Photo of Michelle Ficalora, MSW, CSWA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Michelle Ficalora
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW, CSWA
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008
Hi there! I’m Michelle Ficalora, and I’m a mental health clinician intern here at Positive Inner Self, working towards becoming a LCSW. I’m currently a Clinical Social Work Associate. My pronouns are she/they, and I am trauma-informed and LGBTQIA+ allied. I specialize in working with clients of all ages, helping to address both the symptoms and root causes of your stressors in individual or group sessions. I’ll help guide you on the way to reaching your goals, using humor, play, and light physical engagement to keep things moving.
Hi there! I’m Michelle Ficalora, and I’m a mental health clinician intern here at Positive Inner Self, working towards becoming a LCSW. I’m currently a Clinical Social Work Associate. My pronouns are she/they, and I am trauma-informed and LGBTQIA+ allied. I specialize in working with clients of all ages, helping to address both the symptoms and root causes of your stressors in individual or group sessions. I’ll help guide you on the way to reaching your goals, using humor, play, and light physical engagement to keep things moving.
(971) 251-2355 View (971) 251-2355
Photo of Alison M Hurst, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Alison M Hurst
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Working through life stressors, both current and past, can feel overwhelming. It is not easy and it takes strength to take the first steps towards getting support and reaching out. My approach to therapy is as a team, coming together as equals to find a plan and strategies that fit for you. As a team, we will be taking this road together. I hope to instill the feeling that you are not alone through this journey. It is my goal to help you build the tools you need to reach your therapy goals and navigate stressful experiences when they occur. My main experience is working with clients with trauma, depression, anxiety, OCD, and grief.
Working through life stressors, both current and past, can feel overwhelming. It is not easy and it takes strength to take the first steps towards getting support and reaching out. My approach to therapy is as a team, coming together as equals to find a plan and strategies that fit for you. As a team, we will be taking this road together. I hope to instill the feeling that you are not alone through this journey. It is my goal to help you build the tools you need to reach your therapy goals and navigate stressful experiences when they occur. My main experience is working with clients with trauma, depression, anxiety, OCD, and grief.
(503) 782-9013 View (503) 782-9013
Photo of Maci N Elkins Lcsw, LCSW, MA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Maci N Elkins Lcsw
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Beaverton, OR 97008
Not accepting new clients
I've been working with children, adolescents, and families for 25 years. As a parent myself, I'm familiar with the growing pains of raising a family. Each new day can be an adventure, whether we want it to be or not. I can assist you as you navigate the ups and downs of family life and parenting. I believe it's 'easier to build a child than to repair an adult.' Building a resilient, happy child begins at birth. Fostering resilience in your children through effective parenting and a supportive "village" is a gift they will have the rest of their lives.
I've been working with children, adolescents, and families for 25 years. As a parent myself, I'm familiar with the growing pains of raising a family. Each new day can be an adventure, whether we want it to be or not. I can assist you as you navigate the ups and downs of family life and parenting. I believe it's 'easier to build a child than to repair an adult.' Building a resilient, happy child begins at birth. Fostering resilience in your children through effective parenting and a supportive "village" is a gift they will have the rest of their lives.
(503) 713-6083 View (503) 713-6083
Photo of Jessie Ricker, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jessie Ricker
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008
Bienvenidos and Welcome! My name is Jessie Ricker, and I consider myself a well-seasoned, mental health therapist as I have been working in the mental health field for over a decade. I've worked in a variety of treatment settings including detention, residential, community-based, and outpatient; I have gained experience domestically and abroad. I enjoy working with clients of all ages and backgrounds. As a wife and parent myself, I am very passionate about supporting couples and families within their journeys to build healthy attachments and repair ruptured relationships. I am overjoyed to support you in your treatment journey!
