Therapists in 98684

Photo of Sásha Hamilton-Wooten, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in 98684, WA
Sásha Hamilton-Wooten
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, LMFT-A
Verified Verified
Vancouver, WA 98684
Hi there, and thank you for taking the first step towards healing. I know that life can be tough, and sometimes it can feel like the challenges we face are too much to handle. Whether you are transracial adoptee navigating life in a mixed race family, divorced, or a woman who's feeling lost and untethered, I want you to know that I understand. Taking both a experiential and narrative approach to listening and understanding your story, I am passionate about working with individuals, families, and teens. I'll help you explore your inner strengths and resilience, and together, we'll find a path forward towards healing.
Hi there, and thank you for taking the first step towards healing. I know that life can be tough, and sometimes it can feel like the challenges we face are too much to handle. Whether you are transracial adoptee navigating life in a mixed race family, divorced, or a woman who's feeling lost and untethered, I want you to know that I understand. Taking both a experiential and narrative approach to listening and understanding your story, I am passionate about working with individuals, families, and teens. I'll help you explore your inner strengths and resilience, and together, we'll find a path forward towards healing.
(360) 505-4590 View (360) 505-4590
Photo of Mariah Johnson, Counselor in 98684, WA
Mariah Johnson
Counselor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684  (Online Only)
Going to therapy can be intimidating, and finding the right therapist can be difficult! I applaud you in making that stride and hope I can make the process easier for you. On that note, Hi! My name is Mariah and I love helping individuals who are making the journey to better themselves and improve their lives.
Going to therapy can be intimidating, and finding the right therapist can be difficult! I applaud you in making that stride and hope I can make the process easier for you. On that note, Hi! My name is Mariah and I love helping individuals who are making the journey to better themselves and improve their lives.
(509) 207-1323 View (509) 207-1323
Photo of Jamie Villemonte, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 98684, WA
Jamie Villemonte
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LCSW, LAC, CADCIII
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Not accepting new clients
The way we see ourselves, our past and our enviornment, dictates our reality. I am passionate about helping clients see themselves and life situations using compassion, curiosity and forgiveness. Once we find what's really going on in our story, we can enhance this reality in beautiful ways. I love to work on Identity formation, spiritual/moral development and coping skills development to unveil client's natural light.
The way we see ourselves, our past and our enviornment, dictates our reality. I am passionate about helping clients see themselves and life situations using compassion, curiosity and forgiveness. Once we find what's really going on in our story, we can enhance this reality in beautiful ways. I love to work on Identity formation, spiritual/moral development and coping skills development to unveil client's natural light.
(253) 358-8628 View (253) 358-8628
Photo of Caroline Shell, Licensed Professional Counselor in 98684, WA
Caroline Shell
Licensed Professional Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Hello! Are you ready to take the next step in your journey of self-discovery and healing? Have you done traditional talk therapy that didn’t take you all the way where you wanted to go? Sometimes we can talk about our problems over and over without our body getting the message that the past is in the past. Neurofeedback is a powerful tool that can help you leave your past in the past, build emotional regulation, and increase mental flexibility. I focus on clients with developmental trauma, anxiety, and depression, though I find that neurofeedback can be a game changer for a variety of symptoms.
Hello! Are you ready to take the next step in your journey of self-discovery and healing? Have you done traditional talk therapy that didn’t take you all the way where you wanted to go? Sometimes we can talk about our problems over and over without our body getting the message that the past is in the past. Neurofeedback is a powerful tool that can help you leave your past in the past, build emotional regulation, and increase mental flexibility. I focus on clients with developmental trauma, anxiety, and depression, though I find that neurofeedback can be a game changer for a variety of symptoms.
(855) 475-8283 View (855) 475-8283
Photo of Tina Remacle, Counselor in 98684, WA
Tina Remacle
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Vancouver, WA 98684
Sometimes, our trauma responses cause us to not make the changes we wish to see in our lives. Sometimes, it feels like no matter what we do, we're getting further away from our goals. I want to help you process your past so that you can have the future you desire. As a counselor, I help you to understand the patterns that have been present in your life, and how they're currently affecting you. I help you to find the courage, awareness, and strength within yourself to make different choices to get the life you desire.
