your motivation to make changes is the path to a happier, easier and healthier life. I welcome the opportunity to work with all who want more out of life.
Life is often harder than we expect. Transitions, stresses, and becoming stuck in a relationship is all a part of a normal life. If you are open to another way of thinking about your life, counseling can help. Your motivation to make changes is the path to a happier, easier and healthier life. I welcome the opportunity to work with all who want more out of life.
(205) 201-0939 View (205) 201-0939
Photo of Zachary Aaron Dembo, Licensed Professional Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Zachary Aaron Dembo
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35223  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
“Am I broken?” This is a question that many of us ask ourselves when our lives become filled with suffering. It often arises after an experience leaves us struggling to return to normal or causes chaos to become our new normal. It's something considered after comparing ourselves to the people around us, friends, family, colleagues and seeing our differences. It is something we wonder when unending worry robs our life of joy or when overwhelming sadness and mental fog obscure the possibility of anything better. In actuality we do not break and within our misery we will find the tools needed to build ourselves a life worth living.
“Am I broken?” This is a question that many of us ask ourselves when our lives become filled with suffering. It often arises after an experience leaves us struggling to return to normal or causes chaos to become our new normal. It's something considered after comparing ourselves to the people around us, friends, family, colleagues and seeing our differences. It is something we wonder when unending worry robs our life of joy or when overwhelming sadness and mental fog obscure the possibility of anything better. In actuality we do not break and within our misery we will find the tools needed to build ourselves a life worth living.
(205) 831-3921 View (205) 831-3921
Photo of Charles Jay Whetsell, Psychologist in Birmingham, AL
Charles Jay Whetsell
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35209
My orientation is towards helping clients experience at the deepest level possible those beliefs and emotional stances which color every moment of their lives, even if unconsciously, and which give rise to the variety of circumstances and interactions of daily life. "Problems" are viewed in the context of the whole life, and seen as signs that a once-creative solution is now blocking the full expression of vitality, meaning, and one's most fundamental nature. Change is possible only on the foundation of a precise and honest experience of oneself marked by warmth and acceptance.
My orientation is towards helping clients experience at the deepest level possible those beliefs and emotional stances which color every moment of their lives, even if unconsciously, and which give rise to the variety of circumstances and interactions of daily life. "Problems" are viewed in the context of the whole life, and seen as signs that a once-creative solution is now blocking the full expression of vitality, meaning, and one's most fundamental nature. Change is possible only on the foundation of a precise and honest experience of oneself marked by warmth and acceptance.
(205) 928-8424 View (205) 928-8424
Photo of Linda Ellis, Licensed Professional Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Linda Ellis
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, RYT
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35233  (Online Only)
"Gather up all your scattered dreams and build the life you love" Unknown. When life circumstances such as trauma or loss leave you feeling sad, anxious, depressed, lonely, overwhelmed, discouraged or perhaps turning to unhealthy coping mechanisms our inner resources, relationships and our relationship with our Self can suffer. A courageous step is to seek help and whether you are 18 or 80+, I will work with you to help you find your inner strengths and coping skills.
"Gather up all your scattered dreams and build the life you love" Unknown. When life circumstances such as trauma or loss leave you feeling sad, anxious, depressed, lonely, overwhelmed, discouraged or perhaps turning to unhealthy coping mechanisms our inner resources, relationships and our relationship with our Self can suffer. A courageous step is to seek help and whether you are 18 or 80+, I will work with you to help you find your inner strengths and coping skills.
(205) 708-3345 View (205) 708-3345
Photo of Chesie l Roberts, Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Chesie l Roberts
Counselor, MS, ADC, LPC
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35223
Are you struggling to find peace and happiness in your life? Are your negative thoughts causing you anxiety? If so, you are not alone. I help individuals everyday that are struggling with stress and anxiety. We work to regain that balance in your life and help you find that road map towards your goals. This increases your confidence and self esteem. This allows you to focus on the solutions to your problems, reduces your anxiety and as a result you will be more optimistic about life and feel better in less than 4 sessions.
Are you struggling to find peace and happiness in your life? Are your negative thoughts causing you anxiety? If so, you are not alone. I help individuals everyday that are struggling with stress and anxiety. We work to regain that balance in your life and help you find that road map towards your goals. This increases your confidence and self esteem. This allows you to focus on the solutions to your problems, reduces your anxiety and as a result you will be more optimistic about life and feel better in less than 4 sessions.
(205) 742-9014 View (205) 742-9014
Photo of Katelyn Pickett, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Birmingham, AL
Katelyn Pickett
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, LMFTA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35223
Taking the first step towards therapy can be challenging, but it is a courageous and fulfilling decision! As someone who has experienced therapy first-hand, I can vouch for its benefits! Life can be tough, whether it’s navigating a loss, breaking free from negative family patterns, or just needing a safe space to process your thoughts. Therapy provides that space. The weight of these experiences can leave us feeling isolated, lost, and overwhelmed, but you don't have to face them alone. Whether you're an individual, couple, or family, know that I'm here to support you through these tough times.