Bienvenidos and Welcome! My name is Jessie Ricker, and I consider myself a well-seasoned, mental health therapist as I have been working in the mental health field for over a decade. I've worked in a variety of treatment settings including detention, residential, community-based, and outpatient; I have gained experience domestically and abroad. I enjoy working with clients of all ages and backgrounds. As a wife and parent myself, I am very passionate about supporting couples and families within their journeys to build healthy attachments and repair ruptured relationships. I am overjoyed to support you in your treatment journey!
(971) 247-1879 View (971) 247-1879
Photo of Chloe Lee-Zorn, PsyD, Psychologist
Chloe Lee-Zorn
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
My specialties include working with individuals who are dealing with relationship issues, including: a new relationship/ marriage, the end of a relationship, the birth of a child or experiencing a deployed family member. My expertise is in: grief/loss, military service and families, as well as postpartum/ prenatal care. My focused is on mind and body wellness, specifically with consideration for diet, exercise, sleep and relational support. I have a wide variety of experiences in treating people from all walks of life, and I look forward to helping YOU work through your challenges.
My specialties include working with individuals who are dealing with relationship issues, including: a new relationship/ marriage, the end of a relationship, the birth of a child or experiencing a deployed family member. My expertise is in: grief/loss, military service and families, as well as postpartum/ prenatal care. My focused is on mind and body wellness, specifically with consideration for diet, exercise, sleep and relational support. I have a wide variety of experiences in treating people from all walks of life, and I look forward to helping YOU work through your challenges.
(503) 272-6289 View (503) 272-6289
Photo of undefined - Positive Inner Self, LLC, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Positive Inner Self, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008
Positive Inner Self's therapists have extensive history working with children, adolescents, teens, and adults working through difficult behaviors, parental relational issues, trauma and abuse, reunification, foster and adoption issues, anxiety, depression and trauma. We have helped many individuals working through past trauma, attachment difficulties, anxiety, depression, and ADHD. We are client centered meaning we don't have our own agenda. You decide what you want to work on, we help you to figure out the solutions best for you while having a few laughs.
Positive Inner Self's therapists have extensive history working with children, adolescents, teens, and adults working through difficult behaviors, parental relational issues, trauma and abuse, reunification, foster and adoption issues, anxiety, depression and trauma. We have helped many individuals working through past trauma, attachment difficulties, anxiety, depression, and ADHD. We are client centered meaning we don't have our own agenda. You decide what you want to work on, we help you to figure out the solutions best for you while having a few laughs.
(503) 461-7044 View (503) 461-7044
Photo of Mark Saren, MA, MBA, Licensed Professional Counselor
Mark Saren
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, MBA
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
I help people who seek to increase awareness, strengths, intelligence (IQ and EQ), resiliency, create empowering processes and solutions leading to meaningful life engagement, and improving quality of life. I have worked with all ages, backgrounds and issues, individuals, couples and families. I have found the best predictor of effective therapy is how well the client connects with the therapist. I am open to working with all people, cultures and concerns.
I help people who seek to increase awareness, strengths, intelligence (IQ and EQ), resiliency, create empowering processes and solutions leading to meaningful life engagement, and improving quality of life. I have worked with all ages, backgrounds and issues, individuals, couples and families. I have found the best predictor of effective therapy is how well the client connects with the therapist. I am open to working with all people, cultures and concerns.
(971) 251-4842 View (971) 251-4842
Photo of undefined - Arcturus Counseling, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Arcturus Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
If you reading this, it's likely you are not living or experiencing the life you want. How many of us have been there, feeling stuck, and despite our best efforts, end up back in the place we started? This creates feelings of despair, emotional pain, and worry that things will not change. How is it that our personal values that supposedly drive deeper meanings become lost or are sacrificed by pressures and demands of who we think we should be? First step in therapy is to create room for our ALL our thoughts and feelings and develop a new network of behaviors that allow us to be more present, more aware and to live more fully.