Sometimes, our trauma responses cause us to not make the changes we wish to see in our lives. Sometimes, it feels like no matter what we do, we're getting further away from our goals. I want to help you process your past so that you can have the future you desire. As a counselor, I help you to understand the patterns that have been present in your life, and how they're currently affecting you. I help you to find the courage, awareness, and strength within yourself to make different choices to get the life you desire.
(360) 614-2675 View (360) 614-2675
Photo of Dr. Jennifer Cotton, Psychologist in 98684, WA
Dr. Jennifer Cotton
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Vancouver, WA 98684
Waitlist for new clients
My approach to therapy is best described as integrative and collaborative with an emphasis in client-centered therapy. I acknowledge that the therapeutic relationship is the most important part of treatment and work to foster a safe environment in which clients feel comfortable and safe. I use a mix of evidenced based practices including, but not limited to, cognitive-behavioral, collaborative problem solving, ACT and interpersonal therapy. Client feedback is always incorporated in order to individualize treatment.
My approach to therapy is best described as integrative and collaborative with an emphasis in client-centered therapy. I acknowledge that the therapeutic relationship is the most important part of treatment and work to foster a safe environment in which clients feel comfortable and safe. I use a mix of evidenced based practices including, but not limited to, cognitive-behavioral, collaborative problem solving, ACT and interpersonal therapy. Client feedback is always incorporated in order to individualize treatment.
(360) 732-8852 View (360) 732-8852
Photo of Stephanie Cahill, Counselor in 98684, WA
Stephanie Cahill
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Helping people uncover truths about themselves as we work together toward your healing and wholeness is my passion. I am experienced in collaborating with clients to challenge negative self concepts by building on existing strengths. I believe processing issues such as shame, low self worth, and identity formation does not need to be done alone, and is worth every ounce of effort. With empathy, compassion, respect, humility, and a little humor along the way, it is my strong desire to help clients overcome unhealthy emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns due to family of origin issues and/or trauma.
Helping people uncover truths about themselves as we work together toward your healing and wholeness is my passion. I am experienced in collaborating with clients to challenge negative self concepts by building on existing strengths. I believe processing issues such as shame, low self worth, and identity formation does not need to be done alone, and is worth every ounce of effort. With empathy, compassion, respect, humility, and a little humor along the way, it is my strong desire to help clients overcome unhealthy emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns due to family of origin issues and/or trauma.
(360) 703-9072 View (360) 703-9072
Photo of Hope Farmer, Counselor in 98684, WA
Hope Farmer
Counselor, MA, LMHCA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Not accepting new clients
I am NOT accepting new clients at this time. I have a passion for working with people of all ages, but there is a special place in my heart for kids and teens. I believe clients should feel comfortable in therapy. As a former foster parent and an adoptive mom of 3 boys, I know that families are complicated and messy. I would love to work with you and your family to strengthen your relationships. I work with neurodivergence (ADHD, Autism, etc.), trauma, depression, anxiety, social skills issues and general wellness. I use techniques from DBT, Family Systems, and Attachment Theory and more.
I am NOT accepting new clients at this time. I have a passion for working with people of all ages, but there is a special place in my heart for kids and teens. I believe clients should feel comfortable in therapy. As a former foster parent and an adoptive mom of 3 boys, I know that families are complicated and messy. I would love to work with you and your family to strengthen your relationships. I work with neurodivergence (ADHD, Autism, etc.), trauma, depression, anxiety, social skills issues and general wellness. I use techniques from DBT, Family Systems, and Attachment Theory and more.
(360) 614-4441 View (360) 614-4441
Photo of Sofie Sklyarov, Pre-Licensed Professional in 98684, WA
Sofie Sklyarov
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
My approach to therapy incorporates a Christian worldview with a cognitive behavioral theoretical orientation (exploring one’s thoughts and beliefs). I view counseling as a collaborative effort to help clients recognize strengths, identify needs, understand conflicts, discover new options, set personal development goals, and make informed choices.