Taking the first step towards therapy can be challenging, but it is a courageous and fulfilling decision! As someone who has experienced therapy first-hand, I can vouch for its benefits! Life can be tough, whether it’s navigating a loss, breaking free from negative family patterns, or just needing a safe space to process your thoughts. Therapy provides that space. The weight of these experiences can leave us feeling isolated, lost, and overwhelmed, but you don't have to face them alone. Whether you're an individual, couple, or family, know that I'm here to support you through these tough times.
(205) 528-6258 View (205) 528-6258
Photo of Virginia Brady, Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Virginia Brady
Counselor, MA, ALC, NCC
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35223
My mission is to be a place where one can come to feel safe, whole and filled with hope. I am someone who is passionate about my clients and want to see nothing but the best for each and every client that walks into my office. I bring a person-centered approach to each session and lean into forming a strong rapport with my clients. I also use other methods like cognitive behavior therapy and emotion focused therapy to meet the client where they're at and help to facilitate change. I believe we have the power to change the way that we are living and build ourselves into a strong, healthy and whole person.
My mission is to be a place where one can come to feel safe, whole and filled with hope. I am someone who is passionate about my clients and want to see nothing but the best for each and every client that walks into my office. I bring a person-centered approach to each session and lean into forming a strong rapport with my clients. I also use other methods like cognitive behavior therapy and emotion focused therapy to meet the client where they're at and help to facilitate change. I believe we have the power to change the way that we are living and build ourselves into a strong, healthy and whole person.
(336) 360-5276 View (336) 360-5276
Photo of Gwenette Barron, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Birmingham, AL
Gwenette Barron
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35209
My ideal client seeks self-exploration & understanding, facing issues like anxiety, depression, or relationship difficulties. They need a supportive space for personal growth, aiming to gain insight, develop coping strategies, improve communication, & foster healthy relationships. They aspire to enhance mental well-being, achieve a better life quality, & unlock their full potential.
My ideal client seeks self-exploration & understanding, facing issues like anxiety, depression, or relationship difficulties. They need a supportive space for personal growth, aiming to gain insight, develop coping strategies, improve communication, & foster healthy relationships. They aspire to enhance mental well-being, achieve a better life quality, & unlock their full potential.
(205) 584-0732 View (205) 584-0732
Photo of Lauren Kasi Freeman, Licensed Professional Counselor in Birmingham, AL
Lauren Kasi Freeman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC-S, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35223
Life got you down? Trauma holding you back? Or are you looking for someone to listen? It's an honor to be a counselor and would love to help you navigate this crazy thing called life. I'm passionate about working with children, teenagers, young adults, and new mothers. I have experience working with all types of traumas and abuses, PTSD, foster care/adoption, divorce issues, behavioral issues, peer relationships, and Per/Postpartum Mood and Anxiety Disorders. If you're going through a hard time or know someone who is and could benefit from counseling, please call me today.
Life got you down? Trauma holding you back? Or are you looking for someone to listen? It's an honor to be a counselor and would love to help you navigate this crazy thing called life. I'm passionate about working with children, teenagers, young adults, and new mothers. I have experience working with all types of traumas and abuses, PTSD, foster care/adoption, divorce issues, behavioral issues, peer relationships, and Per/Postpartum Mood and Anxiety Disorders. If you're going through a hard time or know someone who is and could benefit from counseling, please call me today.
(256) 804-0641 View (256) 804-0641
Photo of Jermaine Wall, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Birmingham, AL
Jermaine Wall
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PIP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Birmingham, AL 35235
Not accepting new clients
My passion is working with children, adolescents and young adults for issues including but not limited to ADHD, behavior issues, depression and trauma from physical and sexual abuse. Other focus areas including treating male victims and perpetrators of sexual abuse. Most of my experience is with adolescents and young adults. I have worked in the mental health field for 10+ years in a variety of settings such as hospitals, schools and residential facilities. Additionally, I currently supervise LBSW and LMSW clinicians.
My passion is working with children, adolescents and young adults for issues including but not limited to ADHD, behavior issues, depression and trauma from physical and sexual abuse. Other focus areas including treating male victims and perpetrators of sexual abuse. Most of my experience is with adolescents and young adults. I have worked in the mental health field for 10+ years in a variety of settings such as hospitals, schools and residential facilities. Additionally, I currently supervise LBSW and LMSW clinicians.
(205) 900-3835 View (205) 900-3835
Photo of LaTonya Melton, Licensed Professional Counselor in Birmingham, AL
LaTonya Melton
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC-S, RPT-S, NCC, JSOCC
Verified Verified
Birmingham, AL 35209
Dr. Melton has almost two decades of experience working with children, adolescents and families. She utilizes a cognitive behavioral and person-centered approach coupled with her personal philosophy, 'touch one to reach one.' She is a Juvenile Sex Offender Certified Counselor, Registered Play Therapist Supervisor and Certified AutPlay Therapy Provider
Dr. Melton has almost two decades of experience working with children, adolescents and families. She utilizes a cognitive behavioral and person-centered approach coupled with her personal philosophy, 'touch one to reach one.' She is a Juvenile Sex Offender Certified Counselor, Registered Play Therapist Supervisor and Certified AutPlay Therapy Provider
(205) 619-6469 View (205) 619-6469

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Birmingham, AL

600+

Average cost per session

$136

Therapists in Birmingham, AL who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
88% Depression
78% Self Esteem
76% Coping Skills
75% Relationship Issues
71% Stress
67% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

87% BlueCross and BlueShield
49% New Directions | Lucet
46% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Birmingham, AL see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Birmingham?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.