If you reading this, it's likely you are not living or experiencing the life you want. How many of us have been there, feeling stuck, and despite our best efforts, end up back in the place we started? This creates feelings of despair, emotional pain, and worry that things will not change. How is it that our personal values that supposedly drive deeper meanings become lost or are sacrificed by pressures and demands of who we think we should be? First step in therapy is to create room for our ALL our thoughts and feelings and develop a new network of behaviors that allow us to be more present, more aware and to live more fully.
(971) 265-4486 View (971) 265-4486
Photo of Andrew Schwager, CSWA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Andrew Schwager
Pre-Licensed Professional, CSWA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Beaverton, OR 97008
Therapy can be a place for personal growth and insight. We each have a unique history, journey, and growth process. My goal is to support your overall wellness: mental, physical, emotional, and connective. I work with those experiencing a variety of life issues including anxiety, depression, addiction, trauma, ASD, life transitions, and relationship difficulties.
Therapy can be a place for personal growth and insight. We each have a unique history, journey, and growth process. My goal is to support your overall wellness: mental, physical, emotional, and connective. I work with those experiencing a variety of life issues including anxiety, depression, addiction, trauma, ASD, life transitions, and relationship difficulties.
(971) 251-1964 View (971) 251-1964
Photo of Phil Freneau, MS
Phil Freneau
Professional Counselor Associate, MS
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008
Hello, I am a registered associate counselor with my MA in clinical mental health counseling and I am working toward becoming a licensed professional counselor in the state of Oregon. I have experience working with adults dealing with a variety of concerns including anxiety, depression, ADHD, anger, emotion regulation, social concerns, relationship issues, life transitions, hearing or seeing things that aren’t there, trauma, and paranoia. I also enjoy collaborating with clients to find balance in areas of their lives and working toward building a life that the client feels is meaningful and worth living.
Hello, I am a registered associate counselor with my MA in clinical mental health counseling and I am working toward becoming a licensed professional counselor in the state of Oregon. I have experience working with adults dealing with a variety of concerns including anxiety, depression, ADHD, anger, emotion regulation, social concerns, relationship issues, life transitions, hearing or seeing things that aren’t there, trauma, and paranoia. I also enjoy collaborating with clients to find balance in areas of their lives and working toward building a life that the client feels is meaningful and worth living.
(971) 265-6296 View (971) 265-6296
Photo of Xander Hayden, MA, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Xander Hayden
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
Please note I am only intermittently able to accept new clients at this time but am happy to converse via email to determine if I have space available. I have extensive experience writing letters and coordinating care for gender diverse individuals undergoing medical transition. I enjoy working with all ages, the LGBT+ population, and am especially experienced in working with individuals experiencing autism spectrum disorder, gender dysphoria, eating disorders, and have a history of trauma.
Please note I am only intermittently able to accept new clients at this time but am happy to converse via email to determine if I have space available. I have extensive experience writing letters and coordinating care for gender diverse individuals undergoing medical transition. I enjoy working with all ages, the LGBT+ population, and am especially experienced in working with individuals experiencing autism spectrum disorder, gender dysphoria, eating disorders, and have a history of trauma.
(971) 328-4765 View (971) 328-4765
Photo of Bertranna Muruthi, PhD, Marriage & Family Therapist
Bertranna Muruthi
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
It takes courage to seek help, and the rewards of doing so can lead to a lifetime of fulfillment. I understand and have experienced the emotional challenges life has to offer. In working together, we will cultivate growth by understanding the obstacles that you face and develop solutions that can help you gain control of your life and achieve your goals. Ultimately, therapy can lead you to greater self-awareness, self-esteem, and most importantly, a more fulfilling life.
It takes courage to seek help, and the rewards of doing so can lead to a lifetime of fulfillment. I understand and have experienced the emotional challenges life has to offer. In working together, we will cultivate growth by understanding the obstacles that you face and develop solutions that can help you gain control of your life and achieve your goals. Ultimately, therapy can lead you to greater self-awareness, self-esteem, and most importantly, a more fulfilling life.
(215) 352-4233 View (215) 352-4233
Photo of Rebecca Saunders, CSWA
Rebecca Saunders
Clinical Social Work Associate, CSWA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