My approach to therapy incorporates a Christian worldview with a cognitive behavioral theoretical orientation (exploring one’s thoughts and beliefs). I view counseling as a collaborative effort to help clients recognize strengths, identify needs, understand conflicts, discover new options, set personal development goals, and make informed choices.
(360) 845-2356 View (360) 845-2356
Photo of Joy Wilson, Counselor in 98684, WA
Joy Wilson
Counselor, LMHCA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Our life stories do not always have the fairy tale endings that we hoped for, but we are not mere puppets. We are active agents in pursuit of meaningful moments and positive outcomes. I will help you identify your strengths and collaborate with you to find solutions to challenges in your story. I strive to provide a counseling relationship in which you can feel safe, heard, and supported as you explore or process whatever you choose.
Our life stories do not always have the fairy tale endings that we hoped for, but we are not mere puppets. We are active agents in pursuit of meaningful moments and positive outcomes. I will help you identify your strengths and collaborate with you to find solutions to challenges in your story. I strive to provide a counseling relationship in which you can feel safe, heard, and supported as you explore or process whatever you choose.
(503) 850-8088 View (503) 850-8088
Photo of Tania Santoso, Counselor in 98684, WA
Tania Santoso
Counselor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684  (Online Only)
Embracing the spectrum of human experience, I collaborate with individuals of diverse ages, including children, adolescents, young adults, adults, and the elderly. I bring a wealth of experience and a passion for facilitating growth and healing, in navigating anxiety, depression, generational trauma, interpersonal conflict, and the multifaceted journey of self-discovery which includes guiding individuals through life's transitions, whether they be in relationships, careers, or personal identity. I'm committed to exploring with you what makes you unique, what you value, and what motivates you to achieve your goals.
Embracing the spectrum of human experience, I collaborate with individuals of diverse ages, including children, adolescents, young adults, adults, and the elderly. I bring a wealth of experience and a passion for facilitating growth and healing, in navigating anxiety, depression, generational trauma, interpersonal conflict, and the multifaceted journey of self-discovery which includes guiding individuals through life's transitions, whether they be in relationships, careers, or personal identity. I'm committed to exploring with you what makes you unique, what you value, and what motivates you to achieve your goals.
(360) 519-5650 x504 View (360) 519-5650 x504
Photo of Jaclin Belabri, Counselor in 98684, WA
Jaclin Belabri
Counselor, MA, LMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684  (Online Only)
Are you feeling alone, ashamed or disconnected and feel like no one else understands what you are going through? Do you struggle to know who you are or what you stand for? There are reasons that you are feeling this way. I am here to help explore why you feel stuck and give you a way out of your pain. I have a passion to help women find their true essence by collaborating with them so they live out their full potential. I specialize in helping them understand how past trauma shaped their self-perception and impacted how they relate to the world. You can change old coping mechanisms and live life filled with connection, love and joy.
Are you feeling alone, ashamed or disconnected and feel like no one else understands what you are going through? Do you struggle to know who you are or what you stand for? There are reasons that you are feeling this way. I am here to help explore why you feel stuck and give you a way out of your pain. I have a passion to help women find their true essence by collaborating with them so they live out their full potential. I specialize in helping them understand how past trauma shaped their self-perception and impacted how they relate to the world. You can change old coping mechanisms and live life filled with connection, love and joy.
(360) 979-1652 View (360) 979-1652
Photo of Stacy Oxford @ Good Talk, Counselor in 98684, WA
Stacy Oxford @ Good Talk
Counselor, MS LMHC, NCC, LCPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Everyone needs a person, a place where they can talk. Freely talk. And share the things that make us feel small, the things we do that we don't understand, our worries and secret hurts that have been done to us or that we have done to others. The thing is - talking doesn't always feel good. And sometimes, the things we want to talk about are downright painful. But just because it hurts - doesn't mean we shouldn't talk about it. That's why I'm here. I want to help you have a good talk... about hard things.