Welcome! My name is Becca Saunders. I’m a mental health clinician at Positive Inner Self and a registered Clinical Social Work Associate. I work with adults who are looking for support with grief, anxiety, and trauma, and are feeling motivated and ready to make changes in their lives. My approach to therapy is person-centered and strengths-based, and I believe in the power of the therapeutic relationship.
Welcome! My name is Becca Saunders. I’m a mental health clinician at Positive Inner Self and a registered Clinical Social Work Associate. I work with adults who are looking for support with grief, anxiety, and trauma, and are feeling motivated and ready to make changes in their lives. My approach to therapy is person-centered and strengths-based, and I believe in the power of the therapeutic relationship.
(971) 265-6299 View (971) 265-6299
Photo of undefined - LCN Wellness, LLC , MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
LCN Wellness, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
As a Detroit lady living in Oregon(and helping Washingtonians) I'm bringing Motor City magic to your doorstep. My goal is helping you powerfully navigate the rest of your life. I work with the other New Kids On The Block which are Trauma, Grief, Anxiety and Depression because if one shows up they all show up! The disrespect is with that group is real and it's time to say goodbye, adios, sayonara to that unspoken entourage. I also have passion for treating Postpartum Depression and Maternal Mental Health. Dad's let's talk about how the baby blues impacts y'all too.
As a Detroit lady living in Oregon(and helping Washingtonians) I'm bringing Motor City magic to your doorstep. My goal is helping you powerfully navigate the rest of your life. I work with the other New Kids On The Block which are Trauma, Grief, Anxiety and Depression because if one shows up they all show up! The disrespect is with that group is real and it's time to say goodbye, adios, sayonara to that unspoken entourage. I also have passion for treating Postpartum Depression and Maternal Mental Health. Dad's let's talk about how the baby blues impacts y'all too.
(503) 376-8063 View (503) 376-8063
Photo of Jessica Padnick, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jessica Padnick
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
My name is Jessica Padnick and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW). I work with adult individuals and couples to address anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship concerns. I want to collaborate with you to increase mindful awareness of what is or is not working in your life, explore core values, and work together toward your goals. Together we can practice strategies to address current issues while also exploring and addressing root causes underlying symptoms.
My name is Jessica Padnick and I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW). I work with adult individuals and couples to address anxiety, depression, trauma, and relationship concerns. I want to collaborate with you to increase mindful awareness of what is or is not working in your life, explore core values, and work together toward your goals. Together we can practice strategies to address current issues while also exploring and addressing root causes underlying symptoms.
(971) 247-3985 View (971) 247-3985
Photo of Sabrina Pyl, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Sabrina Pyl
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
I understand that life gets messy and has its challenges. Living with stress, depression, and low self-esteem can be overwhelming and sometimes can make you feel stuck. My goal as a counselor is to walk alongside my clients and show them that they have the power to turn things around and make their lives better. I will provide a safe place for my clients to explore their struggles and learn new, healthy tools, and coping skills. I have experience working with children, foster children, parents, foster parents, and I am committed to showing all clients they have the strength to work through difficult challenges.
I understand that life gets messy and has its challenges. Living with stress, depression, and low self-esteem can be overwhelming and sometimes can make you feel stuck. My goal as a counselor is to walk alongside my clients and show them that they have the power to turn things around and make their lives better. I will provide a safe place for my clients to explore their struggles and learn new, healthy tools, and coping skills. I have experience working with children, foster children, parents, foster parents, and I am committed to showing all clients they have the strength to work through difficult challenges.
(503) 300-6359 View (503) 300-6359
Photo of Margaret (Peggy) Rost, CSWA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Margaret (Peggy) Rost
Pre-Licensed Professional, CSWA
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I specialize in working with adults and older adults who seek support in navigating life transitions and relationships, and who struggle with challenges related to depression, anxiety, substance use, and grief. I am also experienced in helping those who are affected by chronic illnesses overcome barriers to support their quality of life.