Everyone needs a person, a place where they can talk. Freely talk. And share the things that make us feel small, the things we do that we don't understand, our worries and secret hurts that have been done to us or that we have done to others. The thing is - talking doesn't always feel good. And sometimes, the things we want to talk about are downright painful. But just because it hurts - doesn't mean we shouldn't talk about it. That's why I'm here. I want to help you have a good talk... about hard things.
(360) 227-6829 View (360) 227-6829
Photo of Sophia Claudson, Pre-Licensed Professional in 98684, WA
Sophia Claudson
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Are you struggling to cope with the transitions you are facing? Do you have difficulty connecting in your relationships? Do you find yourself unable to heal from loss? Life is often a series of gains and losses that can be difficult to navigate. I am passionate about coming alongside clients as they seek emotional, mental, relational and spiritual wellness. My goal is to provide a safe, therapeutic space where my clients feel seen and heard. I am convinced that clients are the experts in their own lives. I want to help you understand yourself better, and help you achieve your goals in a way that works the best for you!
Are you struggling to cope with the transitions you are facing? Do you have difficulty connecting in your relationships? Do you find yourself unable to heal from loss? Life is often a series of gains and losses that can be difficult to navigate. I am passionate about coming alongside clients as they seek emotional, mental, relational and spiritual wellness. My goal is to provide a safe, therapeutic space where my clients feel seen and heard. I am convinced that clients are the experts in their own lives. I want to help you understand yourself better, and help you achieve your goals in a way that works the best for you!
(360) 347-2136 View (360) 347-2136
Photo of Terri Kaufman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 98684, WA
Terri Kaufman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, MSW, MHP
Verified Verified
Vancouver, WA 98684
Are you dealing with mild to moderate depression or anxiety; experiencing a transitional crossroad such as divorce, empty nest, change in career; or struggling with self-worth; maybe experiencing a sense of loneliness and isolation? Or, are you an individual struggling with distorted body image; possibly living in a larger sized body; experiencing a profound sense of shame regarding weight and unable to access appropriate healthcare due to fear of being judged? Or possibly a girl dealing with stress, depression, anxiety, and body image? I provide years of personal and professional experience with a passion in these areas.
Are you dealing with mild to moderate depression or anxiety; experiencing a transitional crossroad such as divorce, empty nest, change in career; or struggling with self-worth; maybe experiencing a sense of loneliness and isolation? Or, are you an individual struggling with distorted body image; possibly living in a larger sized body; experiencing a profound sense of shame regarding weight and unable to access appropriate healthcare due to fear of being judged? Or possibly a girl dealing with stress, depression, anxiety, and body image? I provide years of personal and professional experience with a passion in these areas.
(360) 910-1662 View (360) 910-1662
Photo of Rebecca Lomeland, Counselor in 98684, WA
Rebecca Lomeland
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Do you find yourself struggling to break unhealthy cycles, no matter what you do? You may be fed up with your own inability to cope and connect well with others, feeling full of shame and regret. You might not even remember a time when things didn’t feel this way. But one thing is for sure: you’re ready for some relief. You’re ready to find some clarity. You’re ready to start feeling confident and secure in your own skin. Most of all, you’re ready to find the empowerment you need to turn over a new leaf.
Do you find yourself struggling to break unhealthy cycles, no matter what you do? You may be fed up with your own inability to cope and connect well with others, feeling full of shame and regret. You might not even remember a time when things didn’t feel this way. But one thing is for sure: you’re ready for some relief. You’re ready to find some clarity. You’re ready to start feeling confident and secure in your own skin. Most of all, you’re ready to find the empowerment you need to turn over a new leaf.
(360) 383-5614 View (360) 383-5614
Photo of Richard Golosinskiy, Counselor in 98684, WA
Richard Golosinskiy
Counselor, LMHCA, MA, NCC
Verified Verified
Vancouver, WA 98684
Depression, worry, anxiety, and fear can be crippling experiences. If you feel overwhelmed by these phenomena, I want to help you overcome these barriers. I believe that reflecting on life’s past and present relationships can offer insight into helping you redefine current and future relationships, experiences, and self. Re-evaluating beliefs and held attitudes can help you achieve your goals, create new experiences, and make informed choices that forge a more satisfying and fulfilling life. The digital age snuck in on us and provided with no room to breathe. As your therapist, I hope to help you work through this and gain clarity.
Depression, worry, anxiety, and fear can be crippling experiences. If you feel overwhelmed by these phenomena, I want to help you overcome these barriers. I believe that reflecting on life’s past and present relationships can offer insight into helping you redefine current and future relationships, experiences, and self. Re-evaluating beliefs and held attitudes can help you achieve your goals, create new experiences, and make informed choices that forge a more satisfying and fulfilling life. The digital age snuck in on us and provided with no room to breathe. As your therapist, I hope to help you work through this and gain clarity.
(360) 346-1476 x4 View (360) 346-1476 x4
Photo of Olivia Resnick, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 98684, WA
Olivia Resnick
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684
Not accepting new clients
It is my belief that in spite of all life’s pains and challenges that it is entirely possible to find contentedness and even joy in our experience. I aim to learn about my client’s past, their values, life desires, and the current struggles that get in the way of daily life. It is through this exchange that we build a therapeutic relationship and set the stage for our work together.
It is my belief that in spite of all life’s pains and challenges that it is entirely possible to find contentedness and even joy in our experience. I aim to learn about my client’s past, their values, life desires, and the current struggles that get in the way of daily life. It is through this exchange that we build a therapeutic relationship and set the stage for our work together.
(360) 558-3247 View (360) 558-3247
Photo of Liz Beaty, Pre-Licensed Professional in 98684, WA
Liz Beaty
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMHCA, MA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vancouver, WA 98684  (Online Only)
Embarking on the journey to find a therapist signifies a recognition that something in your life needs attention and care. Life's stressors and traumatic experiences can make it feel as though your world is unraveling. The simple act of reaching out for help may seem overwhelming, and I am here to ease the process of change, to be a supportive ally on your path. My therapy style is designed for neurodivergent individuals aged 14+. Together, we'll explore distinctive pathways, empowering you to face challenges with renewed hope and a unique perspective shaped by the autistic/ADHD experience.
Embarking on the journey to find a therapist signifies a recognition that something in your life needs attention and care. Life's stressors and traumatic experiences can make it feel as though your world is unraveling. The simple act of reaching out for help may seem overwhelming, and I am here to ease the process of change, to be a supportive ally on your path. My therapy style is designed for neurodivergent individuals aged 14+. Together, we'll explore distinctive pathways, empowering you to face challenges with renewed hope and a unique perspective shaped by the autistic/ADHD experience.
(360) 634-4476 View (360) 634-4476
Photo of Belle Miller, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 98684, WA
Belle Miller
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Vancouver, WA 98684  (Online Only)
I currently have limited daytime availability - please reach out to confirm current scheduling options. I am a licensed clinical social worker & certified perinatal mental health professional. You may be coping with infertility, the demands of pregnancy, or the difficult transition to motherhood. You may be surprised at how challenging becoming a mom has been or how stressed, lonely, or exhausted you feel!
I currently have limited daytime availability - please reach out to confirm current scheduling options. I am a licensed clinical social worker & certified perinatal mental health professional. You may be coping with infertility, the demands of pregnancy, or the difficult transition to motherhood. You may be surprised at how challenging becoming a mom has been or how stressed, lonely, or exhausted you feel!
(360) 347-2737 View (360) 347-2737

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 98684

100+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 98684 who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
90% Depression
74% Trauma and PTSD
73% Grief
72% Relationship Issues
72% Self Esteem
60% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

74% Aetna
64% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
59% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in 98684 see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

75% Female
25% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 98684?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.