I specialize in working with adults and older adults who seek support in navigating life transitions and relationships, and who struggle with challenges related to depression, anxiety, substance use, and grief. I am also experienced in helping those who are affected by chronic illnesses overcome barriers to support their quality of life.
(971) 203-0661 View (971) 203-0661
Photo of Marie Daniels, QMHP, Pre-Licensed Professional
Marie Daniels
Pre-Licensed Professional, QMHP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Beaverton, OR 97008
I am passionate about being able to provide a mix of traditional and art therapy therapeutic components. I utilize a variety of modalities and interventions with a focus on creating a therapeutic connection blending Art Therapy (AT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), skills training, and mindfulness techniques. I am a firm believer that the connections between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors create the lens from which we see the world. The way we feel about a situation “colors” our thoughts and perceptions. As an art therapist, I strive to help others add different "colors" to their situation.
I am passionate about being able to provide a mix of traditional and art therapy therapeutic components. I utilize a variety of modalities and interventions with a focus on creating a therapeutic connection blending Art Therapy (AT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), skills training, and mindfulness techniques. I am a firm believer that the connections between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors create the lens from which we see the world. The way we feel about a situation “colors” our thoughts and perceptions. As an art therapist, I strive to help others add different "colors" to their situation.
(971) 999-3145 View (971) 999-3145
Photo of undefined - Base Behavioral Health, LPC, CADCIII, MAC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Base Behavioral Health
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, CADCIII, MAC
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008
Not accepting new clients
I am not accepting new clients, but therapists at my group practice are. Are you using substances and concerned about how it has impacted your health, relationships, career and life choices? Have you been self medicating for stress, anxiety, depression, trauma, loss, low self worth, guilt or shame? Is your mental health getting worse because of your substance use? Have you been sober and you want to continue to manage your mental health to continue to support recovery? Are you wondering if you can control your substance use or if you have to completely stop using? Let me support you on this journey.
I am not accepting new clients, but therapists at my group practice are. Are you using substances and concerned about how it has impacted your health, relationships, career and life choices? Have you been self medicating for stress, anxiety, depression, trauma, loss, low self worth, guilt or shame? Is your mental health getting worse because of your substance use? Have you been sober and you want to continue to manage your mental health to continue to support recovery? Are you wondering if you can control your substance use or if you have to completely stop using? Let me support you on this journey.
(541) 638-0830 View (541) 638-0830
Photo of Cliff Robertson, QMHP, Pre-Licensed Professional
Cliff Robertson
Pre-Licensed Professional, QMHP
Verified Verified
Beaverton, OR 97008  (Online Only)
I have worked in Corporate America and for the military. I have played sports and started churches. The breadth of my experiences are wide and my mission is to make a difference in the lives of those I am blessed to work with as a counselor. My ideal client will be between the ages of 12-85, individual, couple or family, dealing with a variety of issues from trauma/ptsd, to depression and other mental health disorders, and potentially co-occurring substance use disorder.
I have worked in Corporate America and for the military. I have played sports and started churches. The breadth of my experiences are wide and my mission is to make a difference in the lives of those I am blessed to work with as a counselor. My ideal client will be between the ages of 12-85, individual, couple or family, dealing with a variety of issues from trauma/ptsd, to depression and other mental health disorders, and potentially co-occurring substance use disorder.
(971) 318-6131 View (971) 318-6131

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 97008

80+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in 97008 who prioritize treating:

97% Anxiety
93% Depression
78% Relationship Issues
77% Trauma and PTSD
77% Self Esteem
77% Stress
70% Grief

Average years in practice

8 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

61% Aetna
58% BlueCross and BlueShield
55% Regence

How Therapists in 97008 see their clients

59% In Person and Online
41% Online Only

Gender breakdown

69% Female
30% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 97008?